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Medicon Open Access

Medicon Open Access is an international Scientific Publication Group with high Impact and peer reviewed journals in the Field of science.  The prime focus of this publisher is to explore scientific knowledge across the globe by a peer reviewed system with the outstanding support of our Editors, Reviewers and Authors.

Vision

Medicon is an international publisher with Open Access Journals which covers all the topics across the global scientific community. This is the best platform for exchanging innovative ideas and knowledge. We always try to provide the best quality articles to the Scientific Community.
 

Why to Publish with Medicon?

1. Medicon is an international scientific publisher which publishes articles on Multiple disciplines.
2. Publication certificate will be provided to author.
3. Rapid publication process.
4. Reasonable publication Fee. 
5. Immediate Acknowledgement to author after article accepted for peer review.
6. High visibility of published work.
7. Best Knowledge sharing platform.
8. Thorough Double Blinded peer review.

Latest Article

Ontologies in Various Domains: A New Perspective of Ideas

Tanaya Das

Published: January 22, 2022

Introduction
The term ontology came from two Greek words i.e., “Onto” and “logos”. It denotes “study or knowledge about everything that actually exists”. Philosophers defined the word “Ontology” in their own way. It is discipline of philosophy [1] that deals with structures of things, events, processes, and relations in every aspect of reality. In recent years, research in multidisciplinary fields has exploded in various sectors or domain. “Ontology” term from philosophy was adapted and repurposed to fit the needs of sectors or domain. Thecore goal of ontologies is to provide a vision of a domain. Ontologies consist of all relevant domain-specific terminologies and connections that help to identify core concepts and accumulate critical information related to the domain. Nowadays, ontology is deployed in various fields to capture the domain knowledge. The use of ontology in various sectors is shown in Fig.1 and explained further.

Mycorrhiza is the Ideal Solution for Global Agriculture

EL AMRANI Belkacem

Published: January 22, 2022

Given the world’s demographic expansion, agricultural production must at least be doubled by 2050 to feed the world’s population. However, the agricultural sector is increasingly suffering from harsh climatic conditions, mainly drought, and soil nutrient depletion. These conditions dramatically affect the qualitative and quantitative production, and increase the demand for chemical fertilizers. Unfortunately, what complicates things further is that the world currently recognizes a surge in fertilizer prices in general and especially those containing nitrogen. In addition, according to the World Bank, the rise in fertilizer prices is expected to continue. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek effective, ecological, and sustainable alternatives to meet global nutritional needs.

Summary
Dolphins and whales are collectively referred to as cetaceans which have until recently remained unstudied in Ghana and within the Gulf of Guinea. In recent times, the growing increase in the landings and stranding of cetaceans have raised concern to environmentalists and the general public even though Ghana has enacted several legislations intended to foster the conservation of biodiversity and protection of the environment.

Concepts of Healing

E F Block IV

Published: January 20, 2022

Preface
This work addresses the concepts that surround what comprises healing modalities in these days and times. The concepts discussed do not involve those of surgery. There are three major thrusts in the origin of healing concepts that have been developed over the ages. The more advanced Eastern concepts first originated in the sub-continent of India and were later transferred to the area that is now known as China. All Eastern concepts began development some 4000 years ago and eventually yielded a comprehensive treatment system that lasted into modern times. The Western concepts originated in Europe and progressed much more slowly than those in the East. In all cases, most of what would be known as medicines were for the most part derived from herbal sources with a minority from mineral of animal sources.

Anosmia of Covid 19 - A Transient Symptom?

Amrapali Keny Pawar, Palak Bhatti and Prashant Kewle

Published: January 13, 2022

Abstract
Aims and objectives: Covid 19 pandemic brought a host of symptoms in the last 2 years. Amongst these anosmia or loss of smell and taste were some of the striking though less common symptoms. Significant rise in Anosmia with or without onset of upper respiratory tract infection prompted a study in which patients with loss of smell were screened over a period of one year to study the nature of this symptom.
Materials and Methiods: A questionnaire had to be filled by patients visiting in our clinics or through online consultations. 53 patients were selected.
Observations: Our observations showed that in 86.8% of patients, anosmia was the only symptom and 73.6% required no specific treatment. In 89.3% anosmia resolved within 3 months.
Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that anosmia can be used as a marker for COVID 19 testing. It appears to be a transient symptom which resolves spontaneously.

Keywords: Anosmia; loss of smell; COVID 19; SARS-CoV-2; Olfactory dysfunction

Breast Cancer Distribution Pattern in a Pathology Center in South East Nigeria

Samuel I Ogenyi, Nancy C Ibeh, June A Onu, Jonathan U Madukwe, Onyekachi A Onu and Felix E Menkiti

Published: January 13, 2022

Abstract
Background
Breast cancer remains the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women accounting for about 11% of all cancer types diagnosed globally annually and one of the leading causes of women mortality in spite of significant improvements in treatment. Treatment of breast cancer in Nigeria is based of expression pattern of ER, PR and HER2 using targeted therapies.
Methods
Two hundred and seventy three (273) archived paraffin wax processed breast tissue samples were sorted and selected from the histopathology laboratories and museums of the facility. Data were realized from clinical records, operation notes and histopathology results of the patients involved. HER2, ER and PR expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry (Avidin-biotin complex method). Expression patterns were scored based on proportion and intensity of immune-labeling using semi-quantitative method.
Results
The age of patients ranged from 30 to 75 years with greater population falling between 30-45 years. Numerically, breast cancer cases seen increased progressively from 2015 to 2019. Most breast cancer tissues were ER positive 146 (53.5%) while 65 (23.8%) samples were HER2 positive. A greater percentage of the samples assessed were ER/PR/HER positive (Triple positive) while ER negative/PR positive accounted for the least case.
Conclusion
The present study revealed a progressive increase of breast cancer incidence from the year 2015 to 2019 in the centre studied with ER/PR positive cancers being the most prevalent followed by triple negative cancers. More awareness to breast cancer risk factors, prevention, screening and early presentation to hospitals should be intensified with emphasis on early detection and targeted and personalized management.

Keywords: Breast Cancer; ER; PR; HER2

Vibration Attenuation and Joint Navigation through Robust Control System Hardware for Multi-Degrees-of-Freedom Flexible Robots

Pratik Chothe, Shreyash Gajlekar, Aniket Bhelsaikar, Viinod Atpadkar, Nilesh Uke and Debanik Roy

Published: January 12, 2022

Abstract
The inherent vibration occurring due to compliance of Flexible Robotic System (FRS) provides numerous challenges to achieve accuracy at the end-effector of the FRS. This paper focuses on the study of influence of electronic control system hardware over electromechanical output of the FRS. The paper provides an insight to the relationship between drive current and motor torque with vibrations in the system. Design details of the novel indigenously-developed control electronics and, finally the controller of the prototype FRS will be reported in this paper, backed up by the glimpses of mechanical hardware. The performance and robustness of the prototype FRS will be finally discussed based on some representative analysis and results thereof. We will discuss about implementing various trajectory functions in the control program of the prototype FRS. The paper will further lead to modified linear trajectory where parabolic blends are introduced to reduce the infinite acceleration, which would eventually reduce the vibration in the links of the FRS.

Keywords: Flexible Robot; Control System; Electronics; Vibration; Rheology; Sensor; Gripper; Trajectory Functions

Neurophysiological monitoring (IONPM)

P K Upadhyay

Published: January 12, 2022

Application of Neuro-physiological monitoring (IONPM)
Application of neurophysiological monitoring during surgery (IOM) in intra operative Neurospinal surgery, cases reduces the chances of neuro-spinal surgery complications at all neurological level. Many techniques are available and motor and SSEP (evoked potentials somatosensory) are thought to be essential for better results of IONPM. Spinal cord - evoked potentials (SEP) are observed and recorded over cord where stimulation by electrical means is given on directly over the spinal cord (posterior column) by an epidural stimulation by electrodes. SSEP (somatosensory evoked potentials) provide the functional and anatomical continuity of sensory tracts .starting from peripheral most nerve and posterior column to the sensory cortex.

Pathological of Parturation in Pre-Labour and Post-Labour Pregnancy: A Review

Vishal Govind Sakhare

Published: January 04, 2022

Abstract
The myometrium must remain remarkably during pregnancy to allow the growth and growth of the fetoplacental unit and subsequently become a highly coordinated and forcefully contracted organ for successful expulsion of the newborn during the period of labor. The temporal control of work is complex and involves interactions between the mother, fetus, and placenta. The prompt start of career and delivery is a crucial factor of the perinatal result. Both preterm birth (pregnancy before 37 weeks) and post-term pregnancy (pregnancy after 42 weeks) linked with a meaningful increase in perinatal morbidity and mortality. This paper discusses the processes for uterine distension and reduced contractions during pregnancy and the cascade for the timely and spontaneous start of labor.
Keywords: Paturation; Pregnancy; Labour; Myometrium

Simulation with FlexSim an alternative to apply the M/M/C Model in a post COVID service system

Ana Alvarez Sanchez, Alexis Suarez del Villar Labastida and Eric Martinez Tocoronte

Published: January 04, 2022

Abstract
Simulation with FlexSim an alternative to apply the M/M/C Model in a service system. Introduction. The study includes a literary review, model and simulation concepts, applications, the FlexSim characterization and the M / M / C model, that is, multiple channels. Objective. Address key concepts related to the use of FlexSim software within a simulation model in a service process where decisions can be made based on the study of queuing theory. Method. After performing the goodness-of-fit test for Poisson, it was determined that the arrival distribution to the line of people every hour does comply with a Poisson-type distribution because its Chi-square test reaches a value of 0.92 which represents that it is well above the coefficient of 0.5. Therefore, the exact probability of finding n arrivals during a certain time T can be found, if the process is random, as is the case of the cooperative, Results. The average number of clients in the queue waiting to be served, giving a reduction from 1.04 to 0.14 clients, so it is understood that, if the increase in servers in the cooperative were applied, this would cause that queues are generated in the system, since its L_q is 0.14 clients.
Keywords: Customers; Distribution; Model; Simulation; Queuing theory

Adoption of Artificial Intelligence in Biopharmaceutics

Priyanka Aswal, Piyush Verma, Gunjan Shaily and Ridhi

Published: January 04, 2022

Abstract
The use of AI has transformed the approaches of a pathway or target identification to treat ailments. This was conceivable owing to the incorporation of genomics information, biochemical attributes, and target tractability. The use of AI has significantly caused pharma companies with increasing productivity, reproducibility, and repeatability of manufacturing as well as clinical trial processes. AI has considerably reduced the cost and time required to achieve the target required.

Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution Using Sawdust

Saeed Ullah Jan, Younas Ahmad, Murad Ali, Zakir Hussain and Saad Melhi

Published: January 03, 2022

Abstract
In the present study, modified sawdust was used for the removal of an azo dye Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The study was carried out in batch mode. Effects of various important parameters such as pH, concentration, temperature, dose, and agitation speed on the removal of the dye were investigated for optimization of the process. It was observed that the maximum removal of 99.5% was achieved at the lowest dye concentration of 75PPM. The process of removal was found to be endothermic. Adsorption of Methylene Blue on modified sawdust was rapid and in accordance with pseudo-2nd -order kinetics. The Langmuir isotherm model agrees well with the sorption isotherm data and also confirms that adsorption took place on the homogenous surface of modified sawdust. The adsorption capacity (Qmax.) determined from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 5.464 mg g-1. The thermodynamics parameters like ΔG, ΔH, ΔS are found to be 30.057 kJmol-1, 44.089 kJ mol-1, and 0.0514 kJmol-1K-1 respectively, revealing that the adsorption process is spontaneous, endothermic, and feasible Therefore, the study recommends that modified sawdust is a promising candidate for the efficient removal of dye-contaminated wastewater.
Keywords: Adsorption; Sawdust; Methylene Blue; Kinetics; Thermodynamics

The Numerical Simulation of Pollutant Transport in Shallow Water Flows

Kissami Imad and Ziggaf Moussa

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
A real test using the finite volume method is presented for the numerical simulation of the pollutant transport by water flows. Shallow water equations, bottom friction forces, wind shear stresses, and Coriolis effect are used to model the water flow while a transport-diffusion equation is used to model the advection and dispersion of the pollutant concentration. The finite volume method used has been the subject of several works (see e.g. [3, 4, 17]) it is a simple discretization of centered type for the source terms, can handle complex topography by using non-uniform triangular grids while keeping the conservation property. The C-property based on checking the balance between the convection term and the background profile is satisfied. The monitoring of the pollutant concentration in the computational domain during its dispersion process is taken into account. The focus of this study is on an application of pollution dispersion in the Nador lagoon in Morocco. The results are presented using different tidal conditions and wind-induced flow fields in the lagoon.
Keywords: Well balanced scheme; Complex topography; Shallow water flows; Finite volume method; Pollutant transport

Influence of Slope and Management Practices on Top-Soils Fertility Status of Compound Farms in Nsukka Campus

Benedict Odinaka Okorie, Niraj Yadav, Charles LA Asadu, Muhammad Tariq, Imran Ahmed and Umeugokwe C Pascal

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
The study was carried out to assess the influence of slope and management practices on top-soils fertility status of compound farms in the University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) campus, Enugu state Nigeria. Top soil samples (0-20 cm depth) were collected from twenty compound farms, ten each from the upper slopes compound farms (USCFs) in Ikejiani and Ezenwaeze streets and lower slopes compound farms (LSCFs) at Mbanefo Street. The elevation of the USCFs ranged from 458 to 447 m while LSCFs ranged from 415 to 423 m above the mean sea level (amsl). The soil samples were analyzed in the UNN Department of Soil Science Laboratory. The results showed that slopes and management practices influenced top-soils fertility status of compound farms. Slopes affected soil fertility parameters such as organic matter content, total nitrogen, exchangeable calcium, cation exchange capacity, and effective cation exchange capacity. The upper slope compound farms were more fertile relative to the lower slopes compound farms. The combined application of organic and inorganic manures had a greater effect on soil fertility status compared to a single application of organic or inorganic fertilizer. The combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers should be adopted to enhance soil fertility status of compound farms in both slopes. 
Keywords: Compound farms; Management Practices; Slopes; Soil Fertility

Medicare for All Takes Center Stage

Preston L Williams, Bryce R Williams and Joanna P Williams

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
Rising interest in a single-payer healthcare system known as Medicare for All (MFA) has reached the support of nearly 55% of physicians and two-thirds of Americans polled [1]. This comes at a time when nearly 29 million Americans remain uninsured in the setting of a 4.6% increase in healthcare spending in 2019 totaling $3.8 trillion in expenditures, despite the implementation of the multitude of insurance options within the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 [2]. Presently, there are two bills in the legislature being considered to address this matter with the Medicare for All Act of 2019. Lobbyists are considering a government- funded healthcare system that would serve to reduce burdensome administrative and health-related costs and simplify an already multiplex insurance-laden system. 
Keywords: Medicare programs; Fee-for-service; Private insurance; Selection bias; Drug costs; Medicare reimburse

Abstract
Drought has been recognized as a primary constraint in limiting the growth and development of plants. It impairs normal growth, disturbs water relations, and reduces water use efficiency in plants. Drought stress at any growth stage also, poses detrimental effects on morphological and physiological criteria in plants. To maintain growth and productivity, plants must adapt to stress conditions and exercise specific tolerance mechanisms of stress agents. Plant modification for enhanced tolerance is mostly based on gene transformation, however, the nature of the genetically complex mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance, and the potential detrimental side effects, make this task extremely difficult. A promising alternative for improving plant drought tolerance is using the beneficial soil microorganisms including Plant-growth-promoting fungi (PGPF). This research was undertaken to investigate the effect of two PGPFs on some morphological and physiological indices and nutritional status of sesame plant under drought conditions. For this purpose, a field experiment using a completely randomized blocks with three replications and treatments including fungal inoculation (non-inoculation, Piriformospora indica and Rhizophagus irregularis) and drought levels include 55, 75 and 85% of SAW (Soil Available water) depletion on the basis of combined analysis in Lavark Field (Isfahan Province) was conducted. The results showed that the comparison of studied fungi indicates that only R. irregularis increased the concentration of phosphorus in the shoot part of plants, significantly. Each of the studied fungi showed their positive effect on different characteristics and also different drought stresses. So that, R. irregularis increased phosphorus content at 75% of SAW depletion, relative water content of leaf and nitrogen content at 85% of SAW depletion and catalase activity, membrane stability, iron concentration, shoot biomass and number of leaves at 75% and 85% of SAW depletion. However, P. indica increased iron concentration and height of shoot at 75% of SAW depletion, shoot biomass and nitrogen content at 85% of SAW depletion and catalase activity, membrane stability, relative water content of leaf and number of leaves at 75% and 85% of SAW depletion. The studied fungi increased the activity of catalase enzyme in all drought treatments. In general, the obtained results of this research indicate that drought is a limiting factor for plants, and PGPFs can improve plant tolerance to this environmental stress by improving plant nutritional status, water content and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes.
Keywords: Drought; Plant Growth promoting fungi (PGPFs) and Sesame

UVC Based Sanitizing Chamber

Dr. Syed Sumera Ali, Suryawanshi Ajit Rohidas, Karpe Dipika Aniruddha and Agrawal Shashank Radheshyam

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
In this pandemic situation of COVID-19, sanitizing is one of the most important and crucial activity which needs to be done timely. As per the report issued by medical experts COVID-19 can leave on the surfaces that the patient or a person suffering from Covid-19 may touch timely. The molecules of virus can land on surfaces or devices of daily use and thus infecting the it and making it more prone to be infectious. The contagious mode of the virus makes it more deadly and results in extreme precautions to be taken in order to prevent an individual from getting infected by the virus. In order to overcome this problem sanitizing chamber can be used to sterilize the equipment and make them ready to use again for the users. In a country with less developed medical facilities and services sterilization proves to be a useful step. The medical equipment like masks, mobiles, wallet, small clothes, etc. can also cause viruses. Our project provides support to healthcare organization’s looking for alternative methods to preserve and reuse such equipment.
In the context of COVID-19, everyone has to protect themselves and for that, everyone is doing what they need to do to protect themselves, but we are making this project to sanitize the things that can be infected due to certain things. People are using sanitizer to protect themselves from getting infected but if they can’t use sanitizer on some things then they can be bad because there are different types of sanitizers available in the market but they are in liquid form and you can use liquid sanitizer on your mobile, electronics, and money. Can’t use and to avoid the risk that a person can be infected from this thing, we have started this project in which you can sanitize your mobile, electronics, money, etc., and its use will not spoil those things, because it is not in liquid form, but in light form. Destroys germs.
Keywords: UVC; COVID-19

Abstract
This thesis mainly studies the social environment of pharmaceutical industry development in China and the United States in the early days of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. By analyzing various factors of social development, this paper points out that historical factors greatly affect the development mode of national industry on the basis of combining industrial characteristics.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical industry; Historical factors; Industry characteristics

Climate Change and Food Security

Muhammad Mujahid

Published: December 30, 2021

After 18th century human activities become harsher for the climate as human is adding greenhouse gases in the climate like COand methane through different activities like burning of fossil fuels. Due to this, COand methane level in atmosphere is increasing day by day. That CO2 and methane act like blanket wrapped around earth’s atmosphere, and this blanket trap heat from sun and cause rising in temperatures.

Pre-Processing of Multichannel Biomedical Signals Based on Information-Measuring Systems

Djumanov Jamoljon, FF Rajabov, KT Abdurashidova, NS Botirov and IB Zuparov

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
In the paper has considering the possibilities of creating hardware and software of circuits, algorithms and software for processing and recognition of biosignals. And also, the creation of a circuit, algorithms and software for the system for picking up, processing and selecting biosignals. The aim of the research is to develop a method, an algorithm, and a complex of applied programs for automatic recognition of electrocardiographic signals to improve the efficiency of diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases. The object of research is systems for measuring, analyzing and selecting biosignals. 
Keywords: Biomedical signal; Digital filtering; EEG; ECG; Gastrogram; Enterogram; Filter coefficient; visualization; Non-invasive method; Software; Interference suppression

Study of Development of Pneumonias in Patients undergone Neurosurgical procedures in Health Care Institutions

P K Upadhyay, G Tiwary, KartikeyaU, Kritika U

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
Ventilators induced pneumonias are usually associated with some predisposing risk factors. Predisposing factor which were taken into account during this study were prior antacids, prior aspiration, alcoholism, smoking, prior hospital stay and underlying diseases which includes chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, neoplasia and heart insufficiency, antibiotic therapy. 50 such case undergone neurosurgeries were studied and detailed analysis is presented.
Keywords: Pneumonia; Ventilator; Consolidation; Hospital acquired infection; Hospital associated infection; Kerby-Bauer method

Use of Drones in Agriculture

Deepali Kamthania

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
Drones are unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and are remote controlled or GPS driven that can be operated for various applications in agriculture e.g., aerial crop monitoring, uniform pesticide spraying, seed distribution and aerial watering. Day by day use of drones and IOT technologies in agriculture are gaining momentum. In USA almost 84% farmers are using drones on regular basis daily or weekly. With this, new tech aviation companies are shaping which are providing drones on rental basis or providing their services on contract basis. In this article authors have tried to explore and analyze drones as future technology to assist agricultural activities and working towards better and efficient use of scarce resources in agriculture.