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Medicon Open Access

Medicon Open Access is an international Scientific Publication Group with high Impact and peer reviewed journals in the Field of science.  The prime focus of this publisher is to explore scientific knowledge across the globe by a peer reviewed system with the outstanding support of our Editors, Reviewers and Authors.

Vision

Medicon is an international publisher with Open Access Journals which covers all the topics across the global scientific community. This is the best platform for exchanging innovative ideas and knowledge. We always try to provide the best quality articles to the Scientific Community.
 

Why to Publish with Medicon?

1. Medicon is an international scientific publisher which publishes articles on Multiple disciplines.
2. Publication certificate will be provided to author.
3. Rapid publication process.
4. Reasonable publication Fee. 
5. Immediate Acknowledgement to author after article accepted for peer review.
6. High visibility of published work.
7. Best Knowledge sharing platform.
8. Thorough Double Blinded peer review.

Latest Article

Oral Health and Non-Communicable Diseases: How to Integrate?

Kaung Myat Thwin

Published: May 19, 2022

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a group of conditions that affect modern lifestyle, and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioural factors. They includes four major NCDs namely: cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases. NCDs are one of the major challenges for health and sustainable human development; characterized by a long disease phase, and then became the leading cause of death in our society. Each year, it can cause 41 million people deaths, which is about 71% of all global deaths. In addition, NCDs kill >15 million 30-69 year-old people and low- and middle-income countries are mostly affected for premature deaths which account for 85% [1].

So you wake up in the morning with a sore tooth? This might be accompanied by a general feeling of discomfort. You probably have tooth sensitivity, which is when your teeth are sensitive to hot or cold foods and liquids. The causes of tooth sensitivity are diverse, so it’s important to know how to treat it and when to see your dentist. That being said, here’s what you need to know about tooth sensitivity.

Assessment of Groundwater in Al-Lith Region

Sami Goren, Khalid Albijal, Rayan Alghamdi, Abdul Gaffar Alomari and Meshal Alzahrani

Published: May 18, 2022

There are many random wells in the city of Al-Lith, especially in the east of the city of Al-Lith in (the study area). There are no desalination companies in the area, and there are no data showing that the wells are potable & non-potable, and there is no information about the groundwater level in the area. In the beginning, the locations of the targeted wells were determined to conduct the study on, and then the samples were collected from the 20 identified sites in the east of the city of Al-Lith, from 20 wells, and the depth of each well was also determined. According to the results, the aim is to give idea for the water wells whether potable or non-potable.
Keywords: groundwater, water well, water quality, pollution, potable water

Annatto (Bixa Orellana L.): Tocotrienol Supplement Benefits

Talita da Silva Ferreira, Aline Aguiar, Mary Ann Foglio, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Nogueira Carvalho and Fernanda Marconi Roversi

Published: May 18, 2022

Annatto (Bixa orellana L.), a native Brazilian plant, is acknowledged for containing the natural pigments found in the seeds mostly used by food industries worldwide. The species domestication is attributed to the Brazilian Amazon population. Although the commodity is extensively valued, annatto (Bixa orellana L.) has long been used as home remedy treatment of an array of disturbances. The biological activities and phyto chemical composition from different parts of this species are abundantly reported in scientific literature. Herein, the authors sought to correlate a relationship of the pharmacological activities with the plant’s chemical composition. According to published data annatto presents a wide range of biological activities, which corroborates the use of this commodity in pharmaceutical products .Among substances with biological activities, the Tocotrienol group is highlighted due to their great importance for human health. This study gives a review on the benefits of Tocotrienols from Annatto (Bixa orellana L.).
Keywords: Bixa orellana L.; urucum; annatto; tocotrienols

The study was conducted in South Omo Zone Benatsemayworedachalikebele from 2019-2021 G.C in the title “Evaluation of different spacing and demonstration of Becium grandflorum /“Tebeb”/ bee forage in South Omo Zone, Ethiopia” with the objective of evaluate the effect of different spacing on canopy cover, plant height, branch number and flower number and adaptability of Becium grandflorumbee forage. Beciumg randflorum cutting laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications by four different spacing (2m, 2.5m, 3m and 3.5m). The record parameter results were plant height 1.11m, 0.99m, 1.24m and 1.27m with treatments 2m, 2.5m, 3m and 3.5m spacing respectively, number of branches per plant were 17.33, 13.33,20 and 21.66 with treatments respectively, canopy cover were 1.39m, 1.29m, 1.7m and 1.5m with treatments respectively and number of flowers per plant were 15567, 14043, 19753 and 20083 with treatments respectively were recorded. All parameters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, canopy cover and number of flowers per plant were not statistically significance (p<0.05). The highest flower number, branches per plant and plant height was recorded in treatment 3.5m whereas the lowest flower number, branch per plant, plant height and canopy cover was recorded in treatment 2.5m. However the recorded parameter results were not statistically significance treatment 3.5m and treatment 3m spacing were recommended for Becium grandflorum cutting plantation with sufficient soil moisture and good soil condition.
Keywords: Becium grandflorum; DebubOmo; flower number; spacing

Insecticidal activity of the crude extract from Epichloë bromicola against Rhopalosiphum padi

Da-Hai Mei, Ting Ren and Qiu-Yan Song

Published: May 09, 2022

Rhopalosiphum padi is an important pest in agricultural production. In order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and improve the control effect, the study reported the insecticidal activity of the crude extract from 18 strains Epichloë bromicola isolated from Elymus tangutorum. The results showed that the crude extract of E. bromicola displayed insecticidal activity against R. padi. The results showed that 6strains with good activity were strains 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 18, and their mortality rate (65%, 71.7%, 75%, 88.3%, 60%, and 70.0%) reached more than 60% at 48h. However, the five strains of 4, 13-15, and 17 had no insecticidal activity, but could promote the growth of R. padi. Among them, strain 7 had the best insecticidal activity at 48h, and the mortality rate reached 88.3%. At the same time, the mortality rate of 48h was significantly higher than that of 24h. In conclusion, the crude extract of strain 7 with significant insecticidal activity will be of great significance for the biological control of R. padi in the future.
Keywords: Epichloë bromicola, Rhopalosiphum padi, crude extract, insecticidal activity

Introduction: Snoring endangers the health and can lead to the emergence or worsening of existing diseases, such as high blood pressure and heart attack. There are numerous surgical and non-surgical treatment options for snoring and snoring apnea syndrome (SAS). All surgical and conservative treatments do not address the cause of snoring, only the symptom. Gaumfit® is the first device that treats 90% of the causes of snoring.
Aim: To verify that primary snoring improves when the oral musculature is trained by the Gaumfit® exercise device. Method: In a retropspective analysis on 100 test persons (83 males and 17 females) the effectiveness of the innovative concept of Gaumfit® exercise device was analyzed. The subjects wore Gaumfit® for 3x10 minutes a day(!) and were interviewed after four weeks.
Results: Snoring was reduced in 94 out of 100 subjects. This represents a success rate of 94%. This finding is highly significant (p=0.008). It felt more rested in the morning 79% of Gaumfit® users. 94 subjects used Gaumfit® during the four weeks and rated the innovated therapy method with the predicate “good” (school grade 1.95).  
Conclusion: The oral muscle training device Gaumfit® significantly strengthens the palatal and tongue muscles and is therefore suitable to alleviate primary snoring.
Keywords: Snoring; muscle development; isometric contraction; well-being

The ultimate goal of any brand is to get positive responses from customers both emotionally and behaviorally for its marketing activities. This study examined how gamified interactions on health and fitness applications impacted consumers’ purchase intentions and assessed the role of positive emotions and brand engagement in developing this relationship. Data were collected from users of health and fitness apps through a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modelling technique. The findings suggest a strong indirect relationship between gamification and purchase intention. The study also found positive emotions and brand engagement to be significant sequential mediators of the gamification-purchase intention relationship.
Keywords: Health and fitness application; gamification; purchase intention; positive emotion; brand engagement

Our health on the earth has been threatened since the middle of the 1990s. Mostly, Flood and droughts due to climate change also affect the food supply in agriculture. We need healthy soils, clean water, and sunlight as well known. On the other hand, they want enough harvest and efficiency in plant growth. However, they are also a necessary theme for everybody globally, and they fertilize and spray pesticides containing various chemical medicine. As a result, we may damage, and the risk will be spread because of scattering from the air. Therefore, what we take the balance of these themes must be an increasingly imminent issue. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to inform why we use SIGN water so that we can achieve decrease of the damages with agricultural chemicals, and good harvest to use it. Here, we propose the usage of pesticides as little as possible so that we reduce the effects on crops and soils with our pico-sized water.

Water studies are widespread globally, and the methods are various kinds of technology. Some researchers study soft X-ray emission spectrometer [1], neutron diffraction [2], Raman scattering spectroscopy [3], Fourier transfer infrared spectra (FTIR) [4]. Those studies are mostly on H2O or any substance’s compound with water. The contents are a structure like an angle of the O-H bond in the water molecule. Some interesting issues include hydrogen cation [5], Rydberg, and valence-shell character in H2 [6].

Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Using Anaerobic Digestion Bio-Slurry Microbes

Kinyua A, Mbugua JK, Waswa AG, Mbui DN, Kithure J, Michira I and Wandiga SO

Published: April 23, 2022

Anaerobic digestion of degradable material yields biogas used as fuel and bio-slurry widely employed as organic fertilizer as well as chicken and fish supplements. The bio-slurry is rich in microbes which makes it applicable in the bio-remediation of persistent pollutants in soil. In the current research work, the bacterial forming unit was determined using the standard plate method at microbiology laboratory, University of Nairobi after-which the microbes in biogas bio-slurry was applied in microbial fuel cells bio-remediation of lambda cyhalothrin, malathion and chlorpyrifos. The bio-slurry was doped with 10 mL 10 ppm pesticide solution and subjected to voltage generation via a H-shaped dual chamber microbial fuel cell for a 90 days’ retention period. Daily voltage and current were recorded using a multi-meter while pesticide levels were determined using GC-MS after QuEChERS method extraction. The microbial counts result showed a 3.15±0.01 * 1010 CFU/ml from the biogas bio-slurry sample. The observed maximum voltage in bio-slurry was 0.568 V in day 28 while the maximum generated voltage on doping the biogas bio-slurry with the chlorpyrifos, lambda cyhalothrin, malathion and the pesticides mix (CLM) were 0.551, 0.565, 0.538 and 0.533 V respectively. The bio-degradation levels achieved were 73.40% malathion, 87.70% chlorpyrifos while no lambda cyhalothrin was detected on the 90th day of incubation.

Risks in the Geriatric Patient

Otto Alemán Miranda

Published: April 21, 2022

Since human beings are born, the oral tissues are exposed to constant aggressions, from the external and internal environment. What the body, from its perfection, as long as it remains in balance, is capable of defending itself against harmful agents. Over the years, these defenses decrease physiologically.

Research in solar ponds have been on an increasing trend in recent times as an alternative for fast depleting non-renewable source of energy. Solar ponds are artificial saline water holding structures which are capable of retaining heat in the saline molecules. A suitable thermo electric generator is capable of extracting power from these ponds. A miniature solar pond has been taken up for experimentation and output power quality improvement has been achieved by reducing the total harmonic distortion using an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. Experimental results justify power quality improvement using the proposed learning based approach.
Keywords: Solar Pond; thermo electric generator; Total harmonic distortion; Power quality improvement

Genome-Scale Metabolic Model-Based Reactome-Phenome Map of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, A Potential Biofuel Producer

Yik Yew Wee, Xander Kng, Si Xian Sor and Maurice HT Ling

Published: April 21, 2022

Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a potential producer of lipids, alcohols, and biofuels. Genome-scale models (GSM) has been used to examine potential knockout to optimize specific metabolite (such as, ethanol) production. Besides from a metabolic production perspective, GSMs can also be used examine the effects of genes from the perspective of genotype-phenotype relationship. However, most GSMs are reaction-based rather than gene-based. Hence, GSMs can be used for reactome-phenome mapping where each reaction may be the result of one or more genes. In this study, we examine the reactome-phenome map of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using its GSM model, iJN678, by performing single knockouts to each of its 863 reactions. Our results suggest that 37.3% to 39.7% (322 to 343 reactions) of the knockouts have minimal impact on the phenome as they were clustered together with wildtype phenotype and 53.5% (462 reactions) are essential. The rest of the 58 to 79 reactions can be clustered into 9 to 33 phenotypic clusters. Moreover, the fluxome variation within wildtype cluster is significantly larger than that of essential reaction cluster (t ≥ 3.26, p-value ≤ 1.3E-3). This suggests that individual reaction knockout may have measurable effects on the fluxes; which may be useful in metabolic engineering.
Keywords: Genome-scale model; Genotype-phenotype map; Reactome-phenome map; Fluxome; Cameo; AdvanceSyn Toolkit; Flux-balance analysis

Inspired by the water-repellent and self-cleaning properties of the lotus leaf in the natural world, artificial superhydrophobic surfaces have generated extensive attention in academia and industry. Hydrophobicity and the sliding behavior of waterdrops is a very important phenomenon in our daily life as well as in many industrial processes. However, the difference between these two phenomena is not well understood. This study was performed to predict movement of waterdrop on surfaces of silicone sheet and was focused on interface resistive forces between waterdrop and surfaces. Various hydrophobic sheets having different the waterdrop contact ratio (the ratio of the contact area between the waterdrop and the sheet) were prepared. And the relationships between the sliding angles, the sliding velocities and the surface structure were investigated. Equation of motion is used to calculate the interface resistive forces from the sliding angle and the sliding velocities. As the result of calculation, interface resistive forces between waterdrop and the surfaces are equivalent to force of the gravity. The interface resistive forces decrease with decreasing the waterdrop contact ratio. Sliding velocities seems to affect interface resistive forces. This research clarifies that sliding velocity and interface resistive forces are related to positive correlation by the waterdrop contact ratio. The relationship may help prediction of movement of drops on surfaces.
Keywords: Hydrophobicity; Surface topography; Interface resistive force; Sliding behavior of waterdrop; Sliding velocity; Equation of Motion

Dental Differences in 3D Printer and CAD-CAM Milling

Ferial H Almokayad

Published: April 15, 2022

Digital dentistry has grown in popularity over the last two decades, with applications in crowns, bridges, inlays, onlays, and prosthetic rehabilitation of facial defects. The first 3D printer machine was in late 1980, during this time increased of using of 3D printer in medical field. Stereolithography (SLA) is a 3D printing technique that uses a computer to control the movement of a laser beam. CAD/CAM milling can be used for dry or wet milling restoration with high aesthetic value. CAD/CAM milling makes communication with labs easier and faster than traditional methods.
Keywords: CAD CAM milling; 3D Printer; digital dentistry

Minimal invasive and innovative “IPG-DET Technique” Combined with Autologous CGF with Stem Cells CD34+ for the Rehabilitation of the Posterior Atrophic Maxilla

Christos Simis, Francesco Incgingolo, Panagiotis Georgakopoulos, Georgiana Kosmetatou, Viktoria Katechi and Ioannis P Georgakopoulos

Published: April 15, 2022

In this case report a partially edentulous 54 years old, non-smoker and female patient with bilateral atrophic posterior maxilla ranging from 1 to 10 mm residual bone height below the sinus cavity, has been treated performing minimally invasive surgery under a certain new protocol with simultaneous placement of implants. Contrast to traditional utilization of Sinus Floor Elevation (Crestal or Lateral approach without perforating the Schneiderian membrane), this innovative protocol - named “IPG-DET Technique” - introduces the sinus membrane intentional perforation as an alternative. The intentional perforation (flapless or not) combined with an autologous biomaterial (CGF-CD34+Matrix), an alloplastic bone grafting material followed by immediate implantation into the sinus has been proven a safe and stable solution with long-term prognosis. A pair of Cone Beam Computed Tomography images taken before and with (8) months post-surgery has shown significant new bone formation around the implants placed with the “IPG-DET Technique”. The proposed method results simple, safe, less painful and cost-effective solution that may change completely the conventional treatment plan and strategy for the exact position and the procedure used to place implants in the posterior region of the maxilla, especially in cases of severe atrophy and sinus pneumatization.
Keywords: Maxillary Sinus; Bone Augmentation; IPG-DET Technique; Concentrated Growth Factors; CD34- Positive Stem Cells

The Russian-Ukrainian War and Its Impact on Arab food Security

Salah Mahmoud Abd Elmohsen Arafa

Published: April 12, 2022

The challenges of the global economy are increased between the repercussions of the Covid-19 pandemic, and an unprecedented inflationary wave that intensified in the wake of the Russian-Ukrainian crisis. The continuous of this war raises fears of an outbreak of a food crisis in several Arab countries, which depended for their imports of grain - especially wheat - on Russia and Ukraine; Due to the low prices in these two countries. Consequently, these countries turn to other countries to import these crops, such as: the United States or Canada and also the countries of Latin America, which leads to raising their prices, due to the distance, especially since the price of oil is high, which is reflected in the cost of transporting goods between countries. The end of food security for Arab countries.

The Personality pattern and coping skill both are very important aspects for a dancer because these characteristics support them to resolve the stress of stage performance in front of the audience or if doing any mistakes in the dance. The main aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the personality pattern, coping strategies of Indian classical dancers (Bharatnatyam Dancers) and Contemporary dancers. The sample size was 90, divided into 3 groups, i.e., Indian classical Dance Group (Bharatnatyam Dancers), Contemporary Dance Group, and Control group (non-dancer). Each group consisted of 30 female participants, age ranging between 19 to 22 years, selected from different established dance institutes across Kolkata. The NEO Five factor Inventory- Revised (Costa, Robert & Mc.Crae, 1991) and Coping Checklist II (Rao, Subbakrishna, and Prabhu,1989) were administered to the participants. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (mean, SD), Inferential Statistics (ANOVA one way and Post Hoc- Turkey Tests) and product moment correlation were applied. Results – 1) Indian classical dance Group (Bhartanatyam Dancers) is using a significantly greater amount of agreeableness, conscientiousness, religion & faith coping strategies, and social support seeking coping strategies. 2) Contemporary Dance Group is using a significantly greater amount of extraversion, openness and acceptance coping strategies.
Keywords: Personality Pattern; Coping Strategies; Bharatnatyam Dancers; Contemporary Dancers

Perspective study on Pharmacological and Therapeutic potential of Centella asiatica

Poovizhi T, Krishnaprabha V and Uthira L

Published: April 12, 2022

Centella asiatica (L.) is a perennial, climbing plant, barely fragrant and an expensive therapeutic herb worldwide. It is commonly disseminated all the way through humid and subtropical provinces. The appliance of Centella in foodstuff and beverages has improved in modern era due to its favourable functional properties. The plant and its synthetic constituents are recurrently utilized for the therapy of several nootropic disorders, cognitive disorder, platelets conglomeration, burn wounds, hypertonic scars, insomnia, psoriasis, skin cell reconstruction and curing. Centella determines the greater part of its pharmacological actions from four foremost bioactive triterpene glycosides specifically, asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassoside and madecassic acid (termed as centellosides). This current search have another look at focuses to impart inclusive information on pharmacology, various preclinical and clinical studies, safety precautions, mechanisms of action and present research scenario of the herb.
Keywords: phytoconstituents; pharmacological activities; triterpenoids; bioactive components

Importance of Journals, Scientific Writing and Publishing

Said Kural

Published: April 12, 2022

The Covid 19 pandemic has affected every aspect of our lives and changed the way the world works, and also changed people’s perspective on health systems so far. Patients stay away from hospitals, hinder their checkups during this time, and cause significant diagnosis or treatment delays [1]. People who do not know how to deal with such a shocking disaster and seek alternative solutions were easy prey for pseudo-scientists. Who uses the reputation and power of medical science and thus gains trust, serves their own personal interests and disregards public health by trying to sell some herbal mixtures and homeopathic pseudo-drugs. Thus, modern and accurate health care was blocked or delayed more in many scenarios; the problems caused by the pandemic have deepened, and inequalities in health have increased more and more. As this whole process and short-term results show, the most critical way to deal with all developments in life is to be on the path of science. Because even against a virus effective enough to affect the world and cause a pandemic, four different vaccines were developed for coronavirus, a little more than a year after the first case of COVID-19 was identified [2]. This alone is a glorious victory for the medical and scientific community worldwide.

An overview on 5G mobile network antennas: Trends and Challenges

Moutaouakil Abdelhakim

Published: April 06, 2022

To deploy the 5G mobile network, operators must install tens of thousands of new antennas. They are one of the major technological developments of 5G. For 5G, as for all other generations of mobile networks, antennas are an essential support. They are the ones that relay and transmit the signal. Without antennas, there are no waves, and therefore no 5G network. In order for the new 5G mobile network to work, operators must deploy tens of thousands of new antennas. Indeed, 5G antennas are totally different from 4G antennas. And, they contain some of the major technological innovations of 5G, which give the new mobile network its uniqueness. They are called Massive Mimo, beamforming, Small cells [1].

Intelligent Load Shedding Strategy based on Fuzzy Logic Control (ILSF)

Mahmoud A.M. AlShurafa and Sali Issa

Published: April 06, 2022

Microgrid (MG) is a new form of electrical power grid, combined from different Distribution Sources, MGcan work as a power source or power load in two different operation mode: grid-connected mode and stand-alone mode, one of the main challenges which can be faced in the stand-alone mode is achieving the power balance between the produced power by MG sources and consumed power by MG loads, Load Shedding (LS) is a strategy which can be used for accomplish that balance. This paper emphasis an Intelligent Load Shedding based Fuzzy Logic Control (ILSF), Due to the benefits of Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC), it’s used for controlling the shedding process of different MG loads according to the Solar Power Forecasting Data. The proposed control system procedures are illustrated and simulated, the results demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of ILSF system.
Keywords: Load management; Load shedding, Microgrid, Power system control; renewable energy

Knee Abnormality Prediction based on Power Spectrum Analysis of Surface EMG Signals

Sali Issa, Mahmoud A.M. AlShurafa and Abdel Rohman Khaled

Published: April 06, 2022

This article proposes an improved extraction feature for lower limb knee abnormality prediction application using surface EMG raw data. Public UCI dataset is chosen for system evaluation, where each subject was informed to perform three different motions of walking, standing up, and sitting down. In feature extraction, EMG spectrograms are derived using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), power spectrum of range 10-250 Hz is chosen, then, the linear coefficients of EMG power spectrum for each frequency bin during time are extracted as a final feature of size 30x2. For system prediction, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with other two common machine learning classifiers were constructed. The proposed system experiments proves that EMG signals of Semitendinosus(ST) muscle with CNN classifier produces the highest accuracy of 95%.
Keywords: Knee Abnormality; EMG Signal; CNN Classifier; Prediction System; UCI Database

One International Platform Two Engineering Papers

Sun Jiajun

Published: April 01, 2022

There is an engineer in Changqing Oilfield, his name is Sun Jiajun. In February of this year, his paper titled “Applying Human-Machine-Environment System Engineering to Create a New World in Changqing Oilfield” was published by the Medicom Engineering Journal. This paper uses the perspective of a witness and applies the famous scientist Qian Xuesen. A theory founded by leading my country’s aerospace science and technology personnel - Human-Machine-Environmental System Engineering, provides a theory, data and a high degree of explanation for the fact that Changqing Oilfield has achieved leapfrog growth in oil and gas production over the past ten years; In March of this year, his other paper titled “Universality, Major Harm and Deep Causes of Irrational Engineering Duration” was published again by the Medicon Engineering Journal. A comprehensive commentary with a theoretical framework is given on historical achievements, huge progress and realistic gaps; for the irrational engineering construction period problem of the infrastructure maniac, its historical reasons are analyzed, its universality is pointed out, and the causes of the problem are analyzed. The hazard is quantitatively analyzed, and the underlying reasons for the existence of the problem and the path selection to promote its improvement are pointed out at the same time.

Recent trends in Nanotech Delivery for Gene Therapy

Max Chase, Kevin Sneed and Yashwant Pathak

Published: March 30, 2022

Gene therapy is a fantastic new technology that has opened up a plethora of options to treat or prevent previously untreatable diseases. Gene therapy is the use of nucleic acids (either DNA or RNA) is used to  manipulate the genetic information of a patient’s cells. This is particularly helpful for diseases like Cystic Fibrosis where the ability to add a gene that makes the protein product the patient lacks or to just the gene itself is ideal. The addition of CRISPR-Cas for easier and more streamlined gene editing has also been a boon. However, the unfortunate truth is that despite decades of research, only a few gene therapies have made it to market. One of those reasons is the problems with carriers of gene therapy. For over three decades viral vectors were considered the go to for gene therapy carriers however they aggravate the immune system and can cause unwanted genotoxicity. This compromises their usefulness as a therapeutic treatment or preventative. So other methods of gene therapy carriers have been considered. Nanotech deliverers such as exosomes, gold nanoparticles, and others have shown great promise of being able to transport gene therapy with mitigated or no toxicity to the patient. This review will briefly go over both viral vector and nanotech non-viral vector alternatives to delivery of gene therapy.
Keywords: Gene therapy; nanotechnology; gene delivery; CRISPR; exosomes; viruses; magnetosomes

Invasomes as a Novel Delivery Carrier for Transdermal Delivery: Review Article

Omar S Salih and Entidhar J Al-akkam

Published: March 30, 2022

Transdermal drug delivery refers to the drug administration route through the skin that achieves the local or systemic treatment approved for clinical use. It is the third-largest drug delivery system after oral administration and injection. The advantages of the transdermal route are that the administration route of the drug is convenient and could reduce the fluctuation of blood drug concentration and toxic side effects. What is more, the drug could bypass the first-pass side-effect of the liver to prevent the drug from being destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract. Invasomes are new modified liposomes that differ from the liposomal vesicles in that they contain essential volatile oils, which are called terpenes. Also, ethanol in a low percentage is present in the vesicle either in the phospholipid layer or in the hydrous core. These modified newly discovered vesicles are intended to be used for topical and transdermal drug delivery due to their permeation effect and high deformability as compared to transferosomes.
Keywords: Invasomes; Transdermal drug delivery; phospholipids; terpenes; deformable vesicles

Design and use of enzyme inhibitors against viral enzymes is one of the new and effective ways to control viruses and treat viral infections, Enzyme inhibitors inactivate these enzymes by binding to the nucleotides functional groups of the virus vital enzymes, thus can directly disrupt the virus replication cycle and indirectly prevent the spread of viral infections by reducing and controlling the population and number of viruses, these inhibitors, on the one hand, inhibit the virus by filling and Occupying the active sites of the enzyme and on the other hand, they change the stereochemistry of the enzyme by binding to the structure of the enzyme, for this reasons, they are used as an effective and complementary drug in the treatment of infections and viral diseases. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus because it has the reverse transcriptase enzyme. Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) are a class of Antiretroviral HIV drugs. Non- ucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) block HIV reverse transcriptase enzymes by connecting to it. Tetrazole derivatives have strong antiviral activity against efavirenz and nevirapine-resistance viruses that have different genetic mutations. In this research, we study NNRTIs function and overview synthesis of 5-aryloxy- etrazole derivatives in the development path of NNRTIs.
Keywords: Anti-HIV Drugs; NNRTIs; Tetrazole; HAART; Retrovirus; Reverse Transcriptase Enzyme 

Service Marketing

Santiago Restrepo Garizabal

Published: March 30, 2022

Is important to bear in mind that the company may be within of a market with the different product and service, need to know, which is what the consumer wants or what you are looking wing when purchasing a product or service, these, which must have strategies to fully satisfy customer needs and achieve the objectives and targets in the company.
The service sector is of great importance in the global economy, because the services are found in all parties, is for a medical consultation, restaurant, travel, daily transportation, school or university, at the supermarket or market. From there, the importance of knowing a little about the marketing of services.
Use the marketing services to increase sales and must be designed and offered in such a way that meets customer needs.
Keywords: Company; marketing; consumer; services; product; sale

Deep Learning based Object Detection Methods: A Review

Divya Mishra

Published: March 29, 2022

Recently, object detection has become one of the effective and popular trends in computer vision to deal with numerous applications such as in medical image processing of breast cancer, skin cancer, brain injuries, blood cells, and more. Also, it is used in video surveillance stations for real-time monitoring of crowd and anomaly detection. The application is widely used in satellite images and astronomy, fraud detection, and in the field of remote sensing to detect disaster-prone areas from satellite images so that important measures can be taken at the correct time to overcome or reduce the loss of life and property. For example, in medical applications earlier diagnosis procedures usually tend to figure out early diabetes, cancer and a few more diseases. Despite many existing object detection methods in state-of-the-art literature, it is getting harder to identify the best fit model for the specific application or dataset. Therefore, it is highly important and much needed to bring all the existing techniques to a single platform and mention their advantages and limitations. In this paper, a thorough literature review and comparison of various existing deep learning-based object detection methods are presented using three different parameters named mean average precision, frames per second, and data set used. Such information is useful for researchers and practitioners to identify the better approaches among the others easily according to the dataset in hand.
Keywords: Object detection; Deep learning; Convolution neural networks

Main Evaluation Factors of Fractured Formation Leakage in Bohai Bay Basin

Jiang Shao-long, Zhang Guo-qiang, MU Gui-peng, Yuan Ren-guo and Xin Zhao-ling

Published: March 29, 2022

In the central area of the Bohai Oilfield including Bozhong block, the geological structure is complex, faults and fractures are extensively developed and the formation is broken. As consequence, there is leakage to some extent in most exploratory wells in Bozhong Block, significantly affecting the drilling efficiency and increasing drilling risks. The problem of well leakage in this block needs to be addressed urgently. For this purpose, the research group firstly researches into the wellbore leakage mechanism, and then establishes a regional leakage pressure prediction model by depiction of the main controlling factors of leakage and preliminarily obtains the following findings: (1) the leakage in Bozhong Block mainly occurs at the depth of 2700-3400m, with Member 2 and Member 3 of Shahejie Formation as the main leakage zones and the fractures and faults as the main leakage passages; (2) the fracture index that can most clearly reflect the well leakage characteristics in Bozhong Block is the fracture evaluation index obtained using the resistivity ratio method, and may be considered as a main controlling factor for evaluation of fractured leakage; (3) according to the statistics on leakage of 22 wells in Bozhong Block, there are nine wells with leakage, totaling 13 leakage points. Based on the statistics and modeling, a leakage pressure prediction model for this block is obtained preliminarily. The research on the leakage mechanism and leakage pressure prediction of fractured formation in Bozhong Block is helpful for reasonable optimization of borehole trajectory, improvement of leakage control of fractured reservoirs, reduction of drilling cost and raising of operation efficiency.
Keywords: well leakage; fracture; leakage pressure

The study analyzed the effects of “Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJ) Program” on the technical efficiency of maize farmers in the Techiman North Municipality of Ghana. The study randomly selected 400 maize farmers to construct a three-year recall panel for 2017, 2018 and 2019 farming seasons. Both closed and open-ended questionnaires were used to elicit information from the respondents. The results from the inverse probability weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA) model signify that the PFJ program had a statistically significant positive effect on technical efficiency of maize farmers in the Techiman North Municipality. The study therefore, recommends that the PFJ program should be intensified as it improves technical efficiency of maize farmers in the Techiman North Municipality of Ghana. Again, restructuring of the national buffer stock company and the school feeding program will be a far better alternative in providing ready market to the farmers which helps reduces post-harvest losses.

The Economics of Production of Fish Hatcheries for Nile Tilapia Seed in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate

Fatma Muhammad Al-Husseini, Maha Mohamed Bastawy, Mohamed MoneirFadelElmaadawy and Wael Ahmed Ezat Elabd

Published: March 29, 2022

Fish farming in general and fish spawning activities in particular depend on the size and quality of the productive inputs for these activities, and the impact of those inputs on the quantity of fish seed production in these hatcheries, Therefore, the research aimed in general to study the most important economic factors affecting the spawning activities of Nile tilapia fish in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, By estimating the economic efficiency of hatcheries, Estimating and analyzing the items of production costs and determining their importance, And the research has an applied importance in guiding its results in raising the efficiency levels of using production inputs in hatcheries for the production of Nile tilapia fish, And the consequent increase in the production capacity of hatcheries in general.
     In achieving its objectives, the research relied on both the descriptive and quantitative methods of analysis in the interpretation and analysis of the economic variables under study, The research also relied on secondary data from the General Authority for Fish Resources Development, And primary data were collected from a sample of 30 fish hatcheries during 2021 in the Kafr El-Sheikh governorate.
Keywords: Fish farming; hatcheries; fry; fingerlings; cost function; Economic

Dose Evaluation of a Car Occupant in Dual Energy X-Ray Automobile Inspection System

Mahdi Kahani and Samaneh Hashemi

Published: March 29, 2022

The aim of this study is to assess the risk of car passengers in Dual Energy X-ray inspection devices and to determine the maximum number of passes through the system in a given amount of time. The MCNPX code was used to simulate a newly fabricated dual-energy X-ray car inspection device, which included an X-ray tube, detector arrays, and a rando phantom, to their exact specifications. A Rando phantom was placed in a car and TLD dosimeters were placed within different sections of the phantom for experimental dosimetry. The maximum equivalent dose was absorbed in the gastric, breast, and lungs in experimental results, while simulation results showed that this quantity belongs to bone surfaces and gastric. Based on simulation results and experimental dosimetry, the total equivalent dose of 155 kVp is 0.256 and 0.276 Sv, respectively, with a difference of 7%. The results showed that the MCNPX is suitable for dosimetry in this case. The system falls into the category of devices of limited utility, according to the ANSI standard. Anyone can move through this machine a maximum of 806, 66, and 15 times in a year, month, and week.
Keywords: Dual-Energy X-ray; Inspection Devices; Monte Carlo Simulation; TLD Dosimetry

The Impact of Behavioural Change Counseling on Depression among the Elderly

Asma Hamdoon Hamad AL and Alya Ali Abdullah AL Hasni

Published: March 29, 2022

Objectives: Depression is the second leading cause of disability among elderly patients and negatively affects quality of life. This study aimed to explore the impact of a behavioural counselling intervention on elderly patients with depression in Oman. The hypothesis was that, as engagement with social support and activities increased, depression score would decline. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 16 elderly patients attending the elderly outpatient clinic of Al Ghubra Health Centre, a primary health care (PHC) institution in Muscat, Oman. All patients had been diagnosed with depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Each patient underwent short weekly behavioural counselling sessions involving cognitive behavioural therapy, problem-solving therapy and interpersonal therapy over a period of four months. Pre-and post-intervention GDS-15 scores were compared to assess the impact of the intervention using a paired sample t-test. Results: There was a significant reduction in mean GDS-15 score following the intervention (mean score: 8.63 ± 3.18 versus 6.00 ± 3.69; P <0.001). Moreover, the mean number of weekly social activities increased from 0.75 ± 0.93 to 5.50 ± 2.92. Conclusion: The findings of this study support the implementation of brief, cost-effective behavioural counselling interventions at PHC institutions in Oman in order to prevent or reduce depression among the elderly.
Keywords: Elderly; Depression; Behavior Modification; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Primary Health Care; Geriatric Assessment; Oman

Efforts to improve prevention and cure are commendable. Many concepts have been introduced and implemented for this purpose. However, improving the effectiveness of existing medicines remains a challenge for research. Permissible medicine “Halalopathy” offers a new perspective to prevent disease by controlling the entropic state and/or facilitating cure by implementing the concept of permissible medicine. The entropic state is controlled by enriching the state of “no fear, no grief”, while permissible medicine establishes a compatible relationship between therapeutic medicines and people’s lifestyle. The healing power of each effect contributes to the healing process and enhances the overall effect of the medicine.
Keywords: Halalopathy; potential energy; entropy; healing

Reduction and Relief of Cancer using Activated Light Emitting Diode

Sunao Sugihara, Hiroshi Maiwa and Kunihiko Hatanaka

Published: March 29, 2022

We report various researches on minimal catalyst (MICA) water and spin information gauge network (SIGN) water from 2009 to the present. The theme is our body, besides plants, animals, and substances like vinyl bags, fiber and LED light even atmosphere. Furthermore, we also reported the change of atoms from radioactive cesium to stable barium after the Fukushima accident in 2011. Our water science and technology are relevant to dissociating hydrogen bonds in water. We fabricated SIGN water under the pressure of more than 100MPa rather than 3MPA for MICA water. The difference may be the abundance rate of the elementary-like particle (infoton) after hydrogen bond dissociation; namely, we assume three times in SIGN water than MICA water, although it is the same works, and both emit far-infrared through terahertz. Here, we focus on SIGN water and present recent research of oxidation-reduction potential and blood tests involving diabetes besides user’s comments after using the water and the activated LED light to the affected parts of our body.

It is said that water we use in daily life insists on several molecules connected with hydrogen bonding. However, the quantum dynamics of water after hydrogen-bond dissociation has not been researched so far, although there are many a study of water relating to bonding with its other chemical compounds. We focus on the hydrogen bond-dissociated water supposed to possess elementary particle-like matter after high pressure of approximately 100 MPa to water. The matter in the water is described as , in which the proton and the electron exist neither separately nor forming hydrogen, and we call the quantum state the extended particle. Moreover, the particle exists for a long period stably. Here we wish to associate the macroscopic phenomena of water we usually encounter with the microscopic nature due to the function of the particle. The motivation of the research is essential to understand water from an idea of the particle. Furthermore, here, we wish to associate the usual macroscopic phenomena of water with the microscopic nature due to the function of the particle so that we can control to keep the water clean in an environment as another motivation. Furthermore, the reduction of radioactive cesium to change a stable barium atom was persuaded by taking into consideration the particle which enters into the radioactive substance. This is a breakthrough in the nuclear reaction without a huge energy outside. We discussed the mechanism of radiation reduction from a radioactive substance.
     Finally, we investigate particle stability as a function of the distance between H+ and e− and focus on the overlap of their wave functions. The system is assumed to exist in a potential well that allows the stable existence of the particle from a theoretical viewpoint.

During the 20th century, the sociocultural paradigm of the West underwent a significant change, imposing antihuman values. This metamorphosis (individualism, the desire for power and wealth prevailed over brotherhood and compassion) was coincided with extraordinary scientific and technical development. The new paradigm colonized the minds of physicians and medical training curricula. Medicine became self-centered, cold, fragmented, and practically ignored affectivity. The reaction to this spiritual degradation of medicine was the humanist movement in medicine that originated in the twentieth century but has been developed more in the XXI century, spreading through many countries in the West and also in the East. Currently in the curricula of many schools we find the area of “Humanization of medicine”. In the Faculty of Medicine of the CLAEH University of Uruguay “Humanismo Medico” (HM) is a compulsory subject that is taken during 3 clinical years (70 hours per year) and its practice is experiential. Likewise, we have found it of great interest to know the perceptions, reflections and feelings (self-declared) of the students about their own changes at the end of all the training cycles of HM. Based on 77 opinions (out of 111 issued) of 20 4th year students, we were able to verify that taking HM had caused very important changes in them towards a more humanistic identity. They state that they perceived; 1) a deep inner rational and affective transformation and they observed an increase in their introspection, critical thinking, self-analysis, empathy and emotional balance, 2) greater capacity to plan a professional life with greater well-being, 3) improvement of group interrelationship, which has been more open, sincere and fraternal; 4) ability to share reflections and anguish and 5) acquisition of a holistic view of sick people and better skills to listen and accompany them, and relate to their families.

Management of Odontoma – Report of 03 Cases

Ashok Kumar, Subrata Roy and Ichita Joshi

Published: March 07, 2022

Odontoma is odontogenic tumor defined by the WHO as tumors of epithelium and odontogenic ectomesenchyme with or without formation of mineralized dental tissues [1]. The Broca invented odontoma in 1866 [2]. As he put it “tumors formed by the overgrowth of dental tissues transitory or complete [2]. The majority ofodontomas are asymptomatic in nature and are discovered on radiographs. They are often linked to an unerupted or impacted teeth or show evidence of infection, where they appear with signs and symptoms [3]. Odontomas usually have modest growth rate and rarely grow larger than a tooth. Expansion of cortical bone is noticed when their size is large [4].

Heart Disease Prediction and Detection Using Association Rule Mining Techniques

T Sreenivasula Reddy, R Sathya and Mallikharjuna Rao Nuka

Published: March 07, 2022

Data science mining methods are utilized in the field of medication for different purposes. Mining affiliation rule is one of the intriguing points in information mining which is utilized to produce continuous itemsets. It was first proposed for market bushel examination. Analysts proposed varieties in methods to create incessant itemsets. Creating huge number of incessant itemsets is a tedious cycle. In this paper, the creators contrived a strategy to anticipate the danger level of the patients having coronary illness through incessant itemsets. The dataset of different coronary illness patients is utilized for this exploration work. The information mining strategies-based frameworks could vitally affect the workers’ way of life to anticipate heart sicknesses. There are numerous logical papers, which utilize the strategies of information mining to anticipate heart infections. Nonetheless, restricted logical papers have tended to the four cross-approval methods of dividing the informational index that assumes a significant part in choosing the best procedure for foreseeing coronary illness. Pick the ideal blend between the cross-approval methods and
the information mining, order strategies that can upgrade the exhibition of the forecast models. This paper means to apply the four-cross-approval methods (holdout, k-overlay cross approval, separated k overlap cross-approval, and rehashed irregular) with the proposed techniques Extended Support Vector Machine and Extended KNN to work on the precision of coronary illness expectation and select the best forecast models. It investigates these procedures on a little and huge dataset gathered from various information sources like Kaggle and the UCI AI archive. The assessment measurements like exactness, accuracy, review, and F-measure were utilized to quantify the presentation of forecast models. Experimentation is performed on two datasets, and the outcomes show that when the dataset is epic (50000 records), the ideal mix that accomplishes the most noteworthy precision is holdout cross-approval with the neural organization with an exactness of 71.82%. Simultaneously, Repeated Random with Random Forest considers the ideal blend in a little dataset (303 records) with a precision of 89.01%. The best models will be prescribed to the doctors in business associations to help them anticipating coronary illness in workers into one of two classifications, cardiovascular and non-heart, at a beginning phase. Successive itemsets are produced dependent on the picked indications and least help esteem. The separated successive itemsets assist the clinical professional with settling on indicative choices and decide the danger level of patients at a beginning phase. The proposed strategy can be applied to any clinical dataset to anticipate the danger factors with hazard level of the patients dependent on picked factors. An exploratory outcome shows that the created
technique distinguishes the danger level of patients effectively from continuous itemsets. The early recognition of heart illnesses in representatives will further develop efficiency in the business association. 
Keywords: Data Mining; Heart Disease; Feature Selection; Cross-Validation Methods; Data Preprocessing; Classification Algorithms; Productivity; Business Organizations; Frequent Itemsets; Heart Disease Prediction; Association Rule Mining; Data Mining; Medical Data Mining; SVM; ESVM; ANN and EKNN

Smart Health Technologies for COVID-19 Pandemic: Internet of Medical Things perspectives Citation: SM

SM Kadri, Nighat Nazir, Marija Petkovic and Maja Subelj

Published: March 07, 2022

Contact tracing is an activity of paramount importance during the work with an individual either symptomatic or asymptomatic diagnosed with the infectious disease of interest. The aim of contact tracing is to identify, provide support for those contacts as well as to prevent further infective dissemination. Contact tracing enables us to adequately identify, voluntary quarantine or self-quarantine and monitor those COVID-19 suspect cases.
A contact is defined as an individual exposed to a case or a case’s environment such that they had an opportunity to acquire the infection. A high-risk subpopulation is a population that has the risk of infection or severe disease. 
The incubation period is defined as the interval between the onset of invasion by an infective particle and the first sign/symptom of the infective process. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, the incubation period is on average 4-5 days but may be as long as 14 days.
The infectious period is a time during which a case can transmit a disease to others and starts 2 days before someone develops symptoms.
During an isolation a case needs to be separated from others. During a quarantine a close contact is separated from others to prevent the disease transmission to the susceptible individuals and contact’s activities are restricted for the duration of their incubation period.
Contact tracing is carried out by the adequately educated staff. They should possess a qualitative background, language skills, cultural access to social and medical support for the suspected individuals.
Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) efforts aim to ensure a healthy and safe working environment, prevent work-related diseases and promote health. OHS issues may affect the Rapid Response Team (RRT) as well as the incident being investigated. Risk assessment should consider the tasks, the environment, the exposure as well as preventive controls available.
The current coronavirus pandemic 2019 (COVID-19) represents a major public healthcare crisis with epidemiologic models predicting hazardous consequences. The major concern is a high morbidity rate. Contact tracing using of smartphone apps is a powerful approach to control and reduce the lethal outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the use of smartphone technology is limitated due to the potential exposure of sensitive personal information.
Keywords: COVID-19; Contact tracing; Data protection; App

An update on the Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Management of the Reemergent Life Threatening Scrub Typhus

Kulvinder KocharKaur, Gautam Allahbadia and Mandeep Singh

Published: March 07, 2022

Scrub typhus represents a robust Public Health ailment that is Prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region that is inclusive of although not restricted to Korea, China, India, Taiwan Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, as well as the Phillipines, This area has been referred to as the tsutsugumashi triangle. One billion people have a threat globally to get afflicted, that results in a disease generation in one million individuals. Scrub typhus alias tsutsugumashi disease occurs every year. Here we have stressed on the epidemiology world wise besides the significance of Scrub typhus in Indian scenario that presents as an acute febrile illness having life threatening consequences. We conducted a Here we conducted a systematic review utilizing search engine pubmed, google scholar; web of science; embase; Cochrane review library utilizing the MeSH terms like Scrub typhus; other rickettsios is; differential diagnosis with other acutefebrile illnesses; epidemiology of Orientiatsutsugumashi (etiologic agent); malaria; Indian scenario; Leptrombidiumbitesllarvae; mites; serology; WeilFelix reaction; immuofluoresceceassay; met genomic next generation sequencing (mNGS), Scrub typhus cell surface display technology; treatment; doxycycline; azithromycin; rifampicin; chloramphenicol; innovative early diagnostics. We found a total of 3500 articles out of which we selected 51 articles for this update. Nometa-analysis was done. Since this disease has reemerged it is usually not kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in acute febrile illnesses that is why we chose to review and update this life hreateningisease having central nervous system (CNS), Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT), complications, myocarditis, besides usually diagnostic eschar. Avoidamce is equally important specifically for farmers other vegetation areas etc.
Keywords: Scrub typhus; epidemiology; complications; avoidance; Public Health problem

Fiber Posts in Dentistry

Ratul Chatterjee

Published: March 07, 2022

Direct foundation restorations have been fairly successful in reducing invasiveness to a fairly significant extent. It is generally indicated in cases where a substantial amount of tissue exists at the periphery of the prepared tooth. By employing this technique, a prefabricated post is cemented inside the root canal, and the core is built directly on the prepared tooth.

Cutaneous Fistula of Dental Origin: How to Identify it to Better Treat It

A Kikly, F Ajili and N Douki

Published: March 07, 2022

Cutaneous fistulas of dental origin are rare and often remain unrecognized by practitioners and confused with dermatological lesions, they lead the patient to consult various specialists; and undergoing inadequate drug or surgical treatment, leaving permanent scars. So how can we circumvent all these ambiguities in order to ensure better care? The purpose of this work is to clarify certain Gray areas through a clinical case. Chronic endodontic complications are the most frequent causes of cutaneous fistulas of the face and neck. Diagnosis is often delayed because of the weak symptomatology. A meticulous clinical and radiological examination is revealing of the causal tooth and confirms the diagnosis. The etiological treatment allows in the majority of cases alone the disappearance of the cutaneous fistula, but sometimes for old fistulas with significant adhesions and scar tissue an intervention cosmetic surgery is required.

A palliative care (PC) consultation in a skilled nursing facility’s (SNF) admission procedure confers multiple benefits, including clarification of patients’ care preferences. However, many SNFs do not offer PC consultations, and rates of advance directive (AD) and power of attorney (POA) completion are low. In a quality improvement intervention to increase AD–POA completion rates, SNF patients were offered, upon admission, a PC consultation and an opportunity to complete ADs–POAs. AD–POA completion rates during the 12-week intervention period were compared with completion rates during a 12-week period absent PC consultation. Lewin’s change theory was used to develop policy–practice guidelines. During intervention, AD–POA completion rates (100%) substantially exceeded the target, 60% (control, 0%). By intervention end, all intervention participants’ (n = 57) medical records contained ADs–POAs; by control period end, only 49% of control participants’ (n = 61) medical records contained ADs–POAs. Project outcomes supported the premise of the PICOT question, “In patients admitted to a SNF during a 12-week period, how will a PC consultation affect the AD–POA completion rate (i.e., how will the intervention group’s rate compare with the rate seen in standard practice)?” Following these outcomes, the SNF’s policy now mandates that all incoming patients be offered a PC consultation. The intervention’s outcome suggests that including, during patient admission, a PC consultation and opportunity to complete documents can improve AD–POA completion rates and is likely to generate for a SNF and its patients the benefits that these documents can confer.
Keywords: Advance directives; Skilled nursing facility; Palliative care

Women are half of the population of the Pakistan and 41 % women are engaged in agriculture farming sectors in different aspects. As it is cleared that Pakistan is an agriculture country, and the numerous part of the country is living in rural area which depends directly or indirectly on agriculture production system for their livelihood. In Pakistan mostly women are engaged in Agriculture and performing different duties in farm management, farm operations, farm maintenance and crop production systems regularly and successfully, but they are still facing a lot of problems in the agriculture management systems. This paper has focused with objective on the problems of women in Agriculture production system in Pakistan. The discussion may help the policy makers of women rights and regulations.

Mineral and Freshwater Consumer Market and Export Policy in Georgia

Gulnaz Erkomaishvili

Published: March 03, 2022

The article presents the current situation of production and export of mineral and fresh water, the challenges of developing new markets, the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on sales, the export policy of mineral and fresh water in Georgia. The article states that finding new markets is quite difficult. The competition in the world is great and Georgian entrepreneurs are struggling to explore new markets. It is necessary to take into account the specifics of the regulations and requirements of potential partner countries. With the right strategy, quite a lot of revenue can be generated by the water business.
Keywords: Mineral waters; Freshwater; Covid-19; Export policy; Water regulations

In recent decades, agriculture has undergone intensification and diversification processes to improve productivity, the economic income and to face the climate variability. However, concerns about environmental problems associated with agricultural practices are increasing. In this way, effects such as soil erosion, changes in soil carbon stock, fertility losses, eutrophication and aquatic-biotic integrity degradation have been reported. Although several methodological frameworks have been developed to assess the environmental performance of farms and to support the decision-making process, these frameworks normally rely on indicators that measure a particular characteristic of an agricultural system. The aim of this work was to propose an integrated index considering (a) sequence diversification, the area occupied by crops in winter and summer, and the participation percentage of each crop and (b) two weighting factors to reflect the differential contributions of cropping sequences to environmental performance. The study was carried out between 2008 and 2020 in a commercial farm in northwest Uruguay with cropping sequences that included rice, soybean, corn, sorghum and pastures. Our results show that the proposed index is suitable for assessing the intensification degree and allowing the selection of agricultural sequences that present the highest environmental performance. The optimal spatial scale for applying the index is on farms no larger than 1000 hectares; this threshold includes approximately 90% of Uruguayan farms. Due to the similar physical characteristics, weather conditions and management practices in farms in southern Brazil and central-eastern Argentina, the index is suitable for applications in these regions as well.
Keywords: Weighted intensification index; Sustainable agriculture; Agricultural intensification; Crop diversification 

A Novel Method for Mining Heterogeneous Lung Cancer from Computer Tomography (CT) Scan

Denny Dominic and Krishnan Balachandran

Published: March 03, 2022

Early detection of any type of cancer, especially lung cancer, one of the world’s worst diseases, can save a lot of lives. By using the early forecast, we will be able to increase life expectancy and decrease death. While there are other approaches for detecting lung cancer cells, such as X-rays and CT scans, CT pictures were found to be more preferred. CT scans, for example, use 2D images to get more accurate results. The proposed approach here will cover how to interpret CT pictures from a Computer Tomography (CT) Scan with the Confusion Matrix for Mining Heterogeneous Lung Cancer. This study will look at how image conversion may be performed using various image processing approaches to get better outcomes from CT images. The Confusion Matrix is a tool for calculating inequality in an image pattern. Following Confusion Matrix’s examination of the processed images, a final accuracy of 93 percent is attained.
Keywords: Computer Tomography (CT); Mining; Confusion Matrix; Lung Cancer

Seasonal greeting to the editorial staffers, staff, and readers of MCMS globally. In the 20th and now 21si centuries, exponential uses and applications of medicinal plants, and herbs from different sources, in diverse forms, had become the basic fundamental norm in the health sector of the global population. In accordance to WHO findings, about 80% of the world population use one form of medicinal plants or herbs at their homes for prevention, and curing different types of diseases that have bedeviled humans in the 21st century largely due to our lifestyles-food materials that we eat, numerous different drinks either soda or alcohol or otherwise that most cases if not check are inimical to our health at a long run; smoke pluming into the air, and find their ways into our lungs with lots of chemical compositions that are often lethal to the hosts in no time.

Curing diseases and achieving complete recovery is challenging particularly with complex diseases such as cancer, where complete remission is most likely the preferred option that can be achieved. The hope for a complete recovery is inspired by cancer patients who have successfully beaten cancer and achieved a complete recovery. Despite physicians referring to these stories as “miraculous” recoveries, nevertheless, they reveal that victory over cancer can be achieved. According to Halalopathy, a key role in complete recovery is played by setting up the favourable circumstances for the cure, a process that can be achieved by involving the patient in the therapeutic process. Entropy and potential energy are inversely proportional, and both are key elements in the process of prevention and cure. The catabolic reaction is driven by entropy, while the anabolic reaction is driven by potential energy. The stimulation of potential energy and the reduction of entropy contribute greatly to the activation of the immune system and thereby create the necessary circumstances required for effective prevention and therapy. 
Keywords: Cancer; miraculous cure; potential energy; entropy; immune system