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Medicon Open Access

Medicon Open Access is an international Scientific Publication Group with high Impact and peer reviewed journals in the Field of science.  The prime focus of this publisher is to explore scientific knowledge across the globe by a peer reviewed system with the outstanding support of our Editors, Reviewers and Authors.


Medicon is an international publisher with Open Access Journals which covers all the topics across the global scientific community. This is the best platform for exchanging innovative ideas and knowledge. We always try to provide the best quality articles to the Scientific Community.

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Latest Article

Student’s experiences on the use of online collaborative technology continues to attract attention of researchers in education and social sciences. Of particular interest is the reliance on technological and digital platforms, using web-based strategies during the outbreak of COVID-19 in institutions of learning. This study used an unlinked, anonymous survey to explicate experiences of students on the use of online technologies during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. Consenting participants constituted a study population that was made up of first year accounting students in a public university in South Africa, drawing a sample of 190 from a population of 371. Using a theory of connectivism, the study found that students were eager and confident that collaborative technology could lead them to pass their examinations even if face-to-face intervention was missing. Collaborative technology consisting of tools such as WhatsApp, Blackboard and Zoom made it easy for them to relate with instructors and faculty who were making efforts to deliver content in a simplified manner. The study further concluded that efforts have to be made to study the benefits of collaborative technology both to learners and faculty at institutions of higher learning. 
Keywords: Blended-learning; E-learning; Online learning; Technology; Universities

Knowledge can be transmitted, facilitated, developed, and produced in a variety of ways through education. As a matter of fact, universities, in particular, are defined in terms of knowledge generation. We shouldn’t be surprised, then, that discussions about decolonizing (Western) education have expanded to encompass provincial zing (Western) epistemology, given the close ties between education and educational institutions and epistemology. This presents a danger as epistemological pathways inform thinking partners and behavioural dynamics of societies. Deconstructive debate that seeks to discuss educational decoloniality from the Global South cannot articulate that with exclusion of southern epistemological position towards reality with the lens of its inhabitants. This is what confronts the post-doctoral scholar of the Global Centre for Academic Research and South Valley University, as independent entities within the Global South. This narrative reflection provides a baseline for a cogent discourse in favour of deconstruction of southern epistemological trajectory in education and social perspectives.
Keywords: Doctoral education; Decoloniality; Social Discourse; southern Epistemology

Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus), belongs to the Cyperaceae family and is also found to be a perennial crop of the same genus as the papyrus plant. It is widely distributed in the temperate zones within south Europe and also grows naturally in Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. It is known in Nigeria as “Aya” in Hausa, “Ofio” in Yoruba and “AkiHausa” in Igbo. The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of tigernut on aluminum chloride induced histopathological changes on the liver of adult wistar rats. The objectives of the study were to induce liver damage in wistar rats using aluminium chloride, and to determine whether tiger nut has ameliorative effect on the histopathological change induced by aluminium chloride on liver of wistar rat. Twenty five wistar rats weighing between 80g and 170g were randomly grouped into five rats each (A, B, C, D and E). After two weeks of acclimatization, group A was administered with normal saline, group B was administered with 500 mg/kg bwt of aluminum chloride, group C was administered with 1250 mg/kg bwt of cyperus esculentus, group D was administered with 500mg/kg of aluminum chloride and 2500mg/kg of cyperus esculentus, group E was administered with 500 mg/kg of aluminum chloride and 3750mg/kg of cyperus esculentus.

After two weeks of administration three rats from each group were sacrificed humanely and the liver of the rats were harvested for histological studies. The results showed that oral administration of aluminum chloride caused histopathological changes manifested with congested central vein, inflammation and fibrosis on the liver tissue, the group treated with cyperus esculentus showed normal histology of the liver, and the group treated with aluminum chloride and cyperus esculentus showed decrease in histopathological changes and partially restored live rtissue. In conclusion aluminum chloride induced histopathological changes on the liver tissues of adult wistar rats was ameliorated using cyperus esculentus with restoration of the degenerative changes which were time-dependent and dose-dependent respectively.
Keywords: Ameliorative; Cyperus esculentus; histopathological; liver; Wistar rat

Phytoremediation potentials of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Sunflower (Helianthus amarus) and Fluted pumpkin (Telifaria occidentallis) on spent engine oil polluted texturally contrasting soils was evaluated in the glasshouse belonging to the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Three texturally contrasting soils: Sandy loam (SL), Loamy sand (LS) and Sandy clay loam (SCL) were potted with a polythene bag and polluted with 10% w/w (122ml/kg), 20% w/w (245ml/kg) and 0% w/w (0ml/kg) of spent engine oil. The experiment was a 3x3x3 factorial replicated thrice in a completely randomized design (CRD). The soil was thoroughly mixed with spent engine oil and allowed to stay for three weeks to allow for proper absorption of the engine oil. Thereafter, air dried crushed and sieved poultry manure was applied to each polythene bag at a rate of 40 t/ha. The spent engine oil- organic manure mixture was watered to field capacity 3 times per week for two weeks after which the crops were sown. Soil samples were collected and analyzed at the end of the study which lasted for 12 weeks, to determine the total hydrocarbon in the soil after planting. The data on soil parameters were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GENSTAT. The results showed that the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was higher in the 20% polluted soil as it increases with the level of pollution and was highest in the soil in which pumpkin was planted and least in the soil in which sunflower was planted. The study concluded that Sunflower has better phytoremediation potential for spent engine oil-polluted soils than Sorghum and Fluted pumpkin.
Keywords: phytoremediation; soil type; spent engine oil; sorghum; sunflower; pumpkin

The Reasons why the Omicron Virus continues to Pandemic

Sunao Sugihara and Hiroshi Maiwa

Published: July 26, 2022

We introduce recent virus infectious mechanisms from the viewpoint of amino acids. We focus on the chemical formula and atomic bonding strength involving amino acids resulting in the current pandemic. Furthermore, we refer to how to protect a virus with the water with theoretical ideas and evidences. After they apply higher pressurization to ordinary tap water, the water only possesses the pico-sized particle, which emits far-infrared and terahertz electromagnetic wave besides chemical reduction to viruses and diseases.

Folk Dentists Voicing their Plight-An Ethnographic Exploration

Madhur Mrinal, Sarbjeet Khurana, Mehak Segan, Rajeev Janardan and PK Upadhyay

Published: July 20, 2022

An ethnographic study of folk dentists was conducted in Delhi. Ten case studies of folk dentists and their patients were analysed for various domains of content analysis (CA). Data were collected through mixed method of data collection with some basic research questions guide for the folk dentists and patients during the COVID-19 partial lockdown period in Delhi. The CA for primary cases, secondary cases and for patients was analysed for various domains. Results reveal various aspects of their practices and issues on roadside assets in clinic, health and hygiene, family traditions, pride in work, income/economics, duration of their practices and uncertainties. Similarly, patients were analysed for their views on cheap services, health and hygiene, easily approachable folk experiences and quality of services. The researchers illuminated the policy issues of folk or traditional dentists practicing in a metropolitan city and their patients’ perspectives for their dental public health concerns and have made some recommendations to their salient voice.
Keywords: Dental Public Health; Ethnography; Folk Dentistry; Roadside Dentists

Awareness and Perceptions of College Students on Tertiary Institution Social Health Insurance Programme (TISHIP)

Olatayo Bamidele Oriolowo, Antakil Asarya and Ganiyu Oladimeji Olarongbe

Published: July 20, 2022

Background: The level of satisfaction of students under the Tertiary Institution Social Health Insurance Program (TISHIP) is a measure of the success of such scheme. However, valid assessment of the success of TISHIP by students requires good knowledge of its operational guidelines. This study accessed the level of awareness and perceptions of TISHIP students’ enrollees of the Federal Colleges of Education in the North Central geopolitical zone of Nigeria.
Methods: The study was a descriptive cross sectional investigation in which 188 selected participants completed self-administered semi-structured questionnaires, Student TISHIP Awareness, Perception and Evaluation Questionnaire (STAPEQ). Data collated was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages and inferential statistics of chi-square and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were raised and formulated respectively to guide to the study.
Results: The results show that an average of 75.55% of the students was fully aware of TISHIP objectives, 62.74% were aware of the benefits, 41.0% were aware of their responsibility. Many of them (69.2%) were not aware of the procedures to seek for redress when dissatisfied with services they received from their healthcare providers. 73.4% believed their healthcare providers operate in clean environment, 70.21% felt that doctors and nurses were cordial and friendly, 62.7% claimed to have experienced long waiting period before doctors/nurses consultations. 63.83% of the respondents agreed to be satisfied with the quality of service rendered by their healthcare providers. There were no significant differences in level of awareness and perceptions of the two groups of students on TISHIP operation and service delivery respectively.
Conclusion: The study therefore recommended more enlightenment of students on TISHIP operational guidelines in order minimize the level of their misgivings about the scheme. Moreover, government should employ more medical personnel especially doctors in order to solve the challenge of long waiting period before medical consultations.
Keywords: TISHIP; Healthcare providers; Awareness; Perception; Satisfaction; College

In accessibility and increase in price of commercial concentrates as a supplement for ruminants laid a way to look for other options in hand. The aim of current study was to identify the optimum level supplementing cassava leaf meal (CLM) as a replacement for protein on growth performance and economic efficiency of local goats. Twenty four intact yearling bucks with an average initial body weight of 13.92 ± 1.03 kg were purchased from Balela local market and assigned to one of the four treatment feeds in a completely randomized block design as: T1= Grazing + 100gm WB + 150gm CLM, T2 = Grazing + 100g WB + 200g CLM, T4= Grazing + 100g WB + 250g CLM (T4= Grazing + 300g Concentrate mix). All animals were allowed access to water ad libitum and the experiment was undertaken for 90 days live weight gain, DM intake, FCR and cost-benefit analysis were parameters studied during experiment. The chemical composition of feed samples was conducted immediately before commence of actual experiment showed that cassava leaf meal has high protein content which is above the minimum requirement level for optimal rumen microbial activity (22.94%) and low fibres content which are readily digestible (30.37%) indicating that it can be potentially used as supplemental feed for ruminants in areas where other sources are not available and/or are expensive. Supplemental feeding of 250gm of air dried CLM and 100gm of WB in current experiment positively influenced the economic efficiency and growth performance of animals by providing higher feed intake and greater weight gain as compared to T1 group and T2. The results from daily live weight gain were 63.1g, 69.9g, 93.22 and 103.78g for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Bucks in T3 and T4 (positive control) gained better than (93.22 and 103.78g/day) bucks in T1 & T2. Whereas the results from DMI were, 3.3kg, 3.0kg, 3.5kg and 3.7kg for T1, T2, T3, and T4 respectively. Even though goats in T4 performed relatively better than all other treatment groups, supplementation of air CLM (T3) was economically feasible, profitable. Therefore, supplementing goats those which graze on natural pasture with 250g of dried CLM and 100gm of WB will be feasible for optimum production. Further study on maximum inclusion level of dried cassava leaf meal has to be studied in grazing goats.
Keywords: Cassava leaf; weight gain; cost-benefit analysis; concentrate-mix

Seed multiplication in sugarcane through conventional technique is low (1:10) that’s why there is need to increase multiplication ratio through different multiplication technique used single bud, seed setts and top portion i.e. meristmatic region of cane stalk. The notified and released sugarcane varieties those bearing high yield and higher juice quality and also it showed stability and tolerance abilities against biotic and biotic factors under changing climatic scenario. The trueness to variety depends upon its good germination percentage, high genetic & physical purity percentage, vigour and its appearance treated as standard quality seed followed the Seed acted as foundation of Agriculture Technology and modernized much of farming’s day-to-day operations also helpful to steady supply of high yielder quality seed, to get high yield. Good quality seed can give up to 15% higher yield in most of the crop. A reviewed upon the advancements of different seed multiplication techniques of sugarcane viz, single bud plantlets (SBP), spaced transplanting (STP), poly bag seedling transplanting, bud chip, sablang or sprouting, rayungan, distance planting, tjeblock, advance vertical seed multiplication, tissue culture and popular conventional methods was done, among them single bud plantlets found the best one. Keeping this above said points in view it is subsidised by the Govt. of Bihar for popularity of SBP among the farmers. Seed standard of sugarcane either in conventional method or tissue culture technique should be maintained so that farmers will get maximum production with quality seed standard.
Keywords: Sugarcane; setts; single bud plantlets; tissue culture; seed standard

The Effects of Glutamine in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Caroline Anastácio Freitas, Larícia Cináriados Santos Sousa, Gabriela Borges Mota Furlan and Luciana Pietro

Published: July 21, 2022

This systematic review study aimed to analyze the effects of glutamine on irritable bowel syndrome, demonstrating the adequate dose of glutamine for the treatment of IBS and identifying which clinical symptoms are improved with glutamine supplementation that include a relationship with the restoration of the intestinal wall, increase of immune cells, among other effects. Forth research, a systematic literature review of articles published between 2011 and 2021 was carried out. The research demonstrated that glutamine supplementation helps to protect the intestinal mucosa, increasing the capacity of immune cells, decreasing the translocation of bacteria and toxins after intestinal injury, preventing infections and inflammation, improving the symptoms of individuals with IBS. It is concluded that glutamine supplementation enhances the synthesis of this amino acid, which is extremely important in situations of metabolic stress and to exercise activities related to intestinal villi, consequently improving nutrient absorption.
Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Treatment; Glutamine; Immune cells

Aesthetic Outcome of Feldspathic Veneers: A Clinical Report

Marwa Amara, Riahi Zeineb, Trifa Mahdi, Ommezine Moncef, Noira Zohra, Hadyaoui Dalenda, Harzallah Belhsan and Cherif Mounir

Published: July 07, 2022

Ceramic veneers are well known as a conservative treatment option for anterior teeth presenting wear, discolorations or shape anomalies.
The high esthetic outcome offered by the ceramic laminate veneers are the most important reasons of their indications. In recent years, an increased number of ceramic materials have become available for veneer’s fabrication, with the outcomes of each material supported by literature of varying degrees of scientific rigor.
The reproduction of a final color that matches the patient’s teeth shade is one of the biggest challenges met with ceramic veneers, since the color of the ceramic restorations depends on several factors such as the basic color of the used ceramic, the thickness, teeth’s color and the cement color. The feldspathic ceramics offer the highest esthetic value compared to all the other systems.
Feldspathic porcelain veneers have a remarkable 10-year survival rate of up to 95 percent after being bonded to enamel.
However, a major concern with the feldspathic ceramics was their low mechanical resistance.
Nowadays, the feldspathic blocks for CAD CAM systems allows matching the optical outcome of the original feldspathic veneers and the strength offered by the CAD CAM ceramic restorations.
In this case report article, we will show a step-by-step procedure of CAD/CAM feldspathic veneers fabrication for an esthetic rehabilitation of dento dental disharmony.
Keywords: Aesthetic; laminate veneers; feldspathic ceramic; macrodontia; CAD-CAM

A Multidisciplinary Approach to Dealing with Anterior Diastema and Peg Laterals

Marwa Amara, Belkhel Nour Houda, Riahi Zeineb, Ommezine Moncef, Nouira Zohra, Hadyaoui Dalanda, Harzallah Belhsan and Cherif Mounir

Published: July 07, 2022

Smile rehabilitation of dental microdontia is a real therapeutic dare. Alterations in size have esthetic, functional, and psycho-social repercussions for patients.
Often associated with diastema and other dental anomalies, patients usually visit seeking an esthetic smile rehabilitation.
Multiple options are now available when it comes to treating encountered problems related to smile refinement. Orthodontic, periodontic, restorative, and prosthodontic, or a combination of all these procedures may be indicated to fulfill the patient’s esthetic and functional demands.
This article presents a combination of an orthodontic and prosthodontic procedure as well as the conditioning of the gingival tissue to treat anterior diastema associated with the presence of peg laterals.

Periodontal Treatment Improves Clinical Manifestations of Gingival Lichen Planus: A Case Report with 11-Years of Follow-up

Marta Jasminie da Silva Brigida, Talita Maximo Carreira Ribeiro, Endrigo Sperto Rodrigues dos Santos, Estevam Rubens Utumi and Irineu Gregnanin Pedron

Published: July 07, 2022

Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous lesion, relatively frequent in oral cavity. Clinically, lichen planus can present in typical or atypical forms. The typical forms are generally milder and asymptomatic, whereas the atypical ones cause painful symptoms, which in turn make dental procedures and oral hygiene more difficult, favouring the development of periodontal diseases. The purpose of this article is to present a case of lichen planus that affected the buccal keratinized gingiva bilaterally on mandibular premolars and molars, simultaneously with periodontal disease. Periodontal treatment was performed, by sessions of scaling and root planing and oral hygiene instruction. Remission of the gingival lesions was observed, as well as control of the periodontal disease. The patient has been followed up for 11 years.
Keywords: Lichen planus; Periodontal Treatment; Gingiva; Oral Diagnosis; Oral Pathology; Periodontics

Weed Community Composition, Structure and their Quantitative Evaluation under Tropical Conditions in Garhwal Region

Tana Dipung, Himshikha Gusain, Jitendra Singh Butola and Sneha Dobhal

Published: July 02, 2022

An inclusive knowledge of weed biology is essential for identification and management in order to develop both economically and environmentally acceptable weed management systems. A comprehensive documentation of weed communities is essentially required for inventorization, taxonomic identification and effective management. Present experiment was conducted on composition and their vegetation analysis of weed species through collection of specimens from destructive sample plots in HNB Garhwal University, Chaurus Campus, Uttarakhand. A total of 26 weed species belonging to 24 genera and 18 families were recorded from the 13 plots. Total Number of Individuals (TNI) was observed highest in Murraya koenigii (221±7.10) and least for Ziziphus Mauritiana (13±0.48). Important Value Index (IVI) was highest for Murraya koenigii (137.44) and Cannabis sativa (66.73), while the lowest was recorded for Ziziphus mauritiana (22.33) and Cissampelo spereira (2.41). Oxalis corniculata (69.23) showed the highest frequency, while Cannabis sativa showed both density=13.09 and abundance=21.27 to be the highest. Both Cissampelo spereira and Solanum nigrum species recorded lowest frequency, density and abundance was with value F=7.69 each. On basis of IVI, Murrayakoinigii and Cannabis sativa species marked the highest level of domination in the observation plots. The Asteraceae (4) followed by Amaranthaceae (3) and Malvaceae (3) were observed to be dominant family at the sites. The family such as Apocynaceae, Canabaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Boraginaceae showed least number of species. The range of abundance-frequency ratio was between 0.02 – 0.35, which indicate regular and random distribution pattern, signifying a suitable management system for weed regime in the area.
Keywords: Community; Dominance; Diversity; Species; Weeds

Why Chlorophyll Exists in a Plant from Viewpoints of Water

Sunao Sugihara and Hiroshi Maiwa

Published: July 02, 2022

We learn any plant possesses chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Here, we introduce oxygenic photosynthetic organisms that use water as an electron donor resulting in reduction of carbon dioxide. SIGN water contains the detailed information transferring it to another substance and changing its properties with the information. The water reduces the material and has characteristics to change the nucleus. The property is based on pico sized water and leads to the development of germination and growth of a plant. Furthermore, we find the generation of chlorophyll based on the nuclear change starting from water absorbance in roots to leaves.
Keywords: chlorophyll; SIGN water; pico-sized particle; reduction; nuclear change

Assessment of Genetic Divergence and Correlation Analysis of Sugarcane Clones (Saccharum spp. L.) in North-Western Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh

Devendra Kumar, LR Meena, Nirmal, Lalit K Meena, Raghavendra KJ and Arpan Bhowmik

Published: July 02, 2022

Nine early maturing sugarcane clones and their 12 morpho-physiological characters were studied in 2015-16 and 2016-17 crop seasons under inorganic environment to assess their genetic distance and characters association. The results of the experiment revealed that variety CoPk 05191 had greater genetic distance from CoS03251 (239.401), CoLk011201 (227.923) and UP 05125 (201.355), medium genetic distance was between Co098014 and Co 011201 (224. 618), Co098014 and UP05125 (179.927), and Co098014 and CoS03251 (178.029). The hybridization between the aforesaid combinations of clones can produce heterotic and transgressive genotypes with higher cane and sugar yield. The cane yield showed strong positive and highly significant correlation with cane height (r= 0.948**), single cane weight (r=0.817**), number of millable cane (r=0.748**), and green top yield (r=0.653**). Being highly correlated with cane yield, the characters like cane height, cane weight, NMC and green top weight need special focus while making selection for higher cane and sugar yield.
Keywords: Cluster analysis; Correlation; Dendrogram; genetic diversity; Sugarcane

ReSmart-15: A Soft Information Gain Based Questionnaire for Early Dementia Detection

Hyeseong Park, Myung Won Raymond Jung, Ji-Hye Kim and Uran Oh

Published: July 01, 2022

As the number of people affected by dementia increases, there is a need for diagnosing potential symptoms of early dementia, and questionnaires such as the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) are widely used for early dementia detection. To build a more effective questionnaire, we propose ReSmart-15, a dementia detection questionnaire that includes daily behavior-based questions in five categories (i.e., attention, spatial ability, spatiotemporal ability, memory, and thinking ability). To evaluate the effectiveness of each question in detecting early dementia, information gain can be used to rank their contributions. However, the current information gain-based method requires hard classification results such as whether the patient had been diagnosed with early dementia or not. In this paper, we propose a “soft information gain” based ranking system where each patient is diagnosed with an early dementia probability (from 0 to 1), not with a hard decision of early dementia (0 or 1). We conducted an experiment to test the effectiveness of ReSmart-15 compared to MMSE and found that the top 2 questions were from ReSmart-15, and 60 percent of the ReSmart-15 questions were in the top 10. 
Keywords: Early demantia; Questionnaire; Soft information gain

Patient Voice in Clinical Trial Outcome Assessments

Rahul Dhanda and Gurdyal Kalsi

Published: July 01, 2022

     Since the early 90s, there has been an increasing interest in incorporating clinical outcome assessment (COA) in clinical trials to measure how a patient feels or functions when describing the treatment benefit (both positive or negative) of an intervention. In 2009, the FDA issued the Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) Guidance which lays out the criteria for establishing the ‘fit for purpose’ of a COA, if that COA is to be used along the regulatory pathway (i.e., support approval or labeling). The principles elucidated in the PRO Guidance establish the gold standard for incorporating a COA, and provides the basis for the reliability, validity and interpretability of the COA data collected from a clinical trial on a registration path.

     However, not all COAs are used along the regulatory pathway. It could be that researchers or academics are interested in only publishing the results of a study in which COAs have been included. In this case less rigor could be used to establish the ‘fit for purpose’ of the endpoint used in the trial.

This paper aims to study and simulate the control of a wind turbine based on a double star asynchronous generator (GASDS); to control the energy production of this conversion chain the mechanical power generated should be optimised. Ensuring maximum power capture with the MPPT strategy (Maximum Power Point Tracking) for different wind speeds. For this purpose a control by fuzzy logic FLC associated with the orientation of the rotor flux FOC of the GASDS has been particularly described in order to improve system performance and better trajectory tracking in the case of the variant wind speed systems.
Keywords: Wind Turbine; GASDS; Flow Oriented Command; MPPT; Fuzzy logic control; MATLAB

Atorvastatin Induced Constipation

B Akhila sai, Anusha Yadagani, Mounika Maduri and Avanish Illuri

Published: June 30, 2022

A 72-year-old with high cholesterol levels (Hypercholesteremia) was advised to take Atorvastatin 20 mg (Atorva-20 mg) which led to constipation and abdominal discomfort. As management, the Atorvastatin was discontinued and replaced with Rosuvastatin. The symptoms of constipation were reduced after cessation of the suspect drug Atorvastatin. The possible mechanisms for the event were unknown but has some proposed mechanisms like1. Levels of Nitric oxide 2. Inhibiting the production of melvonic acid 3. Decrease in coenzyme Q10.
Keywords: Atorvastatin; adverse event; Constipation; Naranjo scale, Melvonic acid, Coenzyme Q10

Estimation of the Impact of Sensitization on the Knowledge and Practices of Parents in the Face of Early Marriage in the Urban Commune of Koniakary

IB Bengaly, A Kodio, A Konate, I Goita, MB Coulibaly, F Dicko, Kaya A Soukho, A Diaby, K Sidibe, IH Sidibe, A Sinayoko and A Berthe

Published: June 30, 2022

Introduction: Child marriage is any legal or customary union involving a boy or girl under the age of 18. The study we conducted aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of parents with regard to early marriage. Method and materials: This was an action research study that took place in three phases, the first consisted of an initial assessment to take stock of knowledge on early marriages and the development of the plan. of action. The second phase was devoted to the implementation of the action plan for improving knowledge about these marriages through information, education and communication sessions. Finally, the third consisted of a final evaluation to observe the evolution after the action plan over a period of four months from April to July 2017 in the urban municipality of Koniakary/Region of Kayes. 99 people participated in this study during the evaluations. Results: The most represented age group was 41-45 years with 40.3% of cases. The primary evaluation made it possible to identify shortcomings and relative exact answers were provided. This led us to have a great progress in the secondary evaluation: the knowledge on the age of the marriage evolved favorably because 78.8% thought that it was less than 14 years for the age of marriage at the beginning of the study against 10.1% at the final evaluation. The main reasons for these early marriages mentioned were the eviction of illegitimate pregnancies in 58.6% of cases. The decision makers in these marriages were the father and the other men in the family in 62.6% of cases. Conclusion: The decision-makers of these early marriages were male adults who did not know the age of marriage according to the texts in Mali nor the dangers that young people faced in early marriages. Thus the action plan that we have implemented has improved the knowledge of those surveyed in relation to early marriage.
Keywords: Knowledge; Practices; Early Marriages; Koniakary

Discomfort in Medicine

Humberto Correa-Rivero

Published: June 28, 2022

     Arnold-Forster et al have recently pointed out their concern for the progressive deterioration of the mental health of doctors and for the neglect or ignorance that the medical health organizations in which they work have for their affective problems. They point out several causal factors, not only for the mental suffering of doctors, but also for the fact that the following is not taken into account: 1) the idea of the doctor as an exceptional being in society, 2) the social conviction that they must deny themselves and give themselves to others, 3) the dominant concept that their mental health and all their affective problems are their own responsibility, signs of disaffection, and are not the responsibility of the system in which they work. This brings us back to the topic of “discomfort in medicine” that we have addressed earlier. We propose to frame the affective disorders and discomfort of doctors and their causes in a larger psycho-social-professional framework, which is multicausal, currently dominates Western culture and which results in the deterioration of human behavior. In medicine, this results in the dehumanization of medical care, patient care and the health of doctors. They are not isolated events, but dependent on each other. Mutual causality includes the effects of the exponential increase in knowledge in science and technology, the accentuation of medical corporatism, the fragmentation of medical assistance, and the almost total loss of the holistic conception of the patient.
     We propose that only by following the tradition of a few precursors who have refounded Medical Humanism in the 20th century and including the compulsory training in medical humanism in the academic curricula (as we have already started in our medical school) can some favorable changes for the well-being of patients and doctors -in no short time-be achieved.

Brunneroma-Uncommon Tumor of Duodenum

Tejas Maheshwari, Vishal Goyal and Bhagwani Bai Maheshwari

Published: June 28, 2022

Brunneroma (Tumor of the Brunner’s gland) is an uncommon tumor of the duodenum. They are, probably, not true neoplasms but hamartomas arising from Brunner’s gland and may represent a protective phenomenon against gastric hypersecretion. It presents with non-specific symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and bloating or gastric outlet obstruction. Usually, they are treated with endoscopic resection, with some lesions requiring surgical intervention. We present here a case of pedunculated poly of first part of duodenum which was consistent with Brunneroma on histopathology. Tumor of Brunner gland is known as Brunner gland adenoma. They are also referred to as Brunneroma or polypoidal hamartoma. These lesions are usually benign with a low malignancy potential.
Keywords: Brunneroma; Duodenum; Hamartomas; polyp

Background: In the United States over 500,000 episodes of alcohol withdrawal require pharmacological treatment each year [1]. The medications for withdrawal treatment in the U.S. are benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Studies suggest these treatments are equivocal, [2] however, studies comparing outcomes of the two medications have been limited.
Objective: The primary objective of this study is to compare alcohol withdrawal treatment with benzodiazepine and phenobarbital medication classes alone or in combination in hospitalized patients in a 8 hospital community-based healthcare system.
Methods: This is a retrospective review of 1,602 hospital encounters with a principal diagnosis of alcohol withdrawal from 01/01/2018 to 12/31/2019. Encounters were evaluated for type of pharmacologic treatment, 30-day readmission rate, ICU admission, and intubation rates.
Results: When comparing the treatment groups, patients in the phenobarbital treatment group compared to the benzodiazepine group had a statistically significant higher admission to ICU at 42% versus 28% respectively (p=0.0160). Phenobarbital and benzodiazepines were not statistically significantly different in intubation rate (p= 0.3690) or 30-day readmission rate (p=0.8626). Rates of 30-day readmission and intensive care (ICU) admission were statistically significant between the three pharmacologic treatment groups (p<0.001) with the combination of phenobarbital and benzodiazepines demonstrating the highest rates of both.
Conclusion: In other similar studies [8-11], there are varied outcomes in relation to ICU admission, intubation and 30-day readmission rates when comparing benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. This study further demonstrates variation in these outcomes. Due to these substantial differences in outcomes when comparing phenobarbital and benzodiazepines, higher level studies are needed to provide conclusive evidence that phenobarbital is equivocal or superior to use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
Keywords: acute alcohol withdrawal; benzodiazepines; phenobarbital

Grain Yield of Dual-Purpose Barley Genotypes Estimated by AMMI, BLUP and Non-Parametric measures after One Cut

Ajay Verma, RPS Verma, J Singh, Lokendra Kumar and Gyanendra Pratap Sing

Published: June 24, 2022

AMMI analysis evaluated the total variations in genotypic yield values across the environments and partied the total variations into various components to assess their significance. Environments, GxE interactions, and genotypes effects were highly significant with 69.4%, 24.1%, 3.4% respectively. IPCA-5 favored G11, G6, G8 as per IPCA-6 genotypes would be G5, G4, G17 while IPCA-7 pointed towards G3, G20, G4. First two AMMI components totalled 57.6% and ASV1 & ASV measures recommended (G4, G20, G15). MASV1 & MASV measures considered 98.5% total of seven Interaction principal components and identified G15, G9, G6 genotypes. G21, G17, G10 would be of consistent yield as per least values of standard deviation whereas CV identified G6, G10, G17 genotypes. Non parametric measures Si s selected G15, G13, G9 whereas non parametric composite measures selected G15, G13, G20, G16. Biplot analysis observed Si 1, Si 2, Si 3, Si 4, Si 5, Si 6, Si 7, ASV, ASV1, MASV, MASV1 NPi (1), NPi (3), NPi (4) accounted more in first principal component whereas Mean of genotypic yield, Average of BLUP of genotypic yield, PC1, GM, HM , HMPRVG, PRVG, were major contributors for second principal component. AMMI based measures ASV, ASV1, MASV, MASV1 clustered with Si 6, Si 7 in first quadrant. Out of two, first comprised of IPC3, IPC6, IPC7 measures while next one consisted of BLUP based measures with mean yield and IPC1. Measures NPi (2), NPi (3), NPi (4) formed a cluster with Stdev, CV as this cluster observed adjacent to cluster of MASV1, NPi (1), Si 1, Si 4Si 2, Si 5 in same quadrant.
Keywords: AMMI; BLUP; Biplot analysis; Non parametric composite measures

At present, 121 million agricultural holdings are in India; out of these 99 million holdings are small and marginal (87%). Small holdings are not well suited to farm mechanization, coupled with poor economic condition of farming community and lack of resources; these factors are exclusively responsible for the slow growth of Indian Agricultural. Hence, there is immense need to develop area specific integrated farming system models to resolve multi-dimensional problems prevailing related to agriculture and allied sectors. Integrated farming systems approach is one of the most powerful tools for enhancing productivity, profitability, nutritional security, livelihood improvement, employment generation and sustainability of the farm households, particularly small and marginal farming communities, presently they have constituted more than 87% of the total farm households. In India, increasing population demands coupled with decreasing availability of farm resources resulted declining in productivity which warrants an immediate attention of researchers to tackle these problems and there is urgent need to reorient agriculture research programs from individualistic enterprise approach to need developed holistic approach of integrated farming system. The concept of integrated farming system research integrates various enterprises and resources (inputs) at the farm level into consideration for planning production of crops, selecting cropping systems and combining various enterprises to develop integrated farming systems having sustainable agriculture production systems. Similarly, inclusion of horticulture, dairy farming, bee keeping, fisheries, poultry farming, sheep and goat rearing, sericulture, mushroom cultivation under two or three tier system of integrated farming can give substantial additional high energy food without affecting production of food grains. Soil, water, climate, marketing, labour, transport and local demands are the main criteria to select the farming systems for any working place. Moreover, integrated farming system is a biologically integration system, which integrates mechanism into farming activities to achieve utmost replacement of off- farm inputs and sustain farm profits through decease of costs of production and augment productivity of the entire system towards vertical horizon. As regards to livelihood security, the IFS approach adopted in the model met almost all the homegrown family demands of cereals, pulses, oil, fruit, milk, meat, vegetables, and value-added products. Moreover, integrated farming systems also pave the needed socially acceptable, environmental hygiene and economically viable to large growing population of India. Therefore, now the need of develop an agro-ecology based integrated farming system which would augment soil health, ecological balance, employment generation and fertilizers cost reduction through recycled farmbased by-products. Further, most of the inputs being used in agriculture becoming costlier and go out of reaches to common man which results in farming becoming unviable and unsustainable enterprise particular to small and marginal households of India. Hence, it is clear that adoption of allied enterprises enhanced the net return sizably over the arable farming. Thus, whole farmingsystem approach is very constructive in solving the various problems of farmers in India.
Keywords: Enterprises; Employment generation; Environment safety; Farming system components; Farm family; Farm based waste; Food security; Integrated farming system; Livelihood; Marketing; Nutritional security; Productivity; Profitability; Recycling; Sustainability

Defining Adaptation of Space Medicine within Military Medicine

Bryce R Williams

Published: June 24, 2022

Aim: The research study aims to determine whether the integration between Military Medicine and Space Medicine allows clinicians to improve their scope of practice, casualty variety, and confidence in unexpected situations that may influence other medical specialties over time through the development of Space Warfare Medicine.
Methods: Methods chosen facilitate the search for specific literature that applies to Space Medicine or Military Medicine while also observing perspectives from clinicians in the respective medical specialties.
Results: The integration of Space Medicine into Military Medicine is essential in the medical community as demands increase for clinicians trained in both Emergency Medicine and Space Medicine practices with the development of the USSF and commercialized space travel. Furthermore, Space Medicine is still very dangerous and proves to be far more complex than other specialties in which clinicians have limited time to adapt at the point of injury where unexpected events are likely to occur.
Conclusion: The significance of the ability to adapt to adverse conditions as the main connection between Military Medicine and Space Medicine justifies Space Medicine’s high affinity with Military Medicine that other specialties may not match.
Keywords: Space Medicine; Military Medicine; Space Warfare Medicine; space travel; microgravity

Pico-sized Water Information Transfers and Changes Substance Property

Sunao Sugihara, Kunihiko Hatanaka and Hiroshi Maiwa

Published: June 24, 2022

We take care of the water daily life, but people are no worried about in daily life. There is a few of research on the water as basic science. We study the fundamental theme in water, not H2O itself, which is the item that many people focus on it. Water forms a cluster of five or more with hydrogen bonds. However, we are perspective what happens if we dissociate the bonding. We find two points: a particle and wave in quantum physics of the water after dissociating hydrogen bonds. As a result, the water’s information transfers through space and affects other substances. Then, we employ some equipment to elucidate the characteristics indirectly since we cannot directly observe not only H2O itself but also the hydrogen bond-dissociated particle with instruments. So, we use the research with optical, electricity, and magnetics associated with nuclear magnetic resonance, superconducting quantum interference, far-infrared optical spectroscopy, and laser flash.
     We find to understand macroscopic water properties from pico-sized water analysis.

The CCL5 in Breast Cancer is Platelet CCL5- A Hypothesis

Pushpam Kumar Sinha

Published: June 21, 2022

CCL2 and CCL5 are the two chemokines plentifully expressed in Breast Cancer (BC). Close associations between CCL2 and CCL5 have been hypothesized; and both have been demonstrated to confer metastatic potential to the BC cells. Hence understanding the biology of either will shed light on the other. And in this paper I choose to investigate the source of CCL5 (in BC cells). Pin-pointing the source of CCL5 will lead to focused therapeutic intervention against BC metastasis. Through the analysis of connections between CCL5 and Interleukin 8 (IL8), I hypothesize that the CCL5 in BC is platelet CCL5. As a result of this hypothesis Aspirin seems to be the focused drug against BC metastasis. But there are challenges with using this drug in BC patient who is also simultaneously not suffering from any cardiovascular disorder.
Keywords: Chemokines; Milieu of Tumor Cells; Monocytes; Macrophages; Platelet suspension

Fibrous Dysplasia of the Paranasal Sinuses - A Rare Presentation

Apurva Vatkar, Amrapali-Keny Pawar, Dhanashree Chiplunkar and Jisha Sathyan

Published: June 21, 2022

Fibrous Dysplasia in the head neck region generally have a predilection for the maxilla and the mandible. Presentation of FD as a paranasal sinus lesion is very rarely reported in literature. We present such a case of paranasal sinus FD discovered incidentally during the ENT examination in a patient presenting with mucosal disease of the middle ear.
Keywords: Fibrous Dysplasia; paranasal sinus

Etiology Analysis and Antimicrobial Selection in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Kundan Kumar Chaudhary, Abhishek Adhikari, Krishna Kumar Sah, Subash Kumar Chaudhary, He Li, Gong and Jing Ping ma

Published: June 21, 2022

Objective: This study was conducted to prospectively analyze the clinical features of hospitalized patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD), sputum culture and drug susceptibility results, and the use and efficacy of antimicrobial to guide the pathogens of AECOPD hospitalized patients. Learning judgment and choice of antimicrobial drugs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 327 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jingzhou Central Hospital from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018 were enrolled. Among them, 46 patients were positive for sputum microbial culture, and 48 positive sputum culture results were obtained. The demographic characteristics (age, gender, BMI index), smoking history, acute exacerbation/year, mMRC score were statistically analyzed. CAT score, lung function index, presence or absence of respiratory failure, sputum culture type and drug sensitivity, antibacterial drug selection. All data were tabulated and divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of respiratory failure. The clinical data and etiology differences of the 2 groups were counted. According to the sputum culture, G-negative bacilli or fungi were divided into two groups, and the clinical data of the two groups were counted. The measurement data were mean±standard error, and the percentage was used. The statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s exact test. The measurement data were analyzed by independent sample t test. The count data were analyzed by chi-square test. The P value was less than 0.05, which was statistically significant.
Results: A total of 327 cases were involved in the study, of which 48 were positive for sputum culture (46 patients). In the positive patients, 41 males (89.10%) and 5 females (10.4%) showed that males had higher prevalence than females. The most common age group is mostly 70-79 years old, with an average age of 73.08 years. During the follow-up, 8 people died in first year (58-83 years old, average 70.1 years old), and the mortality rate was 17.39%. Among the 46 patients, the available data were analyzed, BMI: 22.68 ± 0.67 (N = 28), AE / year: 1.82 ± 0.12 (N = 46), age (years): 73.52 ± 1.22 (N = 46), mMRC: 2.82±0.20 (N=28), CAT: 23.55±1.43 (N=27), FEV1:1.05±0.08 (N=28), FEV1%: 45.21%±3.29% (N=28), FVC: 2.25±0.11 (N=28), FVC%: 75.07% ± 3.4% (N=28). The most common microorganism in sputum culture was Candida albicans (50%), a total of 24 cases. There were 14 cases (30%) of bacterial infections and 34 cases (70%) of fungal infections. The most commonly used antibiotics for AECOPD patients are fluoroquinolones, followed by ceftazidime, followed by carbomycins, and antifungal drugs are most commonly fluconazole, followed by voriconazole. There was a statistically significant difference in the composition ratio between bacteriaand fungi between the first sputum culture and the non-first sputum culture (P=0.018), suggesting that the late stage of hospitalization was fungal infection. FEV1 and FVC between the respiratory failure group (14 cases) and the non-respiratory failure group (34 cases). AE/year was statistically significant (P<0.05), 2 groups. Candida albicans is the main pathogen in the patients. According to the pathogen, G-negative bacilli and fungi were divided into two groups. There was no significant difference in age, BMI, mMRC, CAT, AE times/year, FEV1 and FVC between the two groups.  
Conclusion: G-negative bacilli and fungal infections were the most common in male, elderly, and recurrent AECOPD hospitalized patients, with the highest incidence of Candida albicans infection. Fungi was main source of infection in the late stay after 5 to 7 days of hospitalization. Candida albicans is most common positive pathogen in hospitalized patients regardless of whether it is associated with respiratory failure. This suggests that our combination of antibacterial and antifungal drugs in clinical treatment, especially in the late hospital stay can benefit these patients.
Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; acute exacerbation; respiratory failure; sputum culture

Road Safety Measures among Adolescents and Youths

Safeena Beevi SS

Published: June 21, 2022

Road safety is both a health and development issue of concern. Road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of deaths, disabilities and hospitalizations with severe socioeconomic costs across the world and India in particular. As per the ‘Road Accidents in India 2020’, there were 3,66,138 unfortunate road accidents during 2020, which claimed 1,31,714 lives and caused injuries to 3,48,279 persons [1]. As per the World Health Organization, at least one out of 10 persons killed on roads across the world is from India and India positions first in the number of road accident deaths worldwide. The youth are particularly vulnerable on the world’s roads, and road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults aged 5-29 years [2]. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH) has considered road safety an issue of paramount importance. It has been taking proactive steps to address it by a technique called 4Es, Education, Engineering (of both roads and vehicles), Enforcement and Emergency care. Hence instruction and education to the adolescent and youth are of utmost importance to prevent road traffic accidents [1].

     There is a fast-growing precognition of team building that is sharpened by the technological capacity development of human resources in a technologically advancing world. As most organizations in the business world constantly evolve and strive to achieve competitive advantage in the market space, the relevance and role of team building becomes more fundamental and demanding. Teamwork elevates the trajectory and visionary inclination of organizations regardless of their sizes, successes and market dominance.
     This study will examine, analyze and discuss team building in the view of its stages of development: Forming Stage, Storming Stage, Norming Stage, and the Performing Stage. It would lay out the strategic impact each stage has on the other. It would analyze; the adjourning team roles-Belbin, team roles, action-oriented role, shaper, implementer, completer, coordinator, worker, resource investigator, and the laws of teamwork. More often than not, most workers aspire to excel professionally in their chosen field of career. For some it is a personal goal and aim to achieve career excellence while striving and aspiring to reach higher heights of acclaimed privilege in the society and in their country at large. All of these intentions, aspirations and visions are personalized and individualistic until it meets a broader shared vision offered by the organization through team building, team collaboration and team role.
     While team building requires the utilization of motivation, enthusiasm and a common sense of shared vision, ethical consciousness and moral responsibilities as means towards achieving a solidified and united team is also recognized. This identifies the presence of individuality and how that could be a hindrance, limitation and threat to the process of building and developing a team. Team building is a structured and functional system in an organization that aids the establishments of a definite purpose, creates organizational culture, and institutionalizes the visionary outlook and organizational advancement. Team building is the process of enhancing, developing and enriching the knowledge base of each team player in a workforce in order for each worker to be more effective in accomplishing the tasks and assigned duty to an acceptable degree of satisfaction that is needed for the organization.
Keywords: Team-building; Teamwork; Team roles; Team development; organizational intelligence; Law of significance; Purposedriven; Capacity–building; Talent-management; Organizational development

Corporate Social Responsibility also known as corporate engagement with society is now a general expression in today’s present-day world and fundamentally it is fast-becoming a recognized methodological approach for organizations. Organizations illustrate, contribute and establish their incorporated customs through duties that reflect their common sense of share consciousness and ethics. The foundational elements of the Corporate Social Responsibilities of an organization reveals a clearer, deeper and acceptance of the organization’s operational culture of sustainability. The organization’s principles of transparency, its level of accountability all of these and more lays the structure that justifies an organization’s Corporate Behavior.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Sustainability; Transparency; Accountability; Corporate Behavior; Ethical Philosophies; Deontological Ethics; Teleological Ethics; Utilitarianism; Ethical Relativism; Stakeholder

An Analysis Framework of Change Management

Linda Etareri

Published: June 18, 2022

The organizational restructuring and institutionalization of Change Management is a fluid and elusive process that functions through a broad, holistic and yet a very conscious approach to implement, execute and create top-level excellent tasks, responsibilities, and duties with competency, organizational integrity, trust and professionalism in line as goals to achieve. As the top priority of company’s envisioned goals, visionary accomplishments and professionalism comes change management as the corrective tool and measures that can insure the improvement and advancement of organizational effectiveness. This seminar paper will aim at defining change management; it would create a discussion on the various views, and assertions of change management. The relevance of change management to the external and internal structures of organizations ensures, guarantees the heights and levels of development and advancement an organization can accomplish. In a competitive global market space were change is unavoidably constant, the understanding and studying of change management becomes the greatest means.
Keywords: Approaches; Bottom-up; Business Leadership; Competency; Change management; Change model; Organizational management; Strategy; Techniques; Top-down

Ensure Automotive Cyber Security with Management

Wenbo Jia, Haijun Wang, Yingyi Yao, Jing Liu, Yanxin Wu, Xu Liu and Shubin Tao

Published: June 10, 2022

With the automotive industry’s continuous development of electrification, connectivity, intelligentization, sharing, automotive cyber security issues are becoming increasingly serious. How to effectively guarantee the cyber security of automotive products has become one of the urgent problems to be solved in the whole automotive industry. According to current situation of the industry, this paper argues that strengthening the cyber security management is very important, and according to the domestic and foreign automotive cyber security related laws, regulations and standards’ requirements, proposes the construction route, evaluation and optimization focus of automotive cyber security management system based on the risk management of the whole automotive product life cycle, which provides reference for enterprises to ensure the cyber security of automotive products.
Keywords: Intelligent Connected Vehicles; Cyber Security Management System; System Evaluation and Optimization

Evaluation of Green Total Factor Productivity in the Yellow River Basin of China

Jingcheng Li, Guangwei Rui and Xinyi Mei

Published: June 10, 2022

The Yellow River Basin is an important energy production base, heavy industry base, and grain production area in China. Meanwhile, the ecological environment in this area is also very fragile. The success of carbon emission control in this region is related to whether China can complete its vision of carbon peak and carbon neutralization on time. Taking carbon emissions as the non-ideal output of the economy into the nonparametric DEA Malmquist index model, this paper measures the green Malmquist index of 9 provinces in the Yellow River Basin from 2014 to 2020 and analyzes the impact of the green Malmquist index, green technology efficiency and green technology progress rate on the regional economic growth gap and its time evolution trend. The results show that the green total factor productivity of the region shows a fluctuating upward trend from 2014 to 2020, but the direction of efficiency progress is negative. Therefore, the Yellow River Basin needs to reform the management system of high energy-consuming industries and strengthen environmental supervision in the future. In addition, the changes in green total factor productivity in various provinces show high heterogeneity, which poses new challenges to the formulation of emission reduction policies.
Keywords: The Yellow River Basin; Energy industry; Carbon control; Green total factor productivity

Experimental Study of the Consolidation Characteristics of Saturated and Unsaturated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Using Large Scale Consolidometer

Gajrawala Tirth Nikhilbhai, Dr. M. V. Shah and Prof. Shalini. R. Singh

Published: June 06, 2022

Municipal Solid Waste is a heterogeneous mixture of various materials such as food, glass, soil, ash, plastic, etc. Since there are no generally accepted sampling and testing procedures for waste materials, principles of soil mechanics. A good understanding of the properties of unsaturated Municipal solid waste is required for the design of the underground pipelines. Settlement prediction is an important issue to guarantee any post-closure structures on landfills. The present study is an attempt to determine the consolidation characteristics of saturated and unsaturated MSW from the Pirana landfill site, Ahmedabad (India) using a large size Consolidometer having an aspect ratio of 1:0.635. At present five tests were conducted on saturated municipal solid waste for 100% saturation and five on unsaturated MSW keeping a degree of saturation=50% at different water contents. The tests were carried out at the pressure of 20kpa, 40kpa, 80kpa, 160kpa, and 320kpa respectively. The consolidation settlement resulted in both types of waste being compared. It was concluded that the saturated MSW compacted on the dry side of the optimum has less settlement compared to the MSW compacted on the wet side of the optimum while the time taken for the unsaturated MSW was slightly higher as compared to that of the saturated MSW.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste, Consolidation, Unsaturated, Compressibility

Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Pathway to Organ Printing

Prajwal Agrawal

Published: June 06, 2022

With the advent of additive manufacturing, various processes have been developed over the years. A prominent example is bioprinting. The technology involves the use of biocompatible materials and living cells to construct functional structures and constructs that mimic the properties of human body tissues [1]. It is estimated that 20 people die every day due to a lack of organ transplantation in the United States alone [2]. With the development of new diseases and an increasing population, this number is expected to increase over time. It is possible for bioprinting to provide a solution for this issue, but it will need many modifications and development to result in a living organ with multiple cell types and materials [3].

Management of Acute Lithiasic Cholecystitis in a Secondary Hospital: Somine Dolo Hospital in Mopti Epidemiological Aspects, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Evolution

B Traoré, M Coulibaly, D Traoré, O Guindo, A Traoré, D Cisse, P Coulibaly, S Mariko, A Guindo, DT Théra, ARB Sidbé, KI Keita, MS Konate, FM Keita, S Toure, D Samaké and AP Togo

Published: June 01, 2022

Acute cholecystitis can now have an impact worthy of interest in black Africa, although it was considered rare in the past. Several surgical works currently published in Africa have demonstrated this.
     The objective of this work was therefore to determine the hospital frequency in the department of general surgery of acute lithiasic cholecystitis, to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects, to describe the surgical follow-up and to evaluate the cost of management.
     This was a retrospective and prospective study that was carried out from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018 in the general surgery department of the Sominé Dolo Hospital in Mopti. It involved 46 patients including 16 men and 30 women with an average age of 50.64 years ± 14.97 and sex-ratio of 0.54, having been operated by intraoperatively confirmed acute cholecystitis laparotomy.
     The annual frequency was 15.33 cases/year. The defense sign in right hypochondrium was found in all our patients. Cholecystectomy was the rule of surgical treatment in the absence of the laparoscopy spine, and non-training of surgeons in coeliosurgery, all our patients were operated by conventional surgery. Antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic therapy were performed in all our patients. Vesicular bed drainage 45(97.8%) was the main surgical procedure associated with cholecystectomy Operative soot was simple in 84.8% of our patients. The morbidity rate was 13.04%; the mortality rate was 2.17%.
     The average cost of care was 129,800 FCFA (±9650 FCFA) ie 197.66 ± 14.69 euros.
Keywords: Acute lithiasic cholecystitis; complications; classical surgery; Sominé Dolo Hospital of Mopti

A Novel Solution Viz a Viz Climate Change

Mister Seun Ayoade

Published: June 01, 2022

Various views on climate change exist. Many proposals to combat it also exist. Since I hold an unconventional view about the origin of life and the earth [1] some may wonder if I also hold an unconventional view about how to preserve the planet. 

Stigma Networks towards the formation of Intellectual Capital in the Face of COVID-19

Wilfrido Isidro Aldana Balderas, Arturo Sanchez Sanchez, Francisco Espinoza Morales and Cruz Garcia Lirios

Published: June 01, 2022

A documentary study was carried out with a non-probabilistic selection of sources indexed in international repositories, considering the year of publication and the relationship between the concepts of organization and human capital. The empirical test of the null hypothesis suggests the non-rejection of a significant difference between the findings reported in the literature with respect to the observations and analyzes carried out in the present work. It is concluded that the observed sample can anticipate a scenario of convergence between labor stigma and talents in their modality of human, intellectual and intangible capital in the organizations that were studied during the pandemic period from December 2019 to April 2022.
Keywords: COVID-19; Human capital; Intellectual capital; Intangible capital

Transfer of the Posterior Tibialis on the Lateral Cuneiform in Paralysis of the Elevator Muscles of the Foot

Coulibaly Kalifa, Traoré S, Sanogo CO1, Diallo A, Djiré I, Keïta G, Diallo S, Tambassi S and Berthé M

Published: June 01, 2022

The paralysis of the foot elevators is a common condition with a variety of etiologies. The transfer of the posterior tibialis on the lateral cuneiform constitutes the surgical gesture of reference to compensate for the deficit of the elevators of the foot.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the result of the transfer of the posterior tibialis on the lateral cuneiform. 
Patients and Method
This was a descriptive retrospective study from January 2006 to December 2021. During the study period, we operated on 07 patients with paralysis of the foot elevators at the Regional Hospital of Kayes and at the University Hospital of Kati. The results were assessed according to the raising and maintenance of the plantigrade position of the foot.
The use of the aforementioned judgment criteria allowed us to classify our Patients into four very good results, two good results and one poor result. The only bad result was hind foot varus with posterior tibialis side 4.
The transfer of the posterior tibialis on the lateral cuneiform ensures the effective raising of the foot. Postoperative rehabilitation is an integral part of the therapeutic protocol to restore the transferred muscle to its initial strength.
Keywords: paralysis; foot elevators; Surgery; posterior tibialis

Identification of High Andean Wetlands using SRTM & LANDSAT Images at the Head of the Chaschuil River Basin, Catamarca, Argentina

Malvina Serra, Erlinda del Valle Ortiz and Adriana Ediht Niz

Published: May 30, 2022

This work shows a study carried out in the upper area of the Chaschuil Valley in the South Ramsar Subsidy of the province of Catamarca for the identification of wetlands through the analysis of SRTM and LANDSAT images. Factors influencing the use of wetlands, such as size, fertile plains, water dynamics and associated vegetation, were considered. The image processing of the Landsat 8 satellite (PATH-ROW = 232-079) was carried out, as well as the sampling data of the January 2019 campaign. Base maps were generated and analysis of geographic information system (GIS) to classify water bodies. The results allowed us to better understand the relationship between the geomorphology of the basin and its water dynamics and allow us to advance in the study of wetlands of importance to the ecosystem of the region.
Keywords: Wetlands, SRTM Images; Water; GIS

Macroeconomic Variables and Agricultural Output in Nigeria

Okeke Daniel C and Okeke Onyinye Rita

Published: May 30, 2022

The research work investigated the effect of macroeconomic variables on agricultural output in Nigeria. The study spanned from the period of 1995-2020, making it 26 observatory years. The agricultural output growth represented the explained variable while money supply, commercial bank loan on agriculture, exchange rate, interest rate, recurrent government expenditure on agriculture and inflation rate represented the explanatory variables which served as the selected macroeconomic variables under study. The stationary of the variables were checked using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. The researcher went further to test for the long run relationship using the Johansen Co-integration technique. The OLS analysis was computed which shows that the model is statistically significance, judging with the p-value of the F-statistic. The analysis also presented that money supply, exchange rate and inflation have a positive relationship with agricultural output within the given period of study while commercial bank loan on agriculture, interest rate and recurrent government expenditure on agriculture have a negative link with the explained variable. Based on the findings, the researcher made its recommendation in the work.
Keywords: Agriculture; Output; Macro economics; Variables; Nigeria

Magic Mushroom

Neela Manna

Published: May 30, 2022

Whenever we hear mushroom, we know that it is a spore bearing fruiting body of a fungus that generally grows on ground or on its food source. There are many kinds of mushroom that differ in their chemical components and vary from edible to poisonous mushroom. Typically, there is presence of a mushroom variety that has Psilocybin compound in it. They are found in both pileus(cap) and stipe(stem) of mushroom but mostly in pileus. These types of mushrooms are known as Psilocybin Mushroom or “Magic Mushrooms”.

Role of Renewable Energy in Ensuring Eco-Friendly Environment

Abdulraheem Mukhtar Iderawumi

Published: May 30, 2022

The demand for energy and related services is rising in order to meet social and economic development and improve human welfare and health. Energy services are needed in any civilization to provide basic human requirements (such as lighting, cooking, space comfort, movement, and communication) as well as to support productive processes. Nigeria has a good forestry enabling environment, but it has to expand in scope, coverage, and efficiency to adequately serve other regions that have been disadvantaged by extensive deforestation and environmental degradation in their surroundings. The government will profit from pursuing well-articulated forestry policies programs that will greatly reduce the pressure on large cities and towns, as well as enhance the availability of cheap basic services, making life easier for citizens.
Keywords: Renewable Energy (RE); Agriculture; Climate Change; Environment

This study investigated the effect of two different methods, i.e. air-drying and freeze-drying, of preservation of elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) cultivated in Valdichiana, a traditional cultivation area of Tuscany, Italy, on its nutritional characteristics (i.e. soluble proteins. polyphenols, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity, starch, soluble sugars, allicin). The results showed that compared to the fresh product, the traditional method of air-drying causes significant reductions only in the total antioxidant power (-46%) and in the content of starch (-22%), while the modern method of freeze-drying negatively affects almost all the parameters investigated, overall by about 40%. The content of allicin is not changed by the preservation method. Although freeze-drying is considered one of the best methods for preserving plant-based food, attention should be paid to the effect of this process on the nutritional characteristics of the product.
Keywords: Food; Freeze-drying; Giant garlic; Great-headed garlic; Air-drying

Opisthorchiids, Heterophyids and Aquaculture: A Brief Review

R Bhar, J Paul, AB Gamit, PK Nanda and S Bandyopadhyay

Published: May 30, 2022

Fish borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) affect millions of people worldwide especially in Asian countries and are of considerable economic importance because of their various degrees of morbidity and economic losses. They are normally transmitted to the definitive host by consumption of raw or improperly cooked fish harbouring viable metacercariae. The life cycle is complex which requires two intermediate hosts (snails & fish) and one definitive host (human). Interestingly, they can also complete their life cycle in the hosts other than the humans (reservoir hosts) which play a great role to maintain the infection in the environment. Diagnosis is mainly done by demonstration of eggs and adult parasites from infected definitive or reservoir host and recently, it is complemented by molecular techniques. These trematodes are mostly prevalent in the countries with traditional aquaculture practices. So, proper aquaculture practices should be followed and the production of parasite free fish for human consumption should be a key objective for the aquaculture industry. This review summarizes the global status, life cycle pattern, pathology, diagnosis and also some recommendations for prevention and control of the fish borne zoonoses.
Keywords: Aquaculture; Fish; Metacercariae; Opisthorchiidae; Heterophyidae; Zoonoses

Predicting Global Average Land Temperatures Using Microsoft Azure Machine Learning Studio

Sagar Tewari, Sarthak Agarwal and Madhulika Bhatia

Published: May 30, 2022

To accurately calculate the global average temperature has proven to be an arduous task since the 19th century, the major reasons are maintaining accurate records of the same locations over a lengthy period which has strained the meteorologists, especially in places located remotely, like mountains or deserts. This is the reason meteorologists use global averages which generally span over 3 decades to give perspective and context to information.
We decided to use the Linear Regression Model to achieve this task at hand. Linear regression is an algorithm which is used for determining the relationship between an dependent variable and some independent variables which are also known as scalar response explanatory variables respectively. The relationship between dependent and independent variables are calculated using predictor functions which are linear in nature whose parameters which are not known are found out through the means of the data provided. Hence, it is paramount that we give our model a clean and digestible data so that it learns well and predicts accurately. It’s equally important that we maintain the dimensions of the data and be careful that it is not too high or not too low, it should be just right. We also employed the Pearson’s Correlation method for Feature Selection. After which we also tuned the hyperparameters among other things to gain the most suitable parameters for the model. Finally, we compared our results from normal model generation to hyperparameter tuned mode.
Keywords: AZURE; Machine Learning; Linear Regression; Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient

Human Intelligence and Machines

Tilottama Goswami

Published: May 30, 2022

Current trends in engineering and technology have made a great impact in automation on a day-to-day basis in almost every field. The advantages of automation are manifold -reducing human interventions, increase in productivity, reducing human errors, and to enhance their capability to work; especially in hazardous and danger zone areas. Human labor-intensive tasks/repetitive tasks where human fatigue and error is a usual phenomenon are usually good candidates for automation. Can automation succeed in tasks which need human expertise and intelligence? Its limitations does not allow it to automate every task. Automation is a straightforward algorithm which takes input data and produces output according to the algorithm. When intelligence and cognitive capabilities have to be embedded in a machine to mimic the way human would execute the task, automation becomes conceptually closer to Artificial Intelligence (AI). 

Solving V2X Blocking Algorithm

Li Yongdong

Published: May 30, 2022

LTE-V2X is becoming the most technology for automatic pilot. But the interference affects the capacity of V2X when the traffic is busy. This article presents the soling V2X blocking algorithm to void the problem happening. It is time division method. Node B acts as a master to assign the slot and symbol to all of OBUs under the area. If out of range of LTE network, the OBUs votes one OBU as Node B to allocate the slot and symbol to them, all OBUs Synchronization with the OBU, then time division can work.
Keywords: V2X; OBU; Node B; Time division; LTE; interference; blocking; PBCH; broadcast; synchronization; Mode 3. Mode 4

Diaper with Automated Drainage System for Dependent Peoplec

Cuevas Rene, Alonso Gustavo, Feliciano Angelino, Alarcón Antonio, Catalán Arnulfo and Aquino Yasmin

Published: May 24, 2022

During the life cycle of people, some lose functional autonomy and a capability, which leads to dependency, with little or no mobility, due to physical or psychological factors, and not having sphincter control, some are exposed to frequent use of urine collectors such as diapers or bladder catheter for urination control, which cause inflammation and erosion of the skin by prolonged contact with urine. This work shows the implementation of a prototype diaper designed with reusable fabrics and an integrated device for automated drainage, combining Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools and electronic components that together achieve a device capable of directing and / or route the urine collected from each urination, to a urine collection bag, its self-control allows minimizing the time of exposure to moisture and avoid over hydration of the skin, which causes severe skin lesions. The purpose of making this project known is for educational and motivational purposes for the areas of knowledge where technologies are applied for the benefit of society.
Keywords: reusable cloth; collection bag; catch urine; sphincters

ML Enabled WhatsApp Chatbot using IBM Watson

Manasi Chhibber and Madhulika Bhadauria

Published: May 24, 2022

A chatbot mimics human interaction through voice or text interactions. Chatbots are used by businesses to interact with consumers in addition to the traditional client care channels like via phones, mails or social media. The most basic type of chatbot system handles jobs by interpreting user input and then searching its directory for content related to particular words or phrases. In a nutshell, it works as a keyword-based content retrieval system. Watson Studio provides a collaborative environment and resources to work on data in order to solve business challenges. Users may select tools for analyzing and displaying their data, cleaning and shaping it and using it for constructing and training machine learning models. Watson Assistant is a business-oriented AI chatbot. This enterprise AI technology can be used to create conversational AI applications. Since, loan application process can be extremely cumbersome, so we have developed a chatbot using IBM Watson that could help in easing this process. The chatbot has been integrated with WhatsApp using Twilio. By answering a series of standard questions related one’s application, one can see the risk percentage involved in taking the loan. This has been enabled using Machine Learning models.
Keywords: chatbot; machine learning; IBM Watson; loan risk prediction

According to a research the number of social businesses is estimated to exceed 20000 globally. “34% are in operation for between 2-5 years and constitute 2-3% of GDP-2010” [2-4]. In fact, modern social business is a recent phenomenon increasingly receiving worldwide attention especially when income inequality is expanding exponentially parallel to the growth of dollar millionaires both in the developing and developed societies. This paper demonstrates how social business can vary in form, distinct both in principles and practices but unique in substance. In other words, how they operate to impact economic life of men and women especially in poverty reduction and economic growth of a nation such as Bangladesh.
Keywords: Shariah based; Model; Income; Hypothesis; Investments; Rural development; Empowerment; Poverty reductionq

Smoking and Infertility: Female Health-Care and Reproductive Risks Associated with Smoking.

Mustafa Zakaria, Aya Al-ibraheemi, Wassym Senhaji, Mohammed Ennaji, Noureddine Louanjli and Mohammed Zarqaoui

Published: May 24, 2022

Smoking has an adverse impact on several female reproductive life aspects, like oviducts function, uterus impairment, menstrual function disturbance. Moreover, smoking during pregnancy is a fundamental cause of health problems for both mother and fetus. It raises embryo implantation complexities associated with health conditions such as heart and cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, and hypertension. Smoking has an adverse impact on several female reproductive life aspects, like oviducts function, uterus impairment, menstrual function disturbance. Moreover, smoking during pregnancy is a fundamental cause of health problems for both mother and fetus. It raises embryo implantation complexities associated with health conditions such as heart and cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, and hypertension. Furthermore, several cigarette smoke compounds have toxic impacts on clinical IVF/ICSI treatment.
Keywords: Smoking and female reproductive health; Oviduct damage by smoking; Pregnancy risk associated with smoking; Impact of smoking on fertility; embryo implementation; life birth rate (ART treatment) 

     Often is the case that researchers rely on just the statistical significance of the result in question to convey the study results to a broader audience, whether that is a publication or a presentation at a medical meeting. Ignored are the interpretation from the clinical perspective and the magnitude of the statistic in question.
     A noticeable misstep is the interpretation of the correlation coefficient, often times the researcher interprets the p-value and leaves it at that. Not discussed is the degree of association, whether there is no, weak, moderate, or strong correlation.

Oral Health and Non-Communicable Diseases: How to Integrate?

Kaung Myat Thwin

Published: May 19, 2022

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a group of conditions that affect modern lifestyle, and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioural factors. They includes four major NCDs namely: cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases. NCDs are one of the major challenges for health and sustainable human development; characterized by a long disease phase, and then became the leading cause of death in our society. Each year, it can cause 41 million people deaths, which is about 71% of all global deaths. In addition, NCDs kill >15 million 30-69 year-old people and low- and middle-income countries are mostly affected for premature deaths which account for 85% [1].

So you wake up in the morning with a sore tooth? This might be accompanied by a general feeling of discomfort. You probably have tooth sensitivity, which is when your teeth are sensitive to hot or cold foods and liquids. The causes of tooth sensitivity are diverse, so it’s important to know how to treat it and when to see your dentist. That being said, here’s what you need to know about tooth sensitivity.

Assessment of Groundwater in Al-Lith Region

Sami Goren, Khalid Albijali, Rayan Alghamdi, Abdul Gaffar Alomari and Meshal Alzahrani

Published: May 18, 2022

There are many random wells in the city of Al-Lith, especially in the east of the city of Al-Lith in (the study area). There are no desalination companies in the area, and there are no data showing that the wells are potable & non-potable, and there is no information about the groundwater level in the area. In the beginning, the locations of the targeted wells were determined to conduct the study on, and then the samples were collected from the 20 identified sites in the east of the city of Al-Lith, from 20 wells, and the depth of each well was also determined. According to the results, the aim is to give idea for the water wells whether potable or non-potable.
Keywords: groundwater, water well, water quality, pollution, potable water