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Medicon Open Access

Medicon Open Access is an international Scientific Publication Group with high Impact and peer reviewed journals in the Field of science.  The prime focus of this publisher is to explore scientific knowledge across the globe by a peer reviewed system with the outstanding support of our Editors, Reviewers and Authors.

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Medicon is an international publisher with Open Access Journals which covers all the topics across the global scientific community. This is the best platform for exchanging innovative ideas and knowledge. We always try to provide the best quality articles to the Scientific Community.
 

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Latest Article

Grain Yield of Dual-Purpose Barley Genotypes Estimated by AMMI, BLUP and Non-Parametric measures after One Cut

Ajay Verma, RPS Verma, J Singh, Lokendra Kumar and Gyanendra Pratap Sing

Published: June 24, 2022

AMMI analysis evaluated the total variations in genotypic yield values across the environments and partied the total variations into various components to assess their significance. Environments, GxE interactions, and genotypes effects were highly significant with 69.4%, 24.1%, 3.4% respectively. IPCA-5 favored G11, G6, G8 as per IPCA-6 genotypes would be G5, G4, G17 while IPCA-7 pointed towards G3, G20, G4. First two AMMI components totalled 57.6% and ASV1 & ASV measures recommended (G4, G20, G15). MASV1 & MASV measures considered 98.5% total of seven Interaction principal components and identified G15, G9, G6 genotypes. G21, G17, G10 would be of consistent yield as per least values of standard deviation whereas CV identified G6, G10, G17 genotypes. Non parametric measures Si s selected G15, G13, G9 whereas non parametric composite measures selected G15, G13, G20, G16. Biplot analysis observed Si 1, Si 2, Si 3, Si 4, Si 5, Si 6, Si 7, ASV, ASV1, MASV, MASV1 NPi (1), NPi (3), NPi (4) accounted more in first principal component whereas Mean of genotypic yield, Average of BLUP of genotypic yield, PC1, GM, HM , HMPRVG, PRVG, were major contributors for second principal component. AMMI based measures ASV, ASV1, MASV, MASV1 clustered with Si 6, Si 7 in first quadrant. Out of two, first comprised of IPC3, IPC6, IPC7 measures while next one consisted of BLUP based measures with mean yield and IPC1. Measures NPi (2), NPi (3), NPi (4) formed a cluster with Stdev, CV as this cluster observed adjacent to cluster of MASV1, NPi (1), Si 1, Si 4Si 2, Si 5 in same quadrant.
Keywords: AMMI; BLUP; Biplot analysis; Non parametric composite measures

At present, 121 million agricultural holdings are in India; out of these 99 million holdings are small and marginal (87%). Small holdings are not well suited to farm mechanization, coupled with poor economic condition of farming community and lack of resources; these factors are exclusively responsible for the slow growth of Indian Agricultural. Hence, there is immense need to develop area specific integrated farming system models to resolve multi-dimensional problems prevailing related to agriculture and allied sectors. Integrated farming systems approach is one of the most powerful tools for enhancing productivity, profitability, nutritional security, livelihood improvement, employment generation and sustainability of the farm households, particularly small and marginal farming communities, presently they have constituted more than 87% of the total farm households. In India, increasing population demands coupled with decreasing availability of farm resources resulted declining in productivity which warrants an immediate attention of researchers to tackle these problems and there is urgent need to reorient agriculture research programs from individualistic enterprise approach to need developed holistic approach of integrated farming system. The concept of integrated farming system research integrates various enterprises and resources (inputs) at the farm level into consideration for planning production of crops, selecting cropping systems and combining various enterprises to develop integrated farming systems having sustainable agriculture production systems. Similarly, inclusion of horticulture, dairy farming, bee keeping, fisheries, poultry farming, sheep and goat rearing, sericulture, mushroom cultivation under two or three tier system of integrated farming can give substantial additional high energy food without affecting production of food grains. Soil, water, climate, marketing, labour, transport and local demands are the main criteria to select the farming systems for any working place. Moreover, integrated farming system is a biologically integration system, which integrates mechanism into farming activities to achieve utmost replacement of off- farm inputs and sustain farm profits through decease of costs of production and augment productivity of the entire system towards vertical horizon. As regards to livelihood security, the IFS approach adopted in the model met almost all the homegrown family demands of cereals, pulses, oil, fruit, milk, meat, vegetables, and value-added products. Moreover, integrated farming systems also pave the needed socially acceptable, environmental hygiene and economically viable to large growing population of India. Therefore, now the need of develop an agro-ecology based integrated farming system which would augment soil health, ecological balance, employment generation and fertilizers cost reduction through recycled farmbased by-products. Further, most of the inputs being used in agriculture becoming costlier and go out of reaches to common man which results in farming becoming unviable and unsustainable enterprise particular to small and marginal households of India. Hence, it is clear that adoption of allied enterprises enhanced the net return sizably over the arable farming. Thus, whole farmingsystem approach is very constructive in solving the various problems of farmers in India.
Keywords: Enterprises; Employment generation; Environment safety; Farming system components; Farm family; Farm based waste; Food security; Integrated farming system; Livelihood; Marketing; Nutritional security; Productivity; Profitability; Recycling; Sustainability

Defining Adaptation of Space Medicine within Military Medicine

Bryce R Williams

Published: June 24, 2022

Aim: The research study aims to determine whether the integration between Military Medicine and Space Medicine allows clinicians to improve their scope of practice, casualty variety, and confidence in unexpected situations that may influence other medical specialties over time through the development of Space Warfare Medicine.
Methods: Methods chosen facilitate the search for specific literature that applies to Space Medicine or Military Medicine while also observing perspectives from clinicians in the respective medical specialties.
Results: The integration of Space Medicine into Military Medicine is essential in the medical community as demands increase for clinicians trained in both Emergency Medicine and Space Medicine practices with the development of the USSF and commercialized space travel. Furthermore, Space Medicine is still very dangerous and proves to be far more complex than other specialties in which clinicians have limited time to adapt at the point of injury where unexpected events are likely to occur.
Conclusion: The significance of the ability to adapt to adverse conditions as the main connection between Military Medicine and Space Medicine justifies Space Medicine’s high affinity with Military Medicine that other specialties may not match.
Keywords: Space Medicine; Military Medicine; Space Warfare Medicine; space travel; microgravity

Pico-sized Water Information Transfers and Changes Substance Property

Sunao Sugihara and Hiroshi Maiwa

Published: June 24, 2022

We take care of the water daily life, but people are no worried about in daily life. There is a few of research on the water as basic science. We study the fundamental theme in water, not H2O itself, which is the item that many people focus on it. Water forms a cluster of five or more with hydrogen bonds. However, we are perspective what happens if we dissociate the bonding. We find two points: a particle and wave in quantum physics of the water after dissociating hydrogen bonds. As a result, the water’s information transfers through space and affects other substances. Then, we employ some equipment to elucidate the characteristics indirectly since we cannot directly observe not only H2O itself but also the hydrogen bond-dissociated particle with instruments. So, we use the research with optical, electricity, and magnetics associated with nuclear magnetic resonance, superconducting quantum interference, far-infrared optical spectroscopy, and laser flash.
     We find to understand macroscopic water properties from pico-sized water analysis.

The CCL5 in Breast Cancer is Platelet CCL5- A Hypothesis

Pushpam Kumar Sinha

Published: June 21, 2022

CCL2 and CCL5 are the two chemokines plentifully expressed in Breast Cancer (BC). Close associations between CCL2 and CCL5 have been hypothesized; and both have been demonstrated to confer metastatic potential to the BC cells. Hence understanding the biology of either will shed light on the other. And in this paper I choose to investigate the source of CCL5 (in BC cells). Pin-pointing the source of CCL5 will lead to focused therapeutic intervention against BC metastasis. Through the analysis of connections between CCL5 and Interleukin 8 (IL8), I hypothesize that the CCL5 in BC is platelet CCL5. As a result of this hypothesis Aspirin seems to be the focused drug against BC metastasis. But there are challenges with using this drug in BC patient who is also simultaneously not suffering from any cardiovascular disorder.
Keywords: Chemokines; Milieu of Tumor Cells; Monocytes; Macrophages; Platelet suspension

Fibrous Dysplasia of the Paranasal Sinuses - A Rare Presentation

Apurva Vatkar, Amrapali-Keny Pawar, Dhanashree Chiplunkar and Jisha Sathyan

Published: June 21, 2022

Fibrous Dysplasia in the head neck region generally have a predilection for the maxilla and the mandible. Presentation of FD as a paranasal sinus lesion is very rarely reported in literature. We present such a case of paranasal sinus FD discovered incidentally during the ENT examination in a patient presenting with mucosal disease of the middle ear.
Keywords: Fibrous Dysplasia; paranasal sinus

Etiology Analysis and Antimicrobial Selection in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Kundan Kumar Chaudhary, Abhishek Adhikari, Krishna Kumar Sah, Subash Kumar Chaudhary, He Li, Gong and Jing Ping ma

Published: June 21, 2022

Objective: This study was conducted to prospectively analyze the clinical features of hospitalized patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD), sputum culture and drug susceptibility results, and the use and efficacy of antimicrobial to guide the pathogens of AECOPD hospitalized patients. Learning judgment and choice of antimicrobial drugs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 327 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jingzhou Central Hospital from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018 were enrolled. Among them, 46 patients were positive for sputum microbial culture, and 48 positive sputum culture results were obtained. The demographic characteristics (age, gender, BMI index), smoking history, acute exacerbation/year, mMRC score were statistically analyzed. CAT score, lung function index, presence or absence of respiratory failure, sputum culture type and drug sensitivity, antibacterial drug selection. All data were tabulated and divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of respiratory failure. The clinical data and etiology differences of the 2 groups were counted. According to the sputum culture, G-negative bacilli or fungi were divided into two groups, and the clinical data of the two groups were counted. The measurement data were mean±standard error, and the percentage was used. The statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s exact test. The measurement data were analyzed by independent sample t test. The count data were analyzed by chi-square test. The P value was less than 0.05, which was statistically significant.
Results: A total of 327 cases were involved in the study, of which 48 were positive for sputum culture (46 patients). In the positive patients, 41 males (89.10%) and 5 females (10.4%) showed that males had higher prevalence than females. The most common age group is mostly 70-79 years old, with an average age of 73.08 years. During the follow-up, 8 people died in first year (58-83 years old, average 70.1 years old), and the mortality rate was 17.39%. Among the 46 patients, the available data were analyzed, BMI: 22.68 ± 0.67 (N = 28), AE / year: 1.82 ± 0.12 (N = 46), age (years): 73.52 ± 1.22 (N = 46), mMRC: 2.82±0.20 (N=28), CAT: 23.55±1.43 (N=27), FEV1:1.05±0.08 (N=28), FEV1%: 45.21%±3.29% (N=28), FVC: 2.25±0.11 (N=28), FVC%: 75.07% ± 3.4% (N=28). The most common microorganism in sputum culture was Candida albicans (50%), a total of 24 cases. There were 14 cases (30%) of bacterial infections and 34 cases (70%) of fungal infections. The most commonly used antibiotics for AECOPD patients are fluoroquinolones, followed by ceftazidime, followed by carbomycins, and antifungal drugs are most commonly fluconazole, followed by voriconazole. There was a statistically significant difference in the composition ratio between bacteriaand fungi between the first sputum culture and the non-first sputum culture (P=0.018), suggesting that the late stage of hospitalization was fungal infection. FEV1 and FVC between the respiratory failure group (14 cases) and the non-respiratory failure group (34 cases). AE/year was statistically significant (P<0.05), 2 groups. Candida albicans is the main pathogen in the patients. According to the pathogen, G-negative bacilli and fungi were divided into two groups. There was no significant difference in age, BMI, mMRC, CAT, AE times/year, FEV1 and FVC between the two groups.  
Conclusion: G-negative bacilli and fungal infections were the most common in male, elderly, and recurrent AECOPD hospitalized patients, with the highest incidence of Candida albicans infection. Fungi was main source of infection in the late stay after 5 to 7 days of hospitalization. Candida albicans is most common positive pathogen in hospitalized patients regardless of whether it is associated with respiratory failure. This suggests that our combination of antibacterial and antifungal drugs in clinical treatment, especially in the late hospital stay can benefit these patients.
Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; acute exacerbation; respiratory failure; sputum culture

Road Safety Measures among Adolescents and Youths

Safeena Beevi SS

Published: June 21, 2022

Road safety is both a health and development issue of concern. Road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of deaths, disabilities and hospitalizations with severe socioeconomic costs across the world and India in particular. As per the ‘Road Accidents in India 2020’, there were 3,66,138 unfortunate road accidents during 2020, which claimed 1,31,714 lives and caused injuries to 3,48,279 persons [1]. As per the World Health Organization, at least one out of 10 persons killed on roads across the world is from India and India positions first in the number of road accident deaths worldwide. The youth are particularly vulnerable on the world’s roads, and road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults aged 5-29 years [2]. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH) has considered road safety an issue of paramount importance. It has been taking proactive steps to address it by a technique called 4Es, Education, Engineering (of both roads and vehicles), Enforcement and Emergency care. Hence instruction and education to the adolescent and youth are of utmost importance to prevent road traffic accidents [1].

     There is a fast-growing precognition of team building that is sharpened by the technological capacity development of human resources in a technologically advancing world. As most organizations in the business world constantly evolve and strive to achieve competitive advantage in the market space, the relevance and role of team building becomes more fundamental and demanding. Teamwork elevates the trajectory and visionary inclination of organizations regardless of their sizes, successes and market dominance.
     This study will examine, analyze and discuss team building in the view of its stages of development: Forming Stage, Storming Stage, Norming Stage, and the Performing Stage. It would lay out the strategic impact each stage has on the other. It would analyze; the adjourning team roles-Belbin, team roles, action-oriented role, shaper, implementer, completer, coordinator, worker, resource investigator, and the laws of teamwork. More often than not, most workers aspire to excel professionally in their chosen field of career. For some it is a personal goal and aim to achieve career excellence while striving and aspiring to reach higher heights of acclaimed privilege in the society and in their country at large. All of these intentions, aspirations and visions are personalized and individualistic until it meets a broader shared vision offered by the organization through team building, team collaboration and team role.
     While team building requires the utilization of motivation, enthusiasm and a common sense of shared vision, ethical consciousness and moral responsibilities as means towards achieving a solidified and united team is also recognized. This identifies the presence of individuality and how that could be a hindrance, limitation and threat to the process of building and developing a team. Team building is a structured and functional system in an organization that aids the establishments of a definite purpose, creates organizational culture, and institutionalizes the visionary outlook and organizational advancement. Team building is the process of enhancing, developing and enriching the knowledge base of each team player in a workforce in order for each worker to be more effective in accomplishing the tasks and assigned duty to an acceptable degree of satisfaction that is needed for the organization.
Keywords: Team-building; Teamwork; Team roles; Team development; organizational intelligence; Law of significance; Purposedriven; Capacity–building; Talent-management; Organizational development

Corporate Social Responsibility also known as corporate engagement with society is now a general expression in today’s present-day world and fundamentally it is fast-becoming a recognized methodological approach for organizations. Organizations illustrate, contribute and establish their incorporated customs through duties that reflect their common sense of share consciousness and ethics. The foundational elements of the Corporate Social Responsibilities of an organization reveals a clearer, deeper and acceptance of the organization’s operational culture of sustainability. The organization’s principles of transparency, its level of accountability all of these and more lays the structure that justifies an organization’s Corporate Behavior.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Sustainability; Transparency; Accountability; Corporate Behavior; Ethical Philosophies; Deontological Ethics; Teleological Ethics; Utilitarianism; Ethical Relativism; Stakeholder

An Analysis Framework of Change Management

Linda Etareri

Published: June 18, 2022

The organizational restructuring and institutionalization of Change Management is a fluid and elusive process that functions through a broad, holistic and yet a very conscious approach to implement, execute and create top-level excellent tasks, responsibilities, and duties with competency, organizational integrity, trust and professionalism in line as goals to achieve. As the top priority of company’s envisioned goals, visionary accomplishments and professionalism comes change management as the corrective tool and measures that can insure the improvement and advancement of organizational effectiveness. This seminar paper will aim at defining change management; it would create a discussion on the various views, and assertions of change management. The relevance of change management to the external and internal structures of organizations ensures, guarantees the heights and levels of development and advancement an organization can accomplish. In a competitive global market space were change is unavoidably constant, the understanding and studying of change management becomes the greatest means.
Keywords: Approaches; Bottom-up; Business Leadership; Competency; Change management; Change model; Organizational management; Strategy; Techniques; Top-down

Ensure Automotive Cyber Security with Management

Wenbo Jia, Haijun Wang, Yingyi Yao, Jing Liu, Yanxin Wu, Xu Liu and Shubin Tao

Published: June 10, 2022

With the automotive industry’s continuous development of electrification, connectivity, intelligentization, sharing, automotive cyber security issues are becoming increasingly serious. How to effectively guarantee the cyber security of automotive products has become one of the urgent problems to be solved in the whole automotive industry. According to current situation of the industry, this paper argues that strengthening the cyber security management is very important, and according to the domestic and foreign automotive cyber security related laws, regulations and standards’ requirements, proposes the construction route, evaluation and optimization focus of automotive cyber security management system based on the risk management of the whole automotive product life cycle, which provides reference for enterprises to ensure the cyber security of automotive products.
Keywords: Intelligent Connected Vehicles; Cyber Security Management System; System Evaluation and Optimization

Evaluation of Green Total Factor Productivity in the Yellow River Basin of China

Jingcheng Li, Guangwei Rui and Xinyi Mei

Published: June 10, 2022

The Yellow River Basin is an important energy production base, heavy industry base, and grain production area in China. Meanwhile, the ecological environment in this area is also very fragile. The success of carbon emission control in this region is related to whether China can complete its vision of carbon peak and carbon neutralization on time. Taking carbon emissions as the non-ideal output of the economy into the nonparametric DEA Malmquist index model, this paper measures the green Malmquist index of 9 provinces in the Yellow River Basin from 2014 to 2020 and analyzes the impact of the green Malmquist index, green technology efficiency and green technology progress rate on the regional economic growth gap and its time evolution trend. The results show that the green total factor productivity of the region shows a fluctuating upward trend from 2014 to 2020, but the direction of efficiency progress is negative. Therefore, the Yellow River Basin needs to reform the management system of high energy-consuming industries and strengthen environmental supervision in the future. In addition, the changes in green total factor productivity in various provinces show high heterogeneity, which poses new challenges to the formulation of emission reduction policies.
Keywords: The Yellow River Basin; Energy industry; Carbon control; Green total factor productivity

Experimental Study of the Consolidation Characteristics of Saturated and Unsaturated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Using Large Scale Consolidometer

Gajrawala Tirth Nikhilbhai, Dr. M. V. Shah and Prof. Shalini. R. Singh

Published: June 06, 2022

Municipal Solid Waste is a heterogeneous mixture of various materials such as food, glass, soil, ash, plastic, etc. Since there are no generally accepted sampling and testing procedures for waste materials, principles of soil mechanics. A good understanding of the properties of unsaturated Municipal solid waste is required for the design of the underground pipelines. Settlement prediction is an important issue to guarantee any post-closure structures on landfills. The present study is an attempt to determine the consolidation characteristics of saturated and unsaturated MSW from the Pirana landfill site, Ahmedabad (India) using a large size Consolidometer having an aspect ratio of 1:0.635. At present five tests were conducted on saturated municipal solid waste for 100% saturation and five on unsaturated MSW keeping a degree of saturation=50% at different water contents. The tests were carried out at the pressure of 20kpa, 40kpa, 80kpa, 160kpa, and 320kpa respectively. The consolidation settlement resulted in both types of waste being compared. It was concluded that the saturated MSW compacted on the dry side of the optimum has less settlement compared to the MSW compacted on the wet side of the optimum while the time taken for the unsaturated MSW was slightly higher as compared to that of the saturated MSW.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste, Consolidation, Unsaturated, Compressibility

Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Pathway to Organ Printing

Prajwal Agrawal

Published: June 06, 2022

With the advent of additive manufacturing, various processes have been developed over the years. A prominent example is bioprinting. The technology involves the use of biocompatible materials and living cells to construct functional structures and constructs that mimic the properties of human body tissues [1]. It is estimated that 20 people die every day due to a lack of organ transplantation in the United States alone [2]. With the development of new diseases and an increasing population, this number is expected to increase over time. It is possible for bioprinting to provide a solution for this issue, but it will need many modifications and development to result in a living organ with multiple cell types and materials [3].

Management of Acute Lithiasic Cholecystitis in a Secondary Hospital: Somine Dolo Hospital in Mopti Epidemiological Aspects, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Evolution

B Traoré, M Coulibaly, D Traoré, O Guindo, A Traoré, D Cisse, P Coulibaly, S Mariko, A Guindo, DT Théra, ARB Sidbé, KI Keita, MS Konate, FM Keita, S Toure, D Samaké and AP Togo

Published: June 01, 2022

Acute cholecystitis can now have an impact worthy of interest in black Africa, although it was considered rare in the past. Several surgical works currently published in Africa have demonstrated this.
     The objective of this work was therefore to determine the hospital frequency in the department of general surgery of acute lithiasic cholecystitis, to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects, to describe the surgical follow-up and to evaluate the cost of management.
     This was a retrospective and prospective study that was carried out from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018 in the general surgery department of the Sominé Dolo Hospital in Mopti. It involved 46 patients including 16 men and 30 women with an average age of 50.64 years ± 14.97 and sex-ratio of 0.54, having been operated by intraoperatively confirmed acute cholecystitis laparotomy.
     The annual frequency was 15.33 cases/year. The defense sign in right hypochondrium was found in all our patients. Cholecystectomy was the rule of surgical treatment in the absence of the laparoscopy spine, and non-training of surgeons in coeliosurgery, all our patients were operated by conventional surgery. Antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic therapy were performed in all our patients. Vesicular bed drainage 45(97.8%) was the main surgical procedure associated with cholecystectomy Operative soot was simple in 84.8% of our patients. The morbidity rate was 13.04%; the mortality rate was 2.17%.
     The average cost of care was 129,800 FCFA (±9650 FCFA) ie 197.66 ± 14.69 euros.
Keywords: Acute lithiasic cholecystitis; complications; classical surgery; Sominé Dolo Hospital of Mopti

A Novel Solution Viz a Viz Climate Change

Mister Seun Ayoade

Published: June 01, 2022

Various views on climate change exist. Many proposals to combat it also exist. Since I hold an unconventional view about the origin of life and the earth [1] some may wonder if I also hold an unconventional view about how to preserve the planet. 

Stigma Networks towards the formation of Intellectual Capital in the Face of COVID-19

Wilfrido Isidro Aldana Balderas, Arturo Sanchez Sanchez, Francisco Espinoza Morales and Cruz Garcia Lirios

Published: June 01, 2022

A documentary study was carried out with a non-probabilistic selection of sources indexed in international repositories, considering the year of publication and the relationship between the concepts of organization and human capital. The empirical test of the null hypothesis suggests the non-rejection of a significant difference between the findings reported in the literature with respect to the observations and analyzes carried out in the present work. It is concluded that the observed sample can anticipate a scenario of convergence between labor stigma and talents in their modality of human, intellectual and intangible capital in the organizations that were studied during the pandemic period from December 2019 to April 2022.
Keywords: COVID-19; Human capital; Intellectual capital; Intangible capital

Transfer of the Posterior Tibialis on the Lateral Cuneiform in Paralysis of the Elevator Muscles of the Foot

Coulibaly Kalifa, Traoré S, Sanogo CO1, Diallo A, Djiré I, Keïta G, Diallo S, Tambassi S and Berthé M

Published: June 01, 2022

The paralysis of the foot elevators is a common condition with a variety of etiologies. The transfer of the posterior tibialis on the lateral cuneiform constitutes the surgical gesture of reference to compensate for the deficit of the elevators of the foot.
Objective
The aim of this work was to evaluate the result of the transfer of the posterior tibialis on the lateral cuneiform. 
Patients and Method
This was a descriptive retrospective study from January 2006 to December 2021. During the study period, we operated on 07 patients with paralysis of the foot elevators at the Regional Hospital of Kayes and at the University Hospital of Kati. The results were assessed according to the raising and maintenance of the plantigrade position of the foot.
Results
The use of the aforementioned judgment criteria allowed us to classify our Patients into four very good results, two good results and one poor result. The only bad result was hind foot varus with posterior tibialis side 4.
Conclusion
The transfer of the posterior tibialis on the lateral cuneiform ensures the effective raising of the foot. Postoperative rehabilitation is an integral part of the therapeutic protocol to restore the transferred muscle to its initial strength.
Keywords: paralysis; foot elevators; Surgery; posterior tibialis

Identification of High Andean Wetlands using SRTM & LANDSAT Images at the Head of the Chaschuil River Basin, Catamarca, Argentina

Malvina Serra, Erlinda del Valle Ortiz and Adriana Ediht Niz

Published: May 30, 2022

This work shows a study carried out in the upper area of the Chaschuil Valley in the South Ramsar Subsidy of the province of Catamarca for the identification of wetlands through the analysis of SRTM and LANDSAT images. Factors influencing the use of wetlands, such as size, fertile plains, water dynamics and associated vegetation, were considered. The image processing of the Landsat 8 satellite (PATH-ROW = 232-079) was carried out, as well as the sampling data of the January 2019 campaign. Base maps were generated and analysis of geographic information system (GIS) to classify water bodies. The results allowed us to better understand the relationship between the geomorphology of the basin and its water dynamics and allow us to advance in the study of wetlands of importance to the ecosystem of the region.
Keywords: Wetlands, SRTM Images; Water; GIS

Macroeconomic Variables and Agricultural Output in Nigeria

Okeke Daniel C and Okeke Onyinye Rita

Published: May 30, 2022

The research work investigated the effect of macroeconomic variables on agricultural output in Nigeria. The study spanned from the period of 1995-2020, making it 26 observatory years. The agricultural output growth represented the explained variable while money supply, commercial bank loan on agriculture, exchange rate, interest rate, recurrent government expenditure on agriculture and inflation rate represented the explanatory variables which served as the selected macroeconomic variables under study. The stationary of the variables were checked using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. The researcher went further to test for the long run relationship using the Johansen Co-integration technique. The OLS analysis was computed which shows that the model is statistically significance, judging with the p-value of the F-statistic. The analysis also presented that money supply, exchange rate and inflation have a positive relationship with agricultural output within the given period of study while commercial bank loan on agriculture, interest rate and recurrent government expenditure on agriculture have a negative link with the explained variable. Based on the findings, the researcher made its recommendation in the work.
Keywords: Agriculture; Output; Macro economics; Variables; Nigeria

Magic Mushroom

Neela Manna

Published: May 30, 2022

Whenever we hear mushroom, we know that it is a spore bearing fruiting body of a fungus that generally grows on ground or on its food source. There are many kinds of mushroom that differ in their chemical components and vary from edible to poisonous mushroom. Typically, there is presence of a mushroom variety that has Psilocybin compound in it. They are found in both pileus(cap) and stipe(stem) of mushroom but mostly in pileus. These types of mushrooms are known as Psilocybin Mushroom or “Magic Mushrooms”.

Role of Renewable Energy in Ensuring Eco-Friendly Environment

Abdulraheem Mukhtar Iderawumi

Published: May 30, 2022

The demand for energy and related services is rising in order to meet social and economic development and improve human welfare and health. Energy services are needed in any civilization to provide basic human requirements (such as lighting, cooking, space comfort, movement, and communication) as well as to support productive processes. Nigeria has a good forestry enabling environment, but it has to expand in scope, coverage, and efficiency to adequately serve other regions that have been disadvantaged by extensive deforestation and environmental degradation in their surroundings. The government will profit from pursuing well-articulated forestry policies programs that will greatly reduce the pressure on large cities and towns, as well as enhance the availability of cheap basic services, making life easier for citizens.
Keywords: Renewable Energy (RE); Agriculture; Climate Change; Environment

This study investigated the effect of two different methods, i.e. air-drying and freeze-drying, of preservation of elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) cultivated in Valdichiana, a traditional cultivation area of Tuscany, Italy, on its nutritional characteristics (i.e. soluble proteins. polyphenols, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity, starch, soluble sugars, allicin). The results showed that compared to the fresh product, the traditional method of air-drying causes significant reductions only in the total antioxidant power (-46%) and in the content of starch (-22%), while the modern method of freeze-drying negatively affects almost all the parameters investigated, overall by about 40%. The content of allicin is not changed by the preservation method. Although freeze-drying is considered one of the best methods for preserving plant-based food, attention should be paid to the effect of this process on the nutritional characteristics of the product.
Keywords: Food; Freeze-drying; Giant garlic; Great-headed garlic; Air-drying

Opisthorchiids, Heterophyids and Aquaculture: A Brief Review

R Bhar, J Paul, AB Gamit, PK Nanda and S Bandyopadhyay

Published: May 30, 2022

Fish borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) affect millions of people worldwide especially in Asian countries and are of considerable economic importance because of their various degrees of morbidity and economic losses. They are normally transmitted to the definitive host by consumption of raw or improperly cooked fish harbouring viable metacercariae. The life cycle is complex which requires two intermediate hosts (snails & fish) and one definitive host (human). Interestingly, they can also complete their life cycle in the hosts other than the humans (reservoir hosts) which play a great role to maintain the infection in the environment. Diagnosis is mainly done by demonstration of eggs and adult parasites from infected definitive or reservoir host and recently, it is complemented by molecular techniques. These trematodes are mostly prevalent in the countries with traditional aquaculture practices. So, proper aquaculture practices should be followed and the production of parasite free fish for human consumption should be a key objective for the aquaculture industry. This review summarizes the global status, life cycle pattern, pathology, diagnosis and also some recommendations for prevention and control of the fish borne zoonoses.
Keywords: Aquaculture; Fish; Metacercariae; Opisthorchiidae; Heterophyidae; Zoonoses

Predicting Global Average Land Temperatures Using Microsoft Azure Machine Learning Studio

Sagar Tewari, Sarthak Agarwal and Madhulika Bhatia

Published: May 30, 2022

To accurately calculate the global average temperature has proven to be an arduous task since the 19th century, the major reasons are maintaining accurate records of the same locations over a lengthy period which has strained the meteorologists, especially in places located remotely, like mountains or deserts. This is the reason meteorologists use global averages which generally span over 3 decades to give perspective and context to information.
We decided to use the Linear Regression Model to achieve this task at hand. Linear regression is an algorithm which is used for determining the relationship between an dependent variable and some independent variables which are also known as scalar response explanatory variables respectively. The relationship between dependent and independent variables are calculated using predictor functions which are linear in nature whose parameters which are not known are found out through the means of the data provided. Hence, it is paramount that we give our model a clean and digestible data so that it learns well and predicts accurately. It’s equally important that we maintain the dimensions of the data and be careful that it is not too high or not too low, it should be just right. We also employed the Pearson’s Correlation method for Feature Selection. After which we also tuned the hyperparameters among other things to gain the most suitable parameters for the model. Finally, we compared our results from normal model generation to hyperparameter tuned mode.
Keywords: AZURE; Machine Learning; Linear Regression; Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient

Human Intelligence and Machines

Tilottama Goswami

Published: May 30, 2022

Current trends in engineering and technology have made a great impact in automation on a day-to-day basis in almost every field. The advantages of automation are manifold -reducing human interventions, increase in productivity, reducing human errors, and to enhance their capability to work; especially in hazardous and danger zone areas. Human labor-intensive tasks/repetitive tasks where human fatigue and error is a usual phenomenon are usually good candidates for automation. Can automation succeed in tasks which need human expertise and intelligence? Its limitations does not allow it to automate every task. Automation is a straightforward algorithm which takes input data and produces output according to the algorithm. When intelligence and cognitive capabilities have to be embedded in a machine to mimic the way human would execute the task, automation becomes conceptually closer to Artificial Intelligence (AI). 

Solving V2X Blocking Algorithm

Li Yongdong

Published: May 30, 2022

LTE-V2X is becoming the most technology for automatic pilot. But the interference affects the capacity of V2X when the traffic is busy. This article presents the soling V2X blocking algorithm to void the problem happening. It is time division method. Node B acts as a master to assign the slot and symbol to all of OBUs under the area. If out of range of LTE network, the OBUs votes one OBU as Node B to allocate the slot and symbol to them, all OBUs Synchronization with the OBU, then time division can work.
Keywords: V2X; OBU; Node B; Time division; LTE; interference; blocking; PBCH; broadcast; synchronization; Mode 3. Mode 4

Diaper with Automated Drainage System for Dependent Peoplec

Cuevas Rene, Alonso Gustavo, Feliciano Angelino, Alarcón Antonio, Catalán Arnulfo and Aquino Yasmin

Published: May 24, 2022

During the life cycle of people, some lose functional autonomy and a capability, which leads to dependency, with little or no mobility, due to physical or psychological factors, and not having sphincter control, some are exposed to frequent use of urine collectors such as diapers or bladder catheter for urination control, which cause inflammation and erosion of the skin by prolonged contact with urine. This work shows the implementation of a prototype diaper designed with reusable fabrics and an integrated device for automated drainage, combining Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools and electronic components that together achieve a device capable of directing and / or route the urine collected from each urination, to a urine collection bag, its self-control allows minimizing the time of exposure to moisture and avoid over hydration of the skin, which causes severe skin lesions. The purpose of making this project known is for educational and motivational purposes for the areas of knowledge where technologies are applied for the benefit of society.
Keywords: reusable cloth; collection bag; catch urine; sphincters

ML Enabled WhatsApp Chatbot using IBM Watson

Manasi Chhibber and Madhulika Bhadauria

Published: May 24, 2022

A chatbot mimics human interaction through voice or text interactions. Chatbots are used by businesses to interact with consumers in addition to the traditional client care channels like via phones, mails or social media. The most basic type of chatbot system handles jobs by interpreting user input and then searching its directory for content related to particular words or phrases. In a nutshell, it works as a keyword-based content retrieval system. Watson Studio provides a collaborative environment and resources to work on data in order to solve business challenges. Users may select tools for analyzing and displaying their data, cleaning and shaping it and using it for constructing and training machine learning models. Watson Assistant is a business-oriented AI chatbot. This enterprise AI technology can be used to create conversational AI applications. Since, loan application process can be extremely cumbersome, so we have developed a chatbot using IBM Watson that could help in easing this process. The chatbot has been integrated with WhatsApp using Twilio. By answering a series of standard questions related one’s application, one can see the risk percentage involved in taking the loan. This has been enabled using Machine Learning models.
Keywords: chatbot; machine learning; IBM Watson; loan risk prediction

According to a research the number of social businesses is estimated to exceed 20000 globally. “34% are in operation for between 2-5 years and constitute 2-3% of GDP-2010” [2-4]. In fact, modern social business is a recent phenomenon increasingly receiving worldwide attention especially when income inequality is expanding exponentially parallel to the growth of dollar millionaires both in the developing and developed societies. This paper demonstrates how social business can vary in form, distinct both in principles and practices but unique in substance. In other words, how they operate to impact economic life of men and women especially in poverty reduction and economic growth of a nation such as Bangladesh.
Keywords: Shariah based; Model; Income; Hypothesis; Investments; Rural development; Empowerment; Poverty reductionq

Smoking and Infertility: Female Health-Care and Reproductive Risks Associated with Smoking.

Mustafa Zakaria, Aya Al-ibraheemi, Wassym Senhaji, Mohammed Ennaji, Noureddine Louanjli and Mohammed Zarqaoui

Published: May 24, 2022

Smoking has an adverse impact on several female reproductive life aspects, like oviducts function, uterus impairment, menstrual function disturbance. Moreover, smoking during pregnancy is a fundamental cause of health problems for both mother and fetus. It raises embryo implantation complexities associated with health conditions such as heart and cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, and hypertension. Smoking has an adverse impact on several female reproductive life aspects, like oviducts function, uterus impairment, menstrual function disturbance. Moreover, smoking during pregnancy is a fundamental cause of health problems for both mother and fetus. It raises embryo implantation complexities associated with health conditions such as heart and cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, and hypertension. Furthermore, several cigarette smoke compounds have toxic impacts on clinical IVF/ICSI treatment.
Keywords: Smoking and female reproductive health; Oviduct damage by smoking; Pregnancy risk associated with smoking; Impact of smoking on fertility; embryo implementation; life birth rate (ART treatment) 

     Often is the case that researchers rely on just the statistical significance of the result in question to convey the study results to a broader audience, whether that is a publication or a presentation at a medical meeting. Ignored are the interpretation from the clinical perspective and the magnitude of the statistic in question.
     A noticeable misstep is the interpretation of the correlation coefficient, often times the researcher interprets the p-value and leaves it at that. Not discussed is the degree of association, whether there is no, weak, moderate, or strong correlation.

Oral Health and Non-Communicable Diseases: How to Integrate?

Kaung Myat Thwin

Published: May 19, 2022

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a group of conditions that affect modern lifestyle, and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioural factors. They includes four major NCDs namely: cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases. NCDs are one of the major challenges for health and sustainable human development; characterized by a long disease phase, and then became the leading cause of death in our society. Each year, it can cause 41 million people deaths, which is about 71% of all global deaths. In addition, NCDs kill >15 million 30-69 year-old people and low- and middle-income countries are mostly affected for premature deaths which account for 85% [1].

So you wake up in the morning with a sore tooth? This might be accompanied by a general feeling of discomfort. You probably have tooth sensitivity, which is when your teeth are sensitive to hot or cold foods and liquids. The causes of tooth sensitivity are diverse, so it’s important to know how to treat it and when to see your dentist. That being said, here’s what you need to know about tooth sensitivity.

Assessment of Groundwater in Al-Lith Region

Sami Goren, Khalid Albijali, Rayan Alghamdi, Abdul Gaffar Alomari and Meshal Alzahrani

Published: May 18, 2022

There are many random wells in the city of Al-Lith, especially in the east of the city of Al-Lith in (the study area). There are no desalination companies in the area, and there are no data showing that the wells are potable & non-potable, and there is no information about the groundwater level in the area. In the beginning, the locations of the targeted wells were determined to conduct the study on, and then the samples were collected from the 20 identified sites in the east of the city of Al-Lith, from 20 wells, and the depth of each well was also determined. According to the results, the aim is to give idea for the water wells whether potable or non-potable.
Keywords: groundwater, water well, water quality, pollution, potable water

Annatto (Bixa Orellana L.): Tocotrienol Supplement Benefits

Talita da Silva Ferreira, Aline Aguiar, Mary Ann Foglio, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Nogueira Carvalho and Fernanda Marconi Roversi

Published: May 18, 2022

Annatto (Bixa orellana L.), a native Brazilian plant, is acknowledged for containing the natural pigments found in the seeds mostly used by food industries worldwide. The species domestication is attributed to the Brazilian Amazon population. Although the commodity is extensively valued, annatto (Bixa orellana L.) has long been used as home remedy treatment of an array of disturbances. The biological activities and phyto chemical composition from different parts of this species are abundantly reported in scientific literature. Herein, the authors sought to correlate a relationship of the pharmacological activities with the plant’s chemical composition. According to published data annatto presents a wide range of biological activities, which corroborates the use of this commodity in pharmaceutical products .Among substances with biological activities, the Tocotrienol group is highlighted due to their great importance for human health. This study gives a review on the benefits of Tocotrienols from Annatto (Bixa orellana L.).
Keywords: Bixa orellana L.; urucum; annatto; tocotrienols

The study was conducted in South Omo Zone Benatsemayworedachalikebele from 2019-2021 G.C in the title “Evaluation of different spacing and demonstration of Becium grandflorum /“Tebeb”/ bee forage in South Omo Zone, Ethiopia” with the objective of evaluate the effect of different spacing on canopy cover, plant height, branch number and flower number and adaptability of Becium grandflorumbee forage. Beciumg randflorum cutting laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications by four different spacing (2m, 2.5m, 3m and 3.5m). The record parameter results were plant height 1.11m, 0.99m, 1.24m and 1.27m with treatments 2m, 2.5m, 3m and 3.5m spacing respectively, number of branches per plant were 17.33, 13.33,20 and 21.66 with treatments respectively, canopy cover were 1.39m, 1.29m, 1.7m and 1.5m with treatments respectively and number of flowers per plant were 15567, 14043, 19753 and 20083 with treatments respectively were recorded. All parameters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, canopy cover and number of flowers per plant were not statistically significance (p<0.05). The highest flower number, branches per plant and plant height was recorded in treatment 3.5m whereas the lowest flower number, branch per plant, plant height and canopy cover was recorded in treatment 2.5m. However the recorded parameter results were not statistically significance treatment 3.5m and treatment 3m spacing were recommended for Becium grandflorum cutting plantation with sufficient soil moisture and good soil condition.
Keywords: Becium grandflorum; DebubOmo; flower number; spacing

Insecticidal activity of the crude extract from Epichloë bromicola against Rhopalosiphum padi

Da-Hai Mei, Ting Ren and Qiu-Yan Song

Published: May 09, 2022

Rhopalosiphum padi is an important pest in agricultural production. In order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and improve the control effect, the study reported the insecticidal activity of the crude extract from 18 strains Epichloë bromicola isolated from Elymus tangutorum. The results showed that the crude extract of E. bromicola displayed insecticidal activity against R. padi. The results showed that 6strains with good activity were strains 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 18, and their mortality rate (65%, 71.7%, 75%, 88.3%, 60%, and 70.0%) reached more than 60% at 48h. However, the five strains of 4, 13-15, and 17 had no insecticidal activity, but could promote the growth of R. padi. Among them, strain 7 had the best insecticidal activity at 48h, and the mortality rate reached 88.3%. At the same time, the mortality rate of 48h was significantly higher than that of 24h. In conclusion, the crude extract of strain 7 with significant insecticidal activity will be of great significance for the biological control of R. padi in the future.
Keywords: Epichloë bromicola, Rhopalosiphum padi, crude extract, insecticidal activity

Introduction: Snoring endangers the health and can lead to the emergence or worsening of existing diseases, such as high blood pressure and heart attack. There are numerous surgical and non-surgical treatment options for snoring and snoring apnea syndrome (SAS). All surgical and conservative treatments do not address the cause of snoring, only the symptom. Gaumfit® is the first device that treats 90% of the causes of snoring.
Aim: To verify that primary snoring improves when the oral musculature is trained by the Gaumfit® exercise device. Method: In a retropspective analysis on 100 test persons (83 males and 17 females) the effectiveness of the innovative concept of Gaumfit® exercise device was analyzed. The subjects wore Gaumfit® for 3x10 minutes a day(!) and were interviewed after four weeks.
Results: Snoring was reduced in 94 out of 100 subjects. This represents a success rate of 94%. This finding is highly significant (p=0.008). It felt more rested in the morning 79% of Gaumfit® users. 94 subjects used Gaumfit® during the four weeks and rated the innovated therapy method with the predicate “good” (school grade 1.95).  
Conclusion: The oral muscle training device Gaumfit® significantly strengthens the palatal and tongue muscles and is therefore suitable to alleviate primary snoring.
Keywords: Snoring; muscle development; isometric contraction; well-being

The ultimate goal of any brand is to get positive responses from customers both emotionally and behaviorally for its marketing activities. This study examined how gamified interactions on health and fitness applications impacted consumers’ purchase intentions and assessed the role of positive emotions and brand engagement in developing this relationship. Data were collected from users of health and fitness apps through a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modelling technique. The findings suggest a strong indirect relationship between gamification and purchase intention. The study also found positive emotions and brand engagement to be significant sequential mediators of the gamification-purchase intention relationship.
Keywords: Health and fitness application; gamification; purchase intention; positive emotion; brand engagement

Our health on the earth has been threatened since the middle of the 1990s. Mostly, Flood and droughts due to climate change also affect the food supply in agriculture. We need healthy soils, clean water, and sunlight as well known. On the other hand, they want enough harvest and efficiency in plant growth. However, they are also a necessary theme for everybody globally, and they fertilize and spray pesticides containing various chemical medicine. As a result, we may damage, and the risk will be spread because of scattering from the air. Therefore, what we take the balance of these themes must be an increasingly imminent issue. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to inform why we use SIGN water so that we can achieve decrease of the damages with agricultural chemicals, and good harvest to use it. Here, we propose the usage of pesticides as little as possible so that we reduce the effects on crops and soils with our pico-sized water.

Water studies are widespread globally, and the methods are various kinds of technology. Some researchers study soft X-ray emission spectrometer [1], neutron diffraction [2], Raman scattering spectroscopy [3], Fourier transfer infrared spectra (FTIR) [4]. Those studies are mostly on H2O or any substance’s compound with water. The contents are a structure like an angle of the O-H bond in the water molecule. Some interesting issues include hydrogen cation [5], Rydberg, and valence-shell character in H2 [6].

Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Using Anaerobic Digestion Bio-Slurry Microbes

Kinyua A, Mbugua JK, Waswa AG, Mbui DN, Kithure J, Michira I and Wandiga SO

Published: April 23, 2022

Anaerobic digestion of degradable material yields biogas used as fuel and bio-slurry widely employed as organic fertilizer as well as chicken and fish supplements. The bio-slurry is rich in microbes which makes it applicable in the bio-remediation of persistent pollutants in soil. In the current research work, the bacterial forming unit was determined using the standard plate method at microbiology laboratory, University of Nairobi after-which the microbes in biogas bio-slurry was applied in microbial fuel cells bio-remediation of lambda cyhalothrin, malathion and chlorpyrifos. The bio-slurry was doped with 10 mL 10 ppm pesticide solution and subjected to voltage generation via a H-shaped dual chamber microbial fuel cell for a 90 days’ retention period. Daily voltage and current were recorded using a multi-meter while pesticide levels were determined using GC-MS after QuEChERS method extraction. The microbial counts result showed a 3.15±0.01 * 1010 CFU/ml from the biogas bio-slurry sample. The observed maximum voltage in bio-slurry was 0.568 V in day 28 while the maximum generated voltage on doping the biogas bio-slurry with the chlorpyrifos, lambda cyhalothrin, malathion and the pesticides mix (CLM) were 0.551, 0.565, 0.538 and 0.533 V respectively. The bio-degradation levels achieved were 73.40% malathion, 87.70% chlorpyrifos while no lambda cyhalothrin was detected on the 90th day of incubation.

Risks in the Geriatric Patient

Otto Alemán Miranda

Published: April 21, 2022

Since human beings are born, the oral tissues are exposed to constant aggressions, from the external and internal environment. What the body, from its perfection, as long as it remains in balance, is capable of defending itself against harmful agents. Over the years, these defenses decrease physiologically.

Research in solar ponds have been on an increasing trend in recent times as an alternative for fast depleting non-renewable source of energy. Solar ponds are artificial saline water holding structures which are capable of retaining heat in the saline molecules. A suitable thermo electric generator is capable of extracting power from these ponds. A miniature solar pond has been taken up for experimentation and output power quality improvement has been achieved by reducing the total harmonic distortion using an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. Experimental results justify power quality improvement using the proposed learning based approach.
Keywords: Solar Pond; thermo electric generator; Total harmonic distortion; Power quality improvement

Genome-Scale Metabolic Model-Based Reactome-Phenome Map of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, A Potential Biofuel Producer

Yik Yew Wee, Xander Kng, Si Xian Sor and Maurice HT Ling

Published: April 21, 2022

Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a potential producer of lipids, alcohols, and biofuels. Genome-scale models (GSM) has been used to examine potential knockout to optimize specific metabolite (such as, ethanol) production. Besides from a metabolic production perspective, GSMs can also be used examine the effects of genes from the perspective of genotype-phenotype relationship. However, most GSMs are reaction-based rather than gene-based. Hence, GSMs can be used for reactome-phenome mapping where each reaction may be the result of one or more genes. In this study, we examine the reactome-phenome map of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using its GSM model, iJN678, by performing single knockouts to each of its 863 reactions. Our results suggest that 37.3% to 39.7% (322 to 343 reactions) of the knockouts have minimal impact on the phenome as they were clustered together with wildtype phenotype and 53.5% (462 reactions) are essential. The rest of the 58 to 79 reactions can be clustered into 9 to 33 phenotypic clusters. Moreover, the fluxome variation within wildtype cluster is significantly larger than that of essential reaction cluster (t ≥ 3.26, p-value ≤ 1.3E-3). This suggests that individual reaction knockout may have measurable effects on the fluxes; which may be useful in metabolic engineering.
Keywords: Genome-scale model; Genotype-phenotype map; Reactome-phenome map; Fluxome; Cameo; AdvanceSyn Toolkit; Flux-balance analysis

Inspired by the water-repellent and self-cleaning properties of the lotus leaf in the natural world, artificial superhydrophobic surfaces have generated extensive attention in academia and industry. Hydrophobicity and the sliding behavior of waterdrops is a very important phenomenon in our daily life as well as in many industrial processes. However, the difference between these two phenomena is not well understood. This study was performed to predict movement of waterdrop on surfaces of silicone sheet and was focused on interface resistive forces between waterdrop and surfaces. Various hydrophobic sheets having different the waterdrop contact ratio (the ratio of the contact area between the waterdrop and the sheet) were prepared. And the relationships between the sliding angles, the sliding velocities and the surface structure were investigated. Equation of motion is used to calculate the interface resistive forces from the sliding angle and the sliding velocities. As the result of calculation, interface resistive forces between waterdrop and the surfaces are equivalent to force of the gravity. The interface resistive forces decrease with decreasing the waterdrop contact ratio. Sliding velocities seems to affect interface resistive forces. This research clarifies that sliding velocity and interface resistive forces are related to positive correlation by the waterdrop contact ratio. The relationship may help prediction of movement of drops on surfaces.
Keywords: Hydrophobicity; Surface topography; Interface resistive force; Sliding behavior of waterdrop; Sliding velocity; Equation of Motion

Dental Differences in 3D Printer and CAD-CAM Milling

Ferial H Almokayad

Published: April 15, 2022

Digital dentistry has grown in popularity over the last two decades, with applications in crowns, bridges, inlays, onlays, and prosthetic rehabilitation of facial defects. The first 3D printer machine was in late 1980, during this time increased of using of 3D printer in medical field. Stereolithography (SLA) is a 3D printing technique that uses a computer to control the movement of a laser beam. CAD/CAM milling can be used for dry or wet milling restoration with high aesthetic value. CAD/CAM milling makes communication with labs easier and faster than traditional methods.
Keywords: CAD CAM milling; 3D Printer; digital dentistry

Minimal invasive and innovative “IPG-DET Technique” Combined with Autologous CGF with Stem Cells CD34+ for the Rehabilitation of the Posterior Atrophic Maxilla

Christos Simis, Francesco Incgingolo, Panagiotis Georgakopoulos, Georgiana Kosmetatou, Viktoria Katechi and Ioannis P Georgakopoulos

Published: April 15, 2022

In this case report a partially edentulous 54 years old, non-smoker and female patient with bilateral atrophic posterior maxilla ranging from 1 to 10 mm residual bone height below the sinus cavity, has been treated performing minimally invasive surgery under a certain new protocol with simultaneous placement of implants. Contrast to traditional utilization of Sinus Floor Elevation (Crestal or Lateral approach without perforating the Schneiderian membrane), this innovative protocol - named “IPG-DET Technique” - introduces the sinus membrane intentional perforation as an alternative. The intentional perforation (flapless or not) combined with an autologous biomaterial (CGF-CD34+Matrix), an alloplastic bone grafting material followed by immediate implantation into the sinus has been proven a safe and stable solution with long-term prognosis. A pair of Cone Beam Computed Tomography images taken before and with (8) months post-surgery has shown significant new bone formation around the implants placed with the “IPG-DET Technique”. The proposed method results simple, safe, less painful and cost-effective solution that may change completely the conventional treatment plan and strategy for the exact position and the procedure used to place implants in the posterior region of the maxilla, especially in cases of severe atrophy and sinus pneumatization.
Keywords: Maxillary Sinus; Bone Augmentation; IPG-DET Technique; Concentrated Growth Factors; CD34- Positive Stem Cells

The Russian-Ukrainian War and Its Impact on Arab food Security

Salah Mahmoud Abd Elmohsen Arafa

Published: April 12, 2022

The challenges of the global economy are increased between the repercussions of the Covid-19 pandemic, and an unprecedented inflationary wave that intensified in the wake of the Russian-Ukrainian crisis. The continuous of this war raises fears of an outbreak of a food crisis in several Arab countries, which depended for their imports of grain - especially wheat - on Russia and Ukraine; Due to the low prices in these two countries. Consequently, these countries turn to other countries to import these crops, such as: the United States or Canada and also the countries of Latin America, which leads to raising their prices, due to the distance, especially since the price of oil is high, which is reflected in the cost of transporting goods between countries. The end of food security for Arab countries.

The Personality pattern and coping skill both are very important aspects for a dancer because these characteristics support them to resolve the stress of stage performance in front of the audience or if doing any mistakes in the dance. The main aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the personality pattern, coping strategies of Indian classical dancers (Bharatnatyam Dancers) and Contemporary dancers. The sample size was 90, divided into 3 groups, i.e., Indian classical Dance Group (Bharatnatyam Dancers), Contemporary Dance Group, and Control group (non-dancer). Each group consisted of 30 female participants, age ranging between 19 to 22 years, selected from different established dance institutes across Kolkata. The NEO Five factor Inventory- Revised (Costa, Robert & Mc.Crae, 1991) and Coping Checklist II (Rao, Subbakrishna, and Prabhu,1989) were administered to the participants. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (mean, SD), Inferential Statistics (ANOVA one way and Post Hoc- Turkey Tests) and product moment correlation were applied. Results – 1) Indian classical dance Group (Bhartanatyam Dancers) is using a significantly greater amount of agreeableness, conscientiousness, religion & faith coping strategies, and social support seeking coping strategies. 2) Contemporary Dance Group is using a significantly greater amount of extraversion, openness and acceptance coping strategies.
Keywords: Personality Pattern; Coping Strategies; Bharatnatyam Dancers; Contemporary Dancers

Perspective study on Pharmacological and Therapeutic potential of Centella asiatica

Poovizhi T, Krishnaprabha V and Uthira L

Published: April 12, 2022

Centella asiatica (L.) is a perennial, climbing plant, barely fragrant and an expensive therapeutic herb worldwide. It is commonly disseminated all the way through humid and subtropical provinces. The appliance of Centella in foodstuff and beverages has improved in modern era due to its favourable functional properties. The plant and its synthetic constituents are recurrently utilized for the therapy of several nootropic disorders, cognitive disorder, platelets conglomeration, burn wounds, hypertonic scars, insomnia, psoriasis, skin cell reconstruction and curing. Centella determines the greater part of its pharmacological actions from four foremost bioactive triterpene glycosides specifically, asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassoside and madecassic acid (termed as centellosides). This current search have another look at focuses to impart inclusive information on pharmacology, various preclinical and clinical studies, safety precautions, mechanisms of action and present research scenario of the herb.
Keywords: phytoconstituents; pharmacological activities; triterpenoids; bioactive components

Importance of Journals, Scientific Writing and Publishing

Said Kural

Published: April 12, 2022

The Covid 19 pandemic has affected every aspect of our lives and changed the way the world works, and also changed people’s perspective on health systems so far. Patients stay away from hospitals, hinder their checkups during this time, and cause significant diagnosis or treatment delays [1]. People who do not know how to deal with such a shocking disaster and seek alternative solutions were easy prey for pseudo-scientists. Who uses the reputation and power of medical science and thus gains trust, serves their own personal interests and disregards public health by trying to sell some herbal mixtures and homeopathic pseudo-drugs. Thus, modern and accurate health care was blocked or delayed more in many scenarios; the problems caused by the pandemic have deepened, and inequalities in health have increased more and more. As this whole process and short-term results show, the most critical way to deal with all developments in life is to be on the path of science. Because even against a virus effective enough to affect the world and cause a pandemic, four different vaccines were developed for coronavirus, a little more than a year after the first case of COVID-19 was identified [2]. This alone is a glorious victory for the medical and scientific community worldwide.