Short Communicationvolume 2 Issue 5


Water studies are widespread globally, and the methods are various kinds of technology. Some researchers study soft X-ray emission spectrometer [1], neutron diffraction [2], Raman scattering spectroscopy [3], Fourier transfer infrared spectra (FTIR) [4]. Those studies are mostly on H2O or any substance’s compound with water. The contents are a structure like an angle of the O-H bond in the water molecule. Some interesting issues include hydrogen cation [5], Rydberg, and valence-shell character in H2 [6].

On the other hand, they report the theoretical approaches using Ab initio calculations of the hydrogen bond [7] and density-functional theory exchange-correlation functions for hydrogen bonds in small water clusters [8]. We regard that the elucidation of macroscopic phenomena is essential from the viewpoints point of those theoretical approaches. We always put this stance on the excellent matching with theory and a piece of evidence in daily life when we treat water. Here we introduce techniques to research the water, although the detailed results of experiments have been published. Therefore, I will abbreviate some of them except for typical data with those instruments and principles.