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Aim & Scope

Medical Sciences:

MC Medical Sciences (MCMS) journal is a double-blinded peer reviewed scientific journal with high quality research information on Medicine, Preventive Medicine, Rural Health, Medical Research, Evidence Based Medicine, Epidemiology,  etc,. The main aim of this Journal is to publish up to date information regarding medical themes.

Major subject areas of Medical Science, but not restricted to following fields:

Cardiovascular medicine, Medication management, Surgical outcome, Surgical risk scoring, Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, Surgical optimization, Kinesiology, Military sports, Physical Exercise and Health, Sports Facilities, Arthritis, Injury Management, Neuromotor Psychology, Sports Pedagogy, Stress Management, Sports in public/private sector, Sports Law,  Tropical biomedicine, Toxocariasis, Neglected Tropical Diseases, Tropical pediatrics, Avian influenza, Influenza, African meningitis, Anthracia pestis, Enzootic hepatitis, Rheumatology, Osteoporosis, Physical therapy, Rehabilitation, Interventional procedures, Palliative care, Diabetes Mellitus, Molecular Diagnosis, Metabolomics, Bioengineering, Medicinal Biotechnology, Genetics/ Genomics, Somatic gene therapy, Molecular genetics, Epidemiology, Human Genomics, Medical genomics, DNA Replication, Gene knockout, Health plan and Administration, Real-time PCR, Toxicology, Cancer genetics, Adolescent Medicine, Otolaryngology, Occupational safety and health, Critical Care Medicine, Geriatric Medicine, Neuroscience, Palliative Medicine, Pathology and Physiology, Sports Medicine, Health Education, Dermatology, Diabetes, Obesity, Pediatric Sports Medicine, Exercise Medicine, Molecular biology, Biostatistics, Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Pain and Anesthesia, Biomedical Sciences, Health informatics, History of Medicine, Neurological Sciences, Pediatrics, Forensic Sciences.         

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  • MC Medical Sciences is an international, profound Journal which publishes Articles on various disciplines of Medical Science.
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  • Rapid publication process.
  • Reasonable publication Fee. 
  • Immediate Acknowledgement to author after article accepted for peer review.
  • High visibility of published work.
  • Best Knowledge sharing platform.
  • Thorough Double Blinded peer review.

Latest Article

Five Phases System in Chinese Medicine

Alex Kung-Hsiung Chang

Published: August 01, 2021; 1(1): 01-03.

In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) philosophy, we believe that Human body are holist, it is a small universe. We also believe the corresponding relationship between five Yin organs, six Yang organ, five tissues, five sense organs with five directions, four seasons and five tastes in the nature. It unify the human body and nature environment together, reflecting the mutual acceptances of the human body and universe, which just reflects the concept of harmony between human and nature.

Role of Medicine and Meditation in Microvitopathy

S. K. Verma, Vartika Jain

Published: August 01, 2021; 1(1): 04-08.

Microvita are the smallest living entities, the concept which was first propounded by Shrii P. R. Sarkar in 1986. The science of Microvitology has categorized the microvita depending on their subtlety and field of activity. Positive microvita are conducive for human psycho-spiritual progress while negative microvita are detrimental for physico-psychic health. All the viral diseases are in fact negative microvita diseases affecting both physical (Microvitopathy) and psychic structures (Microvitopsychopathy) and the world has faced many epidemics of such diseases. According to Microvitotherapeutics, negative microvita could be destroyed only by increasing the number of positive microvita. For this purpose, sentient diet and environment, adopting moral cardinal principles along with regular practice of psycho-spiritual meditation are mandatory pre-requisites. In this context, the science of microvita should be thoroughly explored in physical and mental laboratories to combat with such negative microvita diseases.
Keywords: Microvita; Microvitotherapeutics; Virus; COVID-19

A Descriptive Study to Assess the Lifestyle Changes Adopted During Covid-19 Among Young Adults Residing in Selected Districts, Kerala

Rinu David, Jilu Jinu, Jismol Jitha, Jiya Lavanaya, Megha Merin, Merlin Minnu

Published: August 01, 2021; 1(1): 09-15.

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [1]. It is transmitted chiefly by contact within factious material (such as respiratory droplets) or with objects or surfaces contaminated by the causative virus and is characterized especially by fever, cough, shortness of breath and may progress to pneumonia and respiratory failure. The present study was a descriptive study to assess the lifestyle changes adopted during covid-19 among young adults residing in selected districts, kerala. The research approach was quantitative, and the research design adopted was descriptive survey design. 100 samples were selected by purposive sampling technique. An informed consent was obtained from the study subjects. The study was done using online structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that majority of samples 62% have changes in dietary habits and 69% preferred indoor activities during this pandemic. Among samples 33% gained weight, 41% had mild anxiety during this period and 46% preferred cooking as most common leisure activity during this time. There is a greater elevation in social media usage. There was a significant association between lifestyle changes and selected demographic variables. The various changes that have become a part in our lives during this pandemic tragedy. The way forward must also be to learn the art of living with corona. And this cannot be without some changes to our lives.
Keywords: Covid-19; Lifestyle changes

Note on Pertinence of Graph Theory for Genetic Networks

V. Yegnanarayanan

Published: August 01, 2021; 1(1): 16-20.

Data collection process has witnessed explosive growth that could even outsmart the measurable gains in the field of power of computation as speculated by Moore’s Law. However, scientists spread over various domain are smearing victory through network models to denote their data. Graph- algorithms come in handy to investigate the topological structure and bring out the hidden relationships and attributes among variables. But the task of finding dense subgraphs, are still hard to negotiate from a computational viewpoint. So, it is stimulating to find new algorithmic methods in the probe of graphs derived from huge data sources that are complex. We provide a bird’s eye view of application of graph theoretic tools crisply for the probe of complex networks based on gene expression signatures and to find exact and effective solutions to hard combinatorial tasks such as epigenetic biomarker detection. To make an efficient design which is algorithm based, a probe of two core components of fixed parameter tractability namely branching and kernelization is suggested for parallel imposition of vertex cover. We have also discussed the concept of Para clique and domination concept to better handle gene expression networks.
Keywords: Genes; Genetic Networks; Data Types; Graphs; Clique Domination

Hygiene Practice: A key Factor in Limiting Food Poisoning in Hospitality Industry

Ayeni Ayodele Olaiya

Published: August 01, 2021; 1(1): 21-27.

Food hygiene practices to human existence cannot be over-emphasized. It bring about good health, growth and development of the people when it is properly maintained, while improper handling of hygiene practices could lead to illness and diseases, poor health, increased medical bills and reduced productivity. This study work on the state of hygiene practices and its important in promoting good health and development of human growth in Ekiti State. The aim is to foster proper hygiene practices among people in the State. The research will shows among others that the campaign for good hygiene alone does not assure quality and safety hygienic practice, that high premium must be placed on ascertaining compliance with proper hygiene Practice by people, food manufacturers and food agencies. Its suggested that citizens, food handlers and manufacturers should maintain high level of personal hygienic practices, and health practices in line with regulatory standards.
Keyword: Food Hygiene; Hospitality Industry

Neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis is a rarely discovered entity manifesting as a maculopapular, barely pruritic or non-pruritic, fleeting erythema with a specific histological appearance showing a perivascular infiltrate of unaltered neutrophils without associated vasculitis. This entity is associated with certain systemic diseases such as Still’s disease, Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome and Schnitzler syndrome. We report the case of a patient who presented with neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (NUD) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with extracutaneous renal involvement.
Keywords: Neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis; lupus nephropathy

The Rage on Pedophilia

Adesanya Omowumi

Published: August 01, 2021; 1(1): 30.

Pedophilic disorder is characterized by recurring, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behavior involving children (usually 13 years old or younger). In some undeveloped countries, a lot of sensitizations hasn’t been done yet to defend pedophilia as a maladaptive condition and even give room for treatment of pedophiles.

Machine Learning based CAD for Breast Cancer Detection

Manoj Kumar

Published: August 01, 2021; 1(1): 31-32.

Breast cancer is the second most driven reason for the deaths among women, globally. Breast cancer is a category of cancer that develops in the breast tissue with the main observable symptom that is a lump which feels irregular from the remaining tissues. According to the reports, this cancer is affecting 2.2 million women every year . In this disease life threatening (malignant) cells in the breast multiply out of hands, making it the second most fatal type of cancer in women widely. Hence, to diminish the mortality rate and increase the chances of survival, it is crucial to uncover it as early as attainable. There have been numerous researches addressing breast cancer using machine learning and its subset techniques. Researchers claim that their algorithms are faster, simpler, and more precise than others are. This study is based on computer aided systems (CAD) and machine learning algorithms that aim to construct a framework to precisely distinguish between benign and malignant breast tumors in a screening mammogram .

Substance Abuse among the Medical Students

Bibek Raj Parajuli

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(2): 01-02

The use of illegal drugs, excessive consumption of drugs with or without prescription, alcohol, and marijuana is known as substance abuse. There can be both physical or psychological dependence [2]. Substance abuse is one of the main problems among medical students. The reason behind substance abuse among medical students is the stress of the study, the curiosity of how it tastes, party and occasion celebrations. Medical students were getting those substances through their friends [9]. Risk factors for substance abuse disorder are family history of substance abuse, peer pressure, mental health disorder, use of abusive substances at an early age, and lack of support from the family. Different types of substance abuse disorders are Opioid Use Disorder., Marijuana Use Disorder. Alcohol Use Disorder. Sedative Use Disorder., Nicotine Use Disorder. Stimulant Use Disorder. Hallucinogen Use Disorder [2].

      In a study looking at potential impact to respiratory health of quarry workers exposed to airborne respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in Queensland, Australia, respirable dust exposure sampling was undertaken using the method specified in AS 2985-2009. Analysis of the collected samples for alpha quartz was carried out using infrared spectroscopy. Lung function tests for the exposed workers at each quarry were conducted using an Easyone® spirometer. The aim of this study was to determine whether increased RCS exposure is associated with a reduction in lung function. Personal RCS exposures were pooled into similar exposure groups (SEGs), minimum variance unbiased estimates (MVUE), were plotted against the forced expiratory volumes in one second (FEV1) % of predicted for corresponding SEGs. Non-linear correlations were observed including natural log and polynomial function. Estimated (full shift) exposures pooled for each Similar Exposure Group (SEG) correlated with lung function measured as FEV1 % of predicted (p<0.05) as confirmed by the Kolmogorov goodness of fit test. Furthermore a trend test using SAS 9.4 resulted in p = 0.0013. A major finding for those workers exposed to RCS at 0.1 mg/m3 was loss of lung function greater than 20%. The increased loss of lung function was positively correlated with jobs associated with increased RCS exposure. When similar exposure groups were combined into three RCS exposure ranges categorised as high (≥ 0.09 - ≤ 0.20 mg/m3), medium (≥ 0.04 - ≤ 0.08 mg/m3) and low (< 0.04 mg/m3), analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that the loss of lung function below the lower limit of normal (LLN) at 0.1mg/m3 TWA-8hrs, is significant (p < 0.05). 

      A major finding from this study predicts that an abnormal loss of lung function may occur even when workers are exposed to RCS where the occupational exposure limit (TWA) is 0.1 mg/m3 or greater which is the case in many jurisdictions.
Keywords: Respirable Crystalline Silica; lung function; quarries

Assessment of Knowledge regarding Human Breast Milk Bank among the Nursing Officers in JIPMER Puducherry

Safeena Beevi S S, Adline Shanu, Akila, Ananda Geethan, Anjaly Suryan, Asuthosh Kumar, Aswathy, Bavithra, Bharathi, Bharath Kumar

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(2): 13-20

     World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund in 1980 has stated that if the baby does not get his/her own mother’s milk, the best food for that baby is Human breast milk from another lactating mother. Donor milk has a broad range of therapeutic uses. Common reasons for prescribing donor milk are prematurity, allergies, feeding formula intolerance, immunologic deficiencies, etc. Breastfeeding is not recommended for mothers who have specific health problems. In the absence of the infant’s mother’s milk, donor milk offers the benefits of human milk for the infant, including optimal nutrition, easy digestibility, and immunological protection against many organisms. Human milk also contains growth factors that can protect immature tissue, promote maturation, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract, and promote the healing of tissue damaged by infection.

     A human breast milk bank is a service that collects, screens, processes, and dispenses by prescription. Human milk is donated by nursing mothers who are biologically not related to the recipient infant. The optimum nutrition for newborn is breastfeeding, if possible for the first year.

     Human milk is recognized for its numerous benefits, including tolerance to allergens, providing passive immunization, improving lipid profile, and controlling blood pressure. In studies conducted in the neonatal unit, infants fed human breast milk had fewer severe infections, less necrotizing enterocolitis, and less colonization by pathogenic organisms. The majority of mothers are encouraged to breastfeed their babies. However, breastfeeding arises when the baby is sick or admitted to the hospital, particularly in premature infants. Also, the mothers may be unable to provide an entire volume of milk due to numerous physical and emotional behaviors to breastfeeding. So, the pasteurized donor milk from a healthy mother should be the first consideration for supplementation. In such cases, the role of breast milk banks becomes crucial as these are the place where the donor milk is stored and is made available for use in vulnerable populations. India is a developing country where neonatal mortality is  very alarming. Breast milk banks are essential for the control of cases of neonatal mortality and malnutrition.

Methodology-This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of knowledge of nursing officers regarding the human breast milk banks and to identify service-related factors associated with the level of knowledge on human breast milk banks among nursing officers. One hundred seventy-six participants were selected for the studies who fulfil the inclusion criteria of the study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge level among the nursing officers. Both inferential statistics and descriptive statistics were used in this study.

Results-A total of 176 nursing officers were analyzed. Findings revealed that most nursing officers had inadequate knowledge (93.18%) regarding the human breast milk bank.

Conclusion-Most of the nursing officers are having inadequate knowledge regarding the breast milk bank. The study also reveals the clinical experience; the area of posting has a significant correlation in the knowledge level of the participants so that the institute can plan for in-service education programs to update the staff’s knowledge.

Keywords: Human breast milk bank; Preterm neonates; Nursing officers; Nutrition

A Descriptive Explorative study on Sleep Disturbances during Pregnancy among Pregnant Women, in a Selected Hospital at Puducherry

Jayasankari S, Leena L Raju, Kiruba Prasanna, Jayapriya

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(2): 21-25

Background: Pregnancy involves many maternal physiological and psychological changes both of which has implications on sleep. During the first trimester, sleep is disturbed by the hormonal changes and in the last trimester the grown up fetus and the anxiety regarding delivery disturbs the sleep. Objectives: This study was done to evaluate the Sleep Disturbances during Pregnancy among Pregnant Women, in a tertiary Hospital at Puducherry. Methods: 238 pregnant women were interviewed using modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to evaluate the Disturbances in sleep during Pregnancy. Results: The findings of the study showed that that almost all the subjects (87.3%) had poor sleep in their pregnancy. Only 12.7% had good sleep quality. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Score was 7.60 (SD - 1.83), which shows poor sleep during pregnancy. No significant relationship was identified between sleep quality with selected socio demographic and clinical variables. Conclusion: Sufficient good sleep during pregnancy is important to improve the pregnancy outcomes. It can be conluded that there is a great need to sensitize antenatal women on this issues appropriately.

Key words: sleep quality; pregnant women

     We performed in 1975, the first heterotransplantation of invertebrate A.O in nude mouse, then a double heterotransplantation of human tumor and axial organ next to this last one, always in nude mouse: The human tumor was rejected in 50% of observed cases. Some years later, we found that A.O cells exerted an induced and spontaneous cytotoxicity against SP2 and MBL2 mouse tumoral cells. Recently, we discovered a sea star Igkappa gene with immune properties. This gene was inserted in a CMV (cytomegalovirus) and finally in a plasmid called « young » plasmid.

     The induced « young » protein exerted a spontaneous cytotoxicity against osteosarcom cells (U2oS cells) against A-375 melanome cells and Hela cells.

A Study to Assess the Impact of Online Learning Among School Children in Kerala

Sreeraj R N, Soorya Joy, Lijisha P V, Senthilkumar T

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(2): 29-34

Due to the ongoing pandemic of Covid-19 almost all the sectors in the world left the traditional ways behind and the educational sector was no exception. Nowadays the school children are able to pursue their education remotely inside their most familiar physical setup, their home, with the help of information technology. This study aimed to find out the impact of this ‘online learning’ among school children. Methods: A quantitative approach which adopted a descriptive survey design was used for this study among 30 school going children from selected schools in Kerala. These 06-18 years aged children were selected using convenient sampling technique and data collection was done through a structure checklist. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using Minitab Version 16. Results: The impact of online learning was graded in to positive and negative for analysis and interpretation of the data. The findings showed that majority of the school children (63.33%) were positive impacted from online learning and there was no association found between online learning and demographic variables at 5% confidence level (p<0.05). Discussion: Even though the online learning had a positive impact on school children, to get most out of the online learning, the teachers must have to adjust the materials and methods used for remote teaching to make them more interesting for the learners.

Solving Global Problems using Neural Network

Nabeel Khan

Published: September 01, 2021; 1(1): 35-40

Human Brain is made up of interconnected cells called neurons. The connection between these neurons is called neural network.Thoughts are created by interconnected brain cells called neural network. It is the result of hidden data and input data. If suffering, then it is because there is something wrong in your hidden data. Take good input data that will override the hidden data to create good thoughts. Artificial neural network is the pattern to work like the human neural network.

Neurological and neurodegenerative diseases have become a major social and economic burden worldwide with more individuals predicted to be affected in coming decade. Therefore, understanding the neuropathological mechanism and identifying the promising target for intervention has become an active area of research in neurodegeneration. The chronic neuroinflammation has considered to be fundamental mechanism causing progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons as observed in clinical course of various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial proliferation and activation are the hallmarks of several neurological disorders.

A study to assess the knowledge, opinion of faculty and post graduate students of nursing regarding translational Research in nursing in Tirupathi was conducted on 50 nursing faculty and 50 nursing post graduate students in Tirupathi, with the objectives to find out 1. Knowledge regarding translational Research 2. Opinion regarding translational research. Method and Material It was an incidental study conducted by the investigator when nearly 500 nursing personnel came to participate in the national workshop organised by Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visva vidyalayam in Tirupathi. The study comprised of survey questionnaire of multiple choice type to elicit the information and an opinion check list. The sample of study is selected randomly from 2 groups comprised of faculty and post graduate students. The data was collected before starting of the Workshop when participants assembled for registration. Results showed that the knowledge score’s levels of nursing faculty was almost the same as that of post graduate nursing students. However, both groups showed slightly different responses on opinionnaire regarding translational research. Conclusion Translational research in nursing is not a myth and distance dream but can be a realty.

Keywords: Nursing; Evidence Based Practice; Nursing Education; Nursing Research; Translational Research; Knowledge and Opinion

BrainGate - A Computer Innovation for Patients with Paralysis

Senthilkumar T, Varuna Padmajan

Published: October 01, 2021: 1(3): 08-12.

Brain gate is an electrode chip that’s implemented in the cortex of the brain. It is a system developed by cyberkinetics, a biotech company in the year 2003 in connection with neuroscience department at Brown University. It helps to exchange the electrical signals between brain and the electrical gadgets. The principle behind this brain implant system is with normal brain functions, brain signals are been generated, but they can’t be sent to arms, hands or legs, these signals are understood and translated to cursor movements, which helps the individual to regulate the computer by his or her thoughts. Special software carries all the signaling processes.

Keywords: Brain gate; Electoral signals; Cursor movements

Evaluation of Smile Components in Males of Skeletal Class III compared to Skeletal Class I

Abdallah S Nouh, HM Abdel Majeed, Essam Mohamed Nassef Selim

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(3): 13-20.

Objective: Smile plays a vital role in facial appearance. The current study was performed to evaluate the smile parameter variations between Class I and Class III male subjects aiming to obtain a full understanding to smile features serving in diagnosis and treatment planning for highest patient satisfaction.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 30 skeletal Class III and Class I males. Two frontal digital photographs were taken for each subject, one at rest and the other in the posed smile position. Photographs were uploaded on Photoshop software for standardization and then uploaded on the Digital Smile Design software (DSD) where the actual incisogingival height of the central incisor was used for automatic calibration.
Results: At rest, there was no significant difference for all soft tissue measurements of Class I and Class III males, while on smiling, Class III males tended to have wider smile widths, less incisor display, wider smile width and a higher percentage of non-consonant and flat smile arcs than normal Class I subjects.
Conclusions: The maxillary incisor display for Class I was found to be significantly greater than that for Class III. The smile width and smile height for Class III was found to be significantly greater than that of Class I.

Keywords: Class III males; Esthetics; Malocclusion; Smile

Orthopedic Device and Data Visualization: A Way to Optimize the Therapeutic Process

Gabriele Pontillo, Roberta Angari

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(3): 21-30.

Medical design may intervene to improve, prolong and save lives. Many health critical problems can be addressed thanks to the power of design, which solutions, developed in academic and business settings, can answer in an innovative way to the needs of patients. It is in this context that is located the ongoing research presented, which is based on the integration between parametric design and data visualization, whose convergence leads to the realisation of medical devices customized on specific morphologies and needs of users and, as well, - thanks to the integration of IoT - capable to record and return data related to the course of the therapeutic advancements, made readable for both patients and doctors. As highlighted by the most recent scientific literature, the development of technological medical devices, able to reduce steps and simplify the doctor/patient relationship, is becoming an important field of research, most of all if we consider the condition of endemic fragility that characterises the contemporary society. In this perspective, the aim of the paper is to introduce the concept and design of orthopedic devices, through the description of the methodology and approaches applied and of the protocol outlined during the research.

Keywords: Medical Design; Parametric Design; Information Design; E-health; Personalized medicine

Using Kitchen Resources and Home Remedies to Cure common Cold

Saba Khan, Sarah Malik

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(3): 31-37.

For boosting the immune system, to promote optimum health & to reduce the complications or risks of the disease, kitchens ingredients play a significant role. The objective of this study was to find out the popular home remedies for common cold and to modify them for better results. Survey and interview method helped in collecting the field information from the sample of hundred respondents. The most popular remedies were identified and modified by addition of any three more ingredients from the kitchen shelf. The modified recipes were subjected on the sample of twenty-five adults suffering with common cold. Their experiences showed reduced recovery time and better response in improving their general health condition.

Keywords: Common cold; Home remedies; Kitchen ingredients

End user Satisfaction with Central Sterile Supply Department of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Sunil Kumar, Monica Malhotra

Published: October 01, 2021: 1(3): 38-40.

Hospital acquired infection or “nosocomial infection” adversely affects both patients and hospitals. Impact of nosocomial infections ranges from increased length of hospital stay, emotional stress, disability, death of the patients as well as increased hospital cost for the patients and providers. Studies in India have reported nosocomial infection rates from 8% to 58%. The ultimate outcome of the services rendered in a hospital is judged by the level to which it satisfies its user. In our study 100 personnel working in various department of the hospital directly linked with the patient care were randomly selected and studied. The category of staff studied included doctors, nurses and other staff. In the study It was found that on an average 70 % staff was satisfied with the services provided by Central Sterile Supplies Department of SKIMS.

Keywords: Central sterile Supplies; Sterilisation; Hospital Infections

Study of Utilisation of CT Scan Machine at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Waseem Ahmed Sheikh, Shaista Ganai, Shadab Maqsood, Mohd Sarwar Mir

Published: October 01, 2021: 1(3): 41-43.

In today’s health care environment, the equipment purchase must be cost justified. As India is a developing country with constrained resources and hi-tech hospitals, CTs are most cost effective than other image modalities on image quality. Establishment and maintenance of CAT scan unit in a hospital is expensive and every effort must be made for optimum utilization of this equipment in appropriate manner. Utilization of imaging equipment is an important parameter for planning of services as these equipment’s are costly and underutilization can lead to massive losses due to depreciation and other reasons. In our study, utilization coefficient of CT machine was found to 60% which shows that our machine is being properly utililised as per set norms.

Keywords: Utilization; CT scan; Efficiency

Impact of nosocomial infections ranges from increased length of hospital stay, emotional stress, disability, death of the patients as well as increased hospital cost for the patients and providers. Studies in India have reported nosocomial infection rates from 8% to 58 %.
The observations of staff working in SKIMS Central Sterile Supply Department of various cadres revealed that 50 % of the staff were in the age group 20-40 and 50 % of staff was of age group > 40 years of age, and maximum 92% of staff are Male. Education Qualification wise it was found that most of 50% staff is 12th pass. The results of the study indicate that higher percentage of motivation and job satisfaction among the staff working in Central Sterile Supply Department are attributable to working hours, in-service training, reward/appreciation, and resting time during work and satisfied with supervisory and subordinate staff.

Keywords: Central sterile Supplies; Sterilisation; Hospital Infections; Staff satisfaction

Anesthesia and Patient Safety

Serdar Epozdemir

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(4): 01-02

Anesthesiologist plays a role in the recovery of the patient without any risk with the ideal anesthesia management, under the responsibility that the science of anesthesiology is not a preventive, protective, therapeutic method alone.

The practice of anesthesia requires a high level of medical expertise as well as significant practical skill, and most importantly, anesthesia is a team effort. In many cases, the responsibility of not only the expert but also the departments and regulatory authorities that set up the system should be considered. Therefore, the appropriate method for patient safety should often be the systems approach. However, this does not remove the responsibility that each doctor should strive for quality, safe approach and excellence in his work for his patient [1].

The objective of this project was to build a system software that could assist any first responder irrespective of their background in first-aid. It employed a combination of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies to dial for emergency medical assistance and make a diagnosis of the treatment needed. An Image Recognition (IR) service was trained using IBM Watson to assess the casualty’s primary condition. Training phrases were fed into Dialogflow to construct a voice and text-based conversational interface for Google Assistant’s Artificial Intelligence (AI) to give a secondary diagnosis. Vuforia’s Augmented Reality (AR) engine in Unity was then enlisted via Target Detection to display a virtual assistant applying first-aid on the casualty. The components were amalgamated using the AI’s autonomous control over the IR and AR applications to create the end-to-end system software. Lastly, XCode, an app-building engine, developed the components into prototype mobile applications. Future prototyping could assist first responders during an actual emergency and complement the Singapore Civil Defence Force’s efforts of promoting high
standards of first-aid.

Keywords: Internet of Things; Augmented Reality; Artificial Intelligence; Deep machine learning; First-aid

Anesthesia Management in a Patient with a History of multidrug Anaphylaxis

Deniz Turan and Serdar Epozdemir

Published: October 8, 2021; 1(4): 14-16.

Perioperative anaphylaxis is a life-threatening systemic allergic reaction. Allergic reactions occurring during anesthesia were found to be between 1/6000-1/20000 in retrospective studies. The mortality rate is between 3-5% [1]. The causes of perioperative anaphylaxis are neuromuscular blocking agents, antibiotics, latex, hypnotic induction agents, chlorhexidine, opioids, and colloids. Risk factors for perioperative anaphylaxis include female gender, mast cell disorders, allergic diseases (asthma, eczema, hay fever), drug allergy, and atopy [2-6]. We aimed to present the anesthetic management in our case who had to have knee replacement surgery, had co-morbidities and had a history of anaphylaxis against multiple drugs.

Keywords: Anaphylaxis; Knee Replacement; Co-morbidities; Anesthesia Management