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Medicon Engineering Themes

Medicon Engineering Themes (MCET) is a multidisciplinary International, double blinded peer reviewed open access Journal with 0.868 impact factor. Medicon Engineering Themes invites Authors to submit their original Research articles, Review articles, Short-communication, Opinion, Proceeding etc. Which is Specially designed for Engineering Themes and also to explore various advancements in Engineering like Engineering Management, Biomedical Engineering, etc,.

Major subject areas of Engineering Themes, but not restricted to following fields:

Biomechanics, Construction Engineering, Earth Science, Engineering Mechanics, Geodesy, Hydraulic Engineering, Nanostructure, Urban Engineering, Traffic Engineering, Environmental Chemistry, Structures & Geosystems, Ocean Engineering, Structural Mechanics, Biofluid Mechanics, Advancements in Automation, Industrial Robotics, Robotic Systems, Spark Ignition, Field Robotics, Fiber Engineering, Cell and Tissue Engineering, Designing, Rock Engineering, Composite Materials, Construction Material Handling, Bone engineering, Organ engineering, Introduction to Plastics, Biological Engineering, Automobile Engineer, Micro propagation, Bioengineering, Chemical and Energy industries, Automation engineering, Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Bioreactor Design, Automation Devices, Dynamic Information.     

We welcome you to submit your valuable submissions towards the journal at “


  • Medicon Engineering Themes is an international, profound Journal which publishes Articles on various disciplines of Engineering Themes.
  • Publication certificate will be provided to author.
  • Rapid publication process.
  • Reasonable publication Fee. 
  • Immediate Acknowledgement to author after article accepted for peer review.
  • High visibility of published work.
  • Best Knowledge sharing platform.
  • Thorough Double Blinded peer review.

Latest Article

Security is a very important aspect of a smart system as one of the core smart city components. That is why the concept of smart cities must pay special attention to the security of the individual Internet of Things (IoT) components that make up smart cities. For an IoT system to operate smoothly, all participants in the communication must permit the system to collect information about them - e.g., on the street by various sensors, at home by various devices, such as mobile devices, etc. Such a large set of data collected about the citizens in a smart city is a major security issue.

Acceleration Analysis of a Rotating Object

Ryspek Usubamatov

Published: September 01, 2021.

Any rotating object with variable velocity about a fixed point generates centrifugal and tangential accelerations that are the components of the inertial forces. The known textbooks of engineering mechanics contain chapters for the acceleration of a rotating object that is presented by not accurate mathematical processing. Such a mathematical model for the acceleration of the rotating object yields the incorrect result that leads an unjustified increase in the size of the mechanical component of machines. In engineering, rotating components of machines is a subject of exact computing of inertial forces which non-observance reflects on the reliability of their work. This work considers an analysis of the acceleration of a rotating object at a fixed point and presents the precise mathematical model for its acceleration.

Keywords: Radial and Tangential Acceleration; Rotating Object; Fixed Point

The Recurrence Inversion of the rotating objects at the Space Stations is the Gyroscopic Effect.

Ryspek Usubamatov, Marek Bergander

Published: September 01, 2021.

The space flights of the astronauts discovered a new physical phenomenon that is recurrence inversions of the rotating objects at the condition of weightlessness. This physical effect is an object of stare studying by scientific researchers of the entire world. They published only a dozen manuscripts with approximated and numerical models and assumptions because of complex problems. The analytical approaches of the new gyroscope theory enabled the description of the physics of the phenomenon of the rotating object in the weightless conditions of space flights. On the rotating object, at the free flight, are acting the inertial forces generated by its circular motions around the earth and its rotating mass.

Keywords: Inertial toque; Gyroscope theory; Mathematical model; Inversion

A State-Space Model from a Finite Element Method of Flexible chassis Model and Control It by (LQR) Problems

Mohamed Reyad Ghazy, Ayman M Abdel Haleem, Alla Ahmed Abdul-Rahman and Magdy Abdul-Aty Abdullah

Published: September 30, 2021.

The present paper aims to design an active vehicle system suspension by modification passive suspension into consideration the chassis is flexible to provide us the actual suspension image to make the best performance of the car and ride comfort. Creation of a State-Space half-car Model from a Finite Element, Model achieved by use MATLAB and Controlled by (LQR) Problems with its parameters Q and R which used in the determination of optimal car suspension systems design. The challenge is minimizing the chassis deflection; displacement and reduce the acceleration of suspension vibration. It is shown in our result that the model response to the Q and R-value is positive.

Keywords: Finite Element method; Beam equation; alf car vehicle; Simply supported beam

DeepGen Network based Voice Conversion

Sheena Christabel Pravin, M Palanivelan, S Saravanan

Published: September 30, 2021.

A DeepGen network is proposed for voice conversion, which is the process of modification of a speech utterance by a source orator to that of a target orator, preserving the linguistic contents. Automatic dubbing is an application of speech processing which facilitates the modelling of the large variability of pitch. The proposed DeepGen network automizes voice conversion by taking blocks of consecutive frame-wise linguistic and fundamental frequency features. This block-wise approach models temporal dependencies within the features of the input block. Voice conversion, which is also called as voice cloning has always required significant amount of recorded speech but the proposed DeepGen network intends to convert one voice to another using a relatively smaller set of speech samples by bootstrapping samples from a larger speech dataset. The proposed generative model is a variant of the convolutional generative model with encoder and decoder blocks that bring into line the hidden structures of the
feature spaces from the source and target voices on a two-stage training process. An attractive and efficient voice conversion is thus obtained in the real-world scenario using the proposed DeepGen network. The novelty of the work lies in the induction of a deep learning generative network for cloning voice in Tamil language.

Keywords: DeepGen network; Voice Conversion; Generative Network; Convolutional generative model; Feature spaces

Spatial Computing - Revolutionizing Industry and Mankind

Snigdha Sen

Published: November 01, 2021.

“Spatial Computing is human interaction with a machine in which the machine retains and manipulates referents to real objects and spaces”.

Smart and compact is the new lifestyle. And hence, our machines should also cope up with this lifestyle of our fast-moving lives, where performance shall not be compromised by the spatial aspects of our machines. Whether it be installing virtual forms into actual space or placing actual objects in a machine for digitization, it is Spatial Computing. To summarize, it is an umbrella term for Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality. Fueled by AI, Spatial Computing devices can spatially sense the world around us. Spatial Computing will be the next wave of disruptive technologies that will get its foothold in the 2020s.

This Paper provides an analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities for Technical Education, globally and with particular reference to India. The concept of Grand Challenges is first explained, followed by the Grand Challenges for Technical Education in India. The evolution of Engineering Education systems worldwide is traced through the response of Global and National Engineering Education to Industry 5.0. The impact of pervasive Change all around us is demonstrated through several examples, leading to the demise of business and education as usual. The special features of XXI Century Learners and Teachers, the emerging changes in employment and careers and the opportunities and challenges for Engineering Education in India are next discussed. Th evolution of Industry 1.0 to 5.0 is next traced along with the corresponding evolution of Education 1.0 to 5.0. The dire need for changes in Engineering Education Systems and Processes is demonstrated through the changes in the four subsystems comprising the overall system. The future of Engineering Education is postulated in terms of the integration of several features which have existed as separate entities till now, and the creation of Education 5.0 -compatible graduates.

Influence of Blasting Activities on Slope Stability: A Case Study

Mohamed Fredj, Riadh Boukarm and Abderrazak Saadoun

Published: November 08, 2021.

In the phosphate mine, the Kef-Essnoun deposit extended to (N75° E), soft and brittle tectonics resulted in an abrupt change in the dip of the phosphate layer flush or the dip angle is subvertical or steeply inclined towards the Southeast and sometimes the Northwest. The overall edge angle of the pit evaluated at 55° for a depth of 75 m. Several incidents of slope failure occurred in the mine, and a considerable disruption to production and monetary losses occurred. It is expected that slope failures may be triggered due to blasting in a steeply sloped laminate. In order to study the causes of slope failures, on the one hand, a back analysis was applied in order to assess the most probable physical and mechanical characteristics of the layer generating the movement, and on the other hand, the slope was analyzed by the limit equilibrium methods (LEM). The calculation of the safety factor (SF) value was carried out under static loads and dynamic loads were taken into account, which led to the conclusion that the dynamic load affects the safety factor.

Keywords: Slope stability; Blasting; Safety factor; LEM; Open-pit Mine

New Image Encryption Scheme Based on Dynamic Substitution and Hill Cipher.

Younes Qobbi, Abdeltif Jarjar, Mohammed Essaid and Abdelhamid Benazzi

Published: November 08, 2021.

In this work, we propose a new color image encryption technique. After transiting of the original image into a vector and decomposing it into blocks of three pixels, along with modifying of a seed block by an initialization vector computed from the plain image, a preliminary confusion will be handled by a substitution matrix developed under the control of the two chaotic maps used in the system. The achieved block will be injected in affine transformation provided by an invertible matrix accompanied by a dynamic translation vector to surmount the problem of null or uniform blocks. The encrypted block will be linked to the original block to setup diffusion and avalanche effect to protect the system from differential attacks. Simulations ap-plied to on a large number of color images prove the robustness of the pro-posed approach against known attacks.

Keywords: Chaotic maps; Affine transformation; Substitution

Internet of Everything (IoE): Intelligence, Cognition, Catenate

Ganesh Khekare

Published: November 08, 2021.

Internet of Things (IoT) focuses on physical entities whereas Internet of Everything (IoE) focuses on everything viz., People, Process, Things, Data. IoE intelligently tries to collect and process the data not only from IoT but also from various technologies and even treat people as a node. The IoE is transpiring technology. In the last decade demand for IoE has been increased due to various things like the use of smart devices; increased demand for voice-based services; the concept of smart cities has been evolved; more requirements of processed data in fields of artificial intelligence and machine learning; fog computing, edge computing, deep learning, data analytics, etc. IoE is expected to reach the milestone of 30 billion IoE units at the end of the year 2022. IoE has emerged as a key technology that enables everything to be connected through the internet. As technology is advancing day by day, automation is playing an important role. In every field, IoE is generating a vast amount of data like health systems, traffic systems, smart city monitoring systems, education systems, social networking sites, government organizations, etc. To handle a huge amount of data, a system is required through which it becomes easier to track, analyse, handle, and apply that data in a better way [1].

Security of Internet of Things

Smita Sanjay Ambarkar

Published: November 08, 2021.

Internet of Things (IoT) escalates the technology to new heights thereby tremendously increasing the ranges of the connected applications [1]. The applications of IoT mainly include healthcare, agriculture, smart homes, vehicles, mart cities, smart grids etc. The IoT creates revolution in all the applications using the interconnection of embedded devices like sensors, actuators, gateways. The services provided by these IoT based applications are resultantly excellent. However this ubiquitous computing generates the huge data and therefore the protection i.e. providing privacy and security to this data is a prime concern.

The demand of renewable energy generating resources are increasing drastically due to rapid increase in global energy demand. Renewable energy based resources provide green energy which protects the environment and make our living sustainable. The renewable energy based resources decreases our dependency to limited resources such as: coal, fossil fuels etc. It is economically good and decreases our dependency to foreign energy sources also. The recent trending renewable energy generating resources are: Solar, Wind & Fuel Cell.

Smart Materials: Fabrication, Usage and Challenges

N Gupta

Published: November 08, 2021.

Smart materials are the materials which can change their shape on application of force, temperature etc. They regain their structure when force is withdrawn. Such materials are finding their widespread usage in different industries as medical, semi-conductor, aerospace, defense etc. sectors.

In a racing go kart with single hydraulic disk brake system, disc or rotor is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a wheel while it runs at a certain speed which converts kinetic energy into heat energy. The widely used brake rotor material is Grey Cast Iron (CGI) which consumes much fuel due to its high specific gravity. Also, it is heavy due to high density which in return affects the performance of the race go kart. The aim of this paper is to develop the material selection method and select the optimum material for the application of brake disc system emphasizing on the substitution of this cast iron by any other lightweight material. Material performance requirements were analysed and alternative solutions were evaluated among cast iron, aluminium 7075 T6, titanium grade 5 alloy, and stainless steel 420. Mechanical properties, thermal properties, FEA (finite element analysis), were used as the key parameters in the material selection stages. The analysis led to Titanium Grade 5 material as the most appropriate material for brake disc system for a 150-cc racing go kart having single hydraulic disc brake system with the top speed of 110 Kmph.

Keywords: Racing Go-Kart; Disc brake rotor; Grey cast iron; Aluminium; Titanium; Stainless steel; Material Selection; Mechanical;
Thermal; FEA

New Heuristic to Optimize the Travelling Salesman Problem

Souhail Dhouib

Published: December 03, 2021

One of the fundamental combinatorial problems is the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) where a salesman is invited to visit all cities with the cheapest cycle. To solve this problem, we designed in [1] a new column row heuristic entitled Dhouib-Matrix-TSP1 (DMTSP1).

Cloud Computing Security Issues

Muhammad Imran Tariq

Published: December 03, 2021

Handheld devices captured the world and now every person who is technology dependent is replying upon the cloud computing. The rapid growth in the user of the mobile computing arises various question and opened new dimensions of research. Now, the universities and industry stake holders are looking new ideas to maximum utilize the mobile computing benefits and give maximum relief to its customers. This mobile computing and cloud computing gives both hardware and software advantages and also new concepts.

Data Science: The Science to understand Oil of 21st Century

Geetika Vashisht and Vishesh Goyal

Published: December 03, 2021

21st century is all about automation. Human race is obsessed with automation. Taking Amazon’s shopping website as an instance, it uses customers’ shopping data to figure out the shopping patterns and tries to predict your next order and to restock its warehouses nearest to you with what you are most likely to order so they can get products to you as soon as possible. This is called “prime now” under which they deliver 90 percent of things you need within 3 hours. Amazon even has patent called anticipatory shipping under which they will try to deliver things before you even order them based on your data.

Conventional Photogrammetry versus UAV-Photogrammetry

Irineu da Silva

Published: December 03, 2021

The term photogrammetry has various meanings for different application areas and over time, it has changed its definitions depending on the technological stage of its development. Currently, the most adequate definition is to consider it as the methodology for modelling 3D space from 2D images generated by digital sensors. In the beginning, it was just photogrammetry which became Analog Photogrammetry, Analytical Photogrammetry and finally, Digital Photogrammetry, which is being replaced by two competing terms which are conventional photogrammetry and UAV-photogrammetry. The question here is whether they are sufficiently different to deserve two distinct denominations.

Contribution of Creative Mathematicians in the Development of Machine Learning

Muzafer Saracevic and Dzenis Pepic

Published: December 24, 2021

Machine Learning and Deep Learning are two areas in Computer Science that are expanding and are increasingly finding applications in solving the real problems of the industry. They are related to developing the ability to “learn” computers without prior explicit programming, but rather a conceptually inverse process is already taking place, in which the machine uses a huge amount of data and recognizes laws due to which certain processes occur. Machine learning relies on so-called models, which represent a wide range of mathematical functions that originally belong to different mathematical disciplines, such as algebra, mathematical analysis, probability, and statistics, or discrete mathematics. And all this is simplified through various computer software and tools.

This paper is on the use of an Student Information Management System (SIMS) that facilitated students, teaching and non-teaching staff’s to online collect data and also digitally manage them effectively, On use of such systems in the campus, its converts the Academy into a paperless office through its various modules which have been highlighted here along with some suggestions on the possibility on customization to pave way further and hence to much suit the Academy’s digital work flow requirements
in future.

The outcomes of an in-house intellectual research carried out that provided the necessary input to customize and make it more worthy of a Student Information Management System (SIMS) developed earlier by an IT firm for the Technical Education Academies, are highlighted here. Each of the modules of this SIM subsequently were so customized to effectively incorporate all those necessary changes which arise from researched conducted to incorporate some of those basic concept of IoT with it. This researchinvolved was pertaining to threading each other all those existing IT systems running within the campus of an Academy. Once completely customized, this SIM was then found to have buttressed in disseminating the student centric green pedagogy in the academy specially during this Covid-19 Pandemic Time. 
Keywords: ICT-(Information and communication Technology); e-Governance, ERP-(Enterprise Resources planning; SIM-(Student Information Management); ATE-(Academy of Technology Education); OBE-(Outcome Based Education)

UVC Based Sanitizing Chamber

Dr. Syed Sumera Ali, Suryawanshi Ajit Rohidas, Karpe Dipika Aniruddha and Agrawal Shashank Radheshyam

Published: December 30, 2021

In this pandemic situation of COVID-19, sanitizing is one of the most important and crucial activity which needs to be done timely. As per the report issued by medical experts COVID-19 can leave on the surfaces that the patient or a person suffering from Covid-19 may touch timely. The molecules of virus can land on surfaces or devices of daily use and thus infecting the it and making it more prone to be infectious. The contagious mode of the virus makes it more deadly and results in extreme precautions to be taken in order to prevent an individual from getting infected by the virus. In order to overcome this problem sanitizing chamber can be used to sterilize the equipment and make them ready to use again for the users. In a country with less developed medical facilities and services sterilization proves to be a useful step. The medical equipment like masks, mobiles, wallet, small clothes, etc. can also cause viruses. Our project provides support to healthcare organization’s looking for alternative methods to preserve and reuse such equipment.
In the context of COVID-19, everyone has to protect themselves and for that, everyone is doing what they need to do to protect themselves, but we are making this project to sanitize the things that can be infected due to certain things. People are using sanitizer to protect themselves from getting infected but if they can’t use sanitizer on some things then they can be bad because there are different types of sanitizers available in the market but they are in liquid form and you can use liquid sanitizer on your mobile, electronics, and money. Can’t use and to avoid the risk that a person can be infected from this thing, we have started this project in which you can sanitize your mobile, electronics, money, etc., and its use will not spoil those things, because it is not in liquid form, but in light form. Destroys germs.
Keywords: UVC; COVID-19

Pre-Processing of Multichannel Biomedical Signals Based on Information-Measuring Systems

Djumanov Jamoljon, FF Rajabov, KT Abdurashidova, NS Botirov and IB Zuparov

Published: December 30, 2021

In the paper has considering the possibilities of creating hardware and software of circuits, algorithms and software for processing and recognition of biosignals. And also, the creation of a circuit, algorithms and software for the system for picking up, processing and selecting biosignals. The aim of the research is to develop a method, an algorithm, and a complex of applied programs for automatic recognition of electrocardiographic signals to improve the efficiency of diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases. The object of research is systems for measuring, analyzing and selecting biosignals. 
Keywords: Biomedical signal; Digital filtering; EEG; ECG; Gastrogram; Enterogram; Filter coefficient; visualization; Non-invasive method; Software; Interference suppression

New Challenges and New Approaches to the Development of the Vocational Education system in the Central Black Earth Economic Region

Moiseev Vladimir Viktorovich and Pastukh Tamara Alexandrovna

Published: December 30, 2021

The article deals with issues related to the development of vocational education in the Central Black Earth Economic Region as a key component of the formation and development of human potential. The article examines the current state of vocational education in five regions and identifies the main internal constraints and external challenges facing the vocational education system. The authors define the conditions for the further development of the higher education system, promising areas of activity of universities and propose an algorithm for the formation of the concept and design of a competitive educational program. 
Keywords: Human capital; Professional education; Educational development; Educational program concept; Educational program development

Engineering and the Environment

Mainak Ghosal

Published: December 30, 2021

We all know that our environment is a complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors that act upon all living beings or communities. In Dictionary environment simply means ‘surroundings’ (environ) and it is the aggregate of that which includes social & cultural conditions or influences. The environment provides us food (Roti), clothing (Kapda), shelter (Makan), and fulfill sallour desires and needs whether big or small.

Physics of Gyroscopic Effects

Ryspek Usubamatov

Published: January 12, 2022

The history of sciences contains unusual examples of the achievements in physics and mathematics, which methods did not use for problems in applied science during the centuries. One such example is the intricate motions and acting force of the ordinary revolving disc, which theory was worked out in our time. The top toys were invented in ancient times, which intricate motions astonished the people of different civilizations. The unusual motions and acting forces of the top toys today are called gyro effects [1].

Vibration Attenuation and Joint Navigation through Robust Control System Hardware for Multi-Degrees-of-Freedom Flexible Robots

Pratik Chothe, Shreyash Gajlekar, Aniket Bhelsaikar, Viinod Atpadkar, Nilesh Uke and Debanik Roy

Published: January 12, 2022

The inherent vibration occurring due to compliance of Flexible Robotic System (FRS) provides numerous challenges to achieve accuracy at the end-effector of the FRS. This paper focuses on the study of influence of electronic control system hardware over electromechanical output of the FRS. The paper provides an insight to the relationship between drive current and motor torque with vibrations in the system. Design details of the novel indigenously-developed control electronics and, finally the controller of the prototype FRS will be reported in this paper, backed up by the glimpses of mechanical hardware. The performance and robustness of the prototype FRS will be finally discussed based on some representative analysis and results thereof. We will discuss about implementing various trajectory functions in the control program of the prototype FRS. The paper will further lead to modified linear trajectory where parabolic blends are introduced to reduce the infinite acceleration, which would eventually reduce the vibration in the links of the FRS.

Keywords: Flexible Robot; Control System; Electronics; Vibration; Rheology; Sensor; Gripper; Trajectory Functions

Ontologies in Various Domains: A New Perspective of Ideas

Tanaya Das

Published: January 22, 2022

The term ontology came from two Greek words i.e., “Onto” and “logos”. It denotes “study or knowledge about everything that actually exists”. Philosophers defined the word “Ontology” in their own way. It is discipline of philosophy [1] that deals with structures of things, events, processes, and relations in every aspect of reality. In recent years, research in multidisciplinary fields has exploded in various sectors or domain. “Ontology” term from philosophy was adapted and repurposed to fit the needs of sectors or domain. Thecore goal of ontologies is to provide a vision of a domain. Ontologies consist of all relevant domain-specific terminologies and connections that help to identify core concepts and accumulate critical information related to the domain. Nowadays, ontology is deployed in various fields to capture the domain knowledge. The use of ontology in various sectors is shown in Fig.1 and explained further.

Managing Alumni-Alma Mater Relationship

R Natarajan

Published: January 28, 2022

This paper looks at several facets of alumni-alma mater relationship and strategies for managing it for achieving success. It is recognized that nostalgia is the glue that can sustain the relationship, and continuous mutual communication is essential to keep alive the relationship. There are mutual expectations which must be carefully fulfilled. The driving forces for promoting the alumni-alma mater relationship and critical success factors should be recognized and nurtured. Regular Reunions, on campus and at the different alumni centers are necessary to maintain the momentum of the relationship.

A small oil field has been unknown in the past 30 years, why in the last 10 years it created an amazing miracle in China and even in the global oil industry? To answer this question scientifically, you have to have a scientific theory. In terms of depth and breadth of this problem, undoubtedly the most scientific theory is systems engineering theory; and from the perspective of oilfield production growth referred to on this issue, the most appropriate theory is man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) theory. Changqing oilfield applied MMESE to develop low-permeability reservoirs with extraordinary results, proving the value of MMESE.
Keywords: Application; MMESE; Changqing oilfield

Revisiting Global University Rankings

R Natarajan, P N Razdan and Madhu B K

Published: January 31, 2022

Interest in and popularity of global university rankings have been on the rise worldwide. They have been utilized by the several stakeholders for different types of decision making. There is also general recognition that no ranking system is perfect and there are specific criticisms of each ranking system. One of the most controversial parameters is Perception which THE and QS claim to be the centerpiece of their systems and allot about half of the overall score to it. This aspect is examined here with respect to THE and QS global ranking systems and the national NIRF rankings, by comparing the scores with and without inclusion of the perception scores. It is argued that Perception is entirely subjective and comes in the way of providing a level playing field for all institutions.

The basic matrix algorithms for statement of parallel task in the cloud computing systems are considered in this paper. This algorithm is generally based on using the approach of arithmetic-logic relations and forming of recurrent matrixes. Possibility of using different error-coding methods for sending the request on parallelization task and receiving the answer is also considered. Comparative analyze of corrective ability of RS and convolutional codes is provided. As a result of provided investigations the relation for estimation the level of task parallelization is proposed. Choosing of convolutional codes for transmitting the data for parallelization the calculation task in cloud systems using of convolutional codes is recommended. 
Keywords: Parallel Computing; Cloud Computing; Arithmetic-Logic Relation; Error-Correction; RS-Coding; Convolutional Coding

Circular Economy and Sustainability

Sharad Gupta

Published: January 31, 2022

Circular economy offers an alternative to linear economy model and can provide up to $4.5 trillion in economic benefits to 2030. It would give these benefits by promoting the removal of waste and the persistent safe use of natural resources. This transition to circular economy would requires unique collaboration considering that only 8.6% of the world is circular today (Gawel, A, 2021) [2]. For this long journey, research must look at sustainability from the perspective of consumers also who consider sustainability in different buying situations (Gupta & Sinha, 2015) [7] more so during this time of COVID19 pandemic (BCG, 2021) [1]. Production and consumption represent two sides of the same coin. Therefore, research must look at both production as well as consumption for increasing circularity in pursuit of sustainability. We now examine circular economy and sustainability from production perspective and then from consumption perspective.

Image Segmentation and Optimization Techniques: A Short Overview

Shubham Mahajan and Amit Kant Pandit

Published: January 31, 2022

Segmentation aims to distinguish many essential parts that define objects. Segmentation, a challenging step in image processing, plays a key role in detecting objects and pattern recognition [1]. It is necessary to develop an image segmentation algorithm that does not require human intervention and minimal computational resources. The solution to the problem previously proposed relies on C and K-means clustering algorithms [2-3]. But the cluster number computation was its key drawback, along with the fact that the system’s computing complexity increased exponentially.

Advancement in Manufacturing: Industrial Revolution 5.0

Rahul Katna

Published: January 31, 2022

Industrial revolution 5.0 is the buzzword nowadays. Although we haven’t really got the optimum from the industrial revolution 4.0, yet the Industrial 5.0 in now gaining attention from manufacturers worldwide. The concept of was first presented by Japan as Society 5.0 as A human-centered society that balances economic advancement with the resolution of social problems by a system that highly integrates cyberspace and physical space [1-3]”. The focus of IR 5.0 shifts from shareholders to stakeholders and, additionally, it reinforces the contribution of industry to the society at large.

Materials Innovation and Design using Manufacturing Techniques

Md Salah Uddin

Published: February 10, 2022

Materials manufacturing processes and systemic mechanical behavior investigations are necessary requirements for materials innovation and applications. Mechanical performance and cost-effectiveness are pivotal parts of the application and requirement-driven material design process. Therefore, the structure-property relationship addresses the material design and mechanical and chemical (i.e., corrosion) performance in various engineering applications.

Scheduling with Maintenance Technique in Dynamic Job Shop System including Machine Breakdowns

Kaouther Ben Ali, AchrafJabeur Telmodi and Said Gattoufi

Published: February 17, 2022

Machine scheduling is concerned with the problem of optimally scheduling available machines. However, scheduling literature review has been focused on common assumptions that machines are available at all times. The availability constraint is may not frequency occurred because a machine may become unavailable during a certain periods of time. This paper is addressed to study the problem of job shop in dynamic environment with the risk of random machine breakdown. It is considered a NP Hard optimization problem. Predictive maintenance is an answer to prevent the system from risk of machine breakdown. The objective function is to minimize the completion time of the last job being executed. Hence, we propose a met heuristic approach based on GA approach to solve the issue. Experimentation results assume that the used approach based on maintenance function is required to produce, for each machine, the adequate scheduling plan.
Keywords: dynamic job shop scheduling problem; genetic algorithm; makespan; preventive maintenance; operating schedule; optimization problem

COVID-19 outburst has harmed not only the Indian economy’s economic and social activities, but also the global economy as a whole. Cushioning levels of shocks especially for financial downs remain to be restricted for MSMEs. The main reason is due to limited potential for raising and management of funds. This generates a significant impact on MSMEs. This paper seeks to evaluate MSMEs’ contribution towards the Indian economy along with analyzing the barriers and challenges that existed prior to and during the COVID period. Challenges were indeed in presence before COVID 19 also but during and post COVID 19, their intensity, severity and scope have changed a lot. In addition, a few more are also emerged newly. To analyze the overall effect and impact of these challenges, a range of descriptive statistics along with correlation and co-integration is used. Cointegration is used to analyze the relation among variables such the amount of MSMEs, investment amount, employment, etc. output. This pandemic has crashed into MSMEs like a tons of bricks. COVID 19 remains to be a huge uncertainty and with the understood scope of this uncertainty so far, government must establish a continuous monitoring mechanism and announce early corrective actions to restore confidence in the MSMEs sector. MSMEs should be encouraged to connect to the internet market and fiscal incentives for this sector should also be strengthened. The Indian government should take a variety of initiatives to improve SMEs in India and achieve the goal of making India self-sufficient.

Vibration Signature Based Monitoring on FSW Process and Verification by FEA

Akshay Todakar, Nakandhrakumar R S, M Ramakrishnan and V Meenakshisundaram

Published: February 28, 2022

Experimental study conducted during joining butt weld in FSW process on Al 6061 alloy of size 50 mm width X 100 mm length X 8 mm thickness of two plates wherein the effect of the interaction between the plates, tool and the vibration that occurs during the process are investigated, are reported. In this study, joining sides of the workpiece samples are artificially induced with air gaps of drilled holes in 2mm, 3mm, 5 mm diameter holes and 3mm width X 4 mm depth of slots in random distances. The vibration behaviour of the tool and workpiece joining system are characterized by a frequencies arrived in modal analysis using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), each mode corresponds to tool and workpiece system. Variations in the amplitudes of vibration signals in the particular range of frequencies from 6.0 to 7.0 kHz are proportional to workpiece and significant changes in linear pattern indicate the defective and steady joining area of workpiece. So, this method is effective in monitoring of workpiece joining in FSW process. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of vibration signal shows the changes in individual frequencies and is used for identifying the frequency range of monitoring workpiece with gap and without gap conditions. The steady joining portions cause the vibration which corresponds to 4thregion frequencies of workpiece.

Rome was not built in a day, the Long March was not completed in one step, and the project period has its own objective laws. Respecting the objective law of the project duration, consciously using this law to serve the project, and acknowledging that the project duration is incompressible under the premise of various constraints are the theoretical qualities that every project manager should have. It is an extremely wrong concept to regard the project duration as a “sponge that is still empty at will be squeezed”, and the irrational construction period under the guidance of this concept is a universal problem in project management.
Keywords: engineering duration irrational

Visualizing the Blue Print for 2030

Mainak Ghosal

Published: March 03, 2022

Just 8 years in hand. By 2030, the development in India & the world will be accompanied by a shift in the underlying demographics. There will be vast changes which include increasing urbanization trends, peaking of the population in the working-age group, and a large shift towards the services sector employment. It’s high time we focus on the value of the following potential opportunities otherwise we may again miss the bus.

Analysis and Application of Pavement Interlayer Properties

Chaohua Zhao and Kang Su

Published: March 03, 2022

The load varies with the thickness of the pavement, so there are different layers in pavement structures, between which interlayer interfaces contacting with each other inevitably in different modes. In this paper, based on investigation and analysis, the interlayer contact modes of pavement structures are classified as “interlayer coupling” and “interlayer connection”, which are defined according to their mechanical properties. Based on the existing ordinary cement concrete pavement, this paper analyzes the formation, development and evolution of interlayer coupling, and finds that the failure of interlayer coupling is the cause of early pavement damage. Cement pavement structure with isolating course is proposed as a method and countermeasure to eliminate these hazards, the feasibility of which is verified theoretically. Conditions and approaches achieving interlayer connection in pavement structures are proposed as well. Application of interlayer connection is introduced using a novel type of polymer skeleton porous concrete pavement structure as an example. 

Main Evaluation Factors of Fractured Formation Leakage in Bohai Bay Basin

Jiang Shao-long, Zhang Guo-qiang, MU Gui-peng, Yuan Ren-guo and Xin Zhao-ling

Published: March 29, 2022

In the central area of the Bohai Oilfield including Bozhong block, the geological structure is complex, faults and fractures are extensively developed and the formation is broken. As consequence, there is leakage to some extent in most exploratory wells in Bozhong Block, significantly affecting the drilling efficiency and increasing drilling risks. The problem of well leakage in this block needs to be addressed urgently. For this purpose, the research group firstly researches into the wellbore leakage mechanism, and then establishes a regional leakage pressure prediction model by depiction of the main controlling factors of leakage and preliminarily obtains the following findings: (1) the leakage in Bozhong Block mainly occurs at the depth of 2700-3400m, with Member 2 and Member 3 of Shahejie Formation as the main leakage zones and the fractures and faults as the main leakage passages; (2) the fracture index that can most clearly reflect the well leakage characteristics in Bozhong Block is the fracture evaluation index obtained using the resistivity ratio method, and may be considered as a main controlling factor for evaluation of fractured leakage; (3) according to the statistics on leakage of 22 wells in Bozhong Block, there are nine wells with leakage, totaling 13 leakage points. Based on the statistics and modeling, a leakage pressure prediction model for this block is obtained preliminarily. The research on the leakage mechanism and leakage pressure prediction of fractured formation in Bozhong Block is helpful for reasonable optimization of borehole trajectory, improvement of leakage control of fractured reservoirs, reduction of drilling cost and raising of operation efficiency.

Deep Learning based Object Detection Methods: A Review

Divya Mishra

Published: March 29, 2022

Recently, object detection has become one of the effective and popular trends in computer vision to deal with numerous applications such as in medical image processing of breast cancer, skin cancer, brain injuries, blood cells, and more. Also, it is used in video surveillance stations for real-time monitoring of crowd and anomaly detection. The application is widely used in satellite images and astronomy, fraud detection, and in the field of remote sensing to detect disaster-prone areas from satellite images so that important measures can be taken at the correct time to overcome or reduce the loss of life and property. For example, in medical applications earlier diagnosis procedures usually tend to figure out early diabetes, cancer and a few more diseases. Despite many existing object detection methods in state-of-the-art literature, it is getting harder to identify the best fit model for the specific application or dataset. Therefore, it is highly important and much needed to bring all the existing techniques to a single platform and mention their advantages and limitations. In this paper, a thorough literature review and comparison of various existing deep learning-based object detection methods are presented using three different parameters named mean average precision, frames per second, and data set used. Such information is useful for researchers and practitioners to identify the better approaches among the others easily according to the dataset in hand.

Application of Java Relationship Graphs to Academics for Detection of Plagiarism in Java Projects

Divya Tyagi, Ritu Arora and Yashvardhan Sharma

Published: March 31, 2022

In today’s online learning environment, plagiarism detection tools are increasingly used by teachers and instructors to restrain students from plagiarism. Moreover, need for plagiarism detection tools to detect plagiarism in programming assignments has also increased manifolds. In this paper, we present the application of Neo4j Graph Databases to detect similarity between Java program submissions by students, in academics. This is done by converting a Java program into a specialized dependency graph and then implementing various comparison techniques on this graph. The two graph comparison techniques proposed and implemented in this paper are based on structural comparison of graphs by node-type count comparison and elemental comparison of method nodes in graphs by body-element-count comparison. The results of these two techniques are combined with the call graph-based technique, proposed in an earlier work, to calculate overall similarity index between program codes. This study captures a large category of changes that may be introduced to the code for plagiarism. 

Namúli Mount, the Identity and the Landscape of Gurué

Rute Sousa Matos

Published: March 31, 2022

This reflection arises from a look at the African landscape, the mountains and their ecosystems, the agriculture, the heritage, communities and identity. This is about the landscape, which integrates man and territory, and its multifunctionality that includes the production system (agriculture), protection (ecosystems, flows and ecological processes) and the cultural system (communities and the way they build space). This set constitutes a complex and relational system resulting in the identity of a region and the communities that inhabit it.
The excessive exploitation of natural resources and the tendency towards the growth of an economy based on tourism, causes the transformation of the landscape to occur in the sense of losing its character, its culture and, consequently, its identity. 
The objective of this work is to identify invariants of this landscape, which can be considered in future proposals for planning and management plans for this area, in order to preserve the Gurué landscape and its identity. 
Through an analysis of the existing cartography and bibliography, the natural systems, their flows and processes and thecultural and heritage elements of this area were first identified and characterized. Based on this diagnostic phase, invariant elements (either natural or cultural) that determine the culture and identity of this landscape and must therefore be safeguarded and maintained, were identified. The guidelines appear later, in this sense - the preservation of fundamental values in the culture and identity of Namúli Mount and the landscape of Gurué, where it is inserted.

Today’s near future and far future all technologies centrally based on “ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE” (Man Made) and becoming more and more precise and accurate everyday as compare to human “NATURAL INTELLIGENCE” (God Made) though human invented, engineered and implement A.I as its pioneer. In every field A.I (Man Made) beat to N.I (God Made) as we realized and surrounded with minor to minor and major to major A.I based Computing, Communication, Mobiles, Internet, Internet of Everything with smart A.I Processed and controlled devices having RFIDs in Ubiquitous communication network, space science, medical robotics, industrial robotics, electronic automation, smart appliances and Humanoid robotics. One day might be condition would be A.I programme itself according its need of execution and ruled on N.I that means on Human Civilization also called “Robotics Violence”. More and more miniaturized A.I chip perform thousand times greater operations/tasks/processes from it’s previous due to the Nanotechnology and advanced Electronics. Hence A.I is good but equally bad for mankind and even till date we are on just trial basis to implement human-like “Robotics Emotions” in A.I, Bionic Brain and Humanoid. Therefore today I am diverting my readers from A.I to towards “Synthetic Biology”, “Human Biology” and “Neuroscience”. We much familiar with Biology and Neuroscience but let me explain in brief about synthetic biology or SynBio is “a multidisciplinary domains of research integrated/cascade with atoms/cells manipulation to form/farm/ fabricate new biological devices, systems and parts or to reengineer and make more effective systems, parts those are already available in nature using biotechnology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, system biology, biophysics, membrane science, molecular engineering, chemical, biological, mechanical, computer and nanotechnology engineering’s”. Now what is my intention to discuss above here as likewise using material physics and electronics we mimic and engineer A.I from N.I with the help of neuroscience equally true and possible using Biology, Synthetic Biology and Neuroscience we mimic and engineer N.I itself to form External N.I that is similar like our human brain with N.I inside our skull can we able to farm same biological brain outside the human body using “Brain Cells” and the answer is Big “Yes”. Even researchers in “Petri Dish” also known as Petri Plate/Cell-culture Dish widely used in all walks of biological experiments to store, manipulate, engineer and performance check of cells , hence Brain cells manipulated and engineered in Petri Dish to form Human Brain like Natural Intelligence (N.I). This farmed neural schema in Petri Dish is N.I which is the great contribution to mankind and reported this little brain cells in Petri dish programmed and learn to them few games and results astonish its play the game 10 times faster than Artificial Intelligence. Hence today humankind just engineered and stored single “Neural Schema” network of brain cells and learn them to play chess which beat to A.I as one small unit in Petri Dish will be tomorrow hopes to farm complete human brain (N.I) outside using synthetic biology and I named the technology “Natural Farmed Intelligence (NFI)”.

This my second research letter in continuation of first one based on NFI. And here further I am expanding it with Application “Bumanoid”. Let me first recall you again “Natural Farmed Intelligence (NFI)” than after approach how to Bumanoid possible using NFI. As using material physics and electronics we mimic and engineer A.I from N.I with the help of neuroscience equally true and possible using Biology, Synthetic Biology and Neuroscience we mimic and engineer N.I itself to form External N.I that is similar like our human brain with N.I inside our skull can we able to farm same biological brain outside the human body using “Brain Cells” and the answer is Big “Yes”. Even researchers in “Petri Dish” also known as Petri Plate/Cell-culture Dish widely used in all walks of biological experiments to store, manipulate, engineer and performance check of cells, hence Brain cells manipulated and engineered in Petri Dish to form Human Brain like Natural Intelligence (N.I). This farmed neural schema in Petri Dish is N.I which is the great contribution to mankind and reported this little brain cells in Petri dish programmed and learn to them few games and results astonish its play the game 10 times faster than Artificial Intelligence. Hence today humankind just engineered and stored single “Neural Schema” network of brain cells and learn them to play chess which beat to A.I as one small unit in Petri Dish will be tomorrow hopes to farm complete human brain (N.I) outside using synthetic biology and I named the technology “Natural Farmed Intelligence (NFI)”. When mankind got success to farm NFI means got success to fabricate “External Biological/Natural Human Brain outside the skull and human body with full fledge and exact same abilities, efficiencies, capabilities and activities like our brain inside the body in near future and we just need either Biological or Electronic-Mechanical Human-like to fix this NFI-Brain inside and wired it with body I named the outcome Bumanoid”. After the success of NFI-Brain two types of its implementation possible to serve as “Bumanoid (Biologically-Humanoid)”. The first one for this externally farmed natural intelligence NFI-Brain we engineer and farm Biological organs, human body parts and complete human body structure using “Human Anatomy, DNA studies and Synthetic Biology and synch NFI Brain inside with it to activate and functional body as “Bumanoid”. This type of Bumanoid exactly look like human beings and difficult to recognize. The second one is using Artificial Intelligence (AI) we are reaching to success in Humanoid Robots here we can reengineer Humanoid instead of AI based brain and replacement , synch and wired NFI-Brain inside in Humanoid Robots called them Bumanoid which are easily recognize and distinguish from Human.

Hacking Human: Hacking the Weakest link in the Security Chain

Eman Ali Metwally and Haytham Tarek Mohammed

Published: March 31, 2022

“Social engineering (SE) is the art of operating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information”. It is unique of the best creative and active means of achievement access to secure systems and gaining sensitive information up till now wants negligible technical knowledge. SE does not certainly need a big amount of official information in instruction to be successful. SE depends on person’s psychology such as interest, courteousness, unwariness, greed, inattentiveness, wariness, and indifference. This paper shows the state of the art attacking methods especially SE and its countermeasures that will help the user be more secure and aware of these attacks.

One International Platform Two Engineering Papers

Sun Jiajun

Published: April 01, 2022

There is an engineer in Changqing Oilfield, his name is Sun Jiajun. In February of this year, his paper titled “Applying Human-Machine-Environment System Engineering to Create a New World in Changqing Oilfield” was published by the Medicom Engineering Journal. This paper uses the perspective of a witness and applies the famous scientist Qian Xuesen. A theory founded by leading my country’s aerospace science and technology personnel - Human-Machine-Environmental System Engineering, provides a theory, data and a high degree of explanation for the fact that Changqing Oilfield has achieved leapfrog growth in oil and gas production over the past ten years; In March of this year, his other paper titled “Universality, Major Harm and Deep Causes of Irrational Engineering Duration” was published again by the Medicon Engineering Journal. A comprehensive commentary with a theoretical framework is given on historical achievements, huge progress and realistic gaps; for the irrational engineering construction period problem of the infrastructure maniac, its historical reasons are analyzed, its universality is pointed out, and the causes of the problem are analyzed. The hazard is quantitatively analyzed, and the underlying reasons for the existence of the problem and the path selection to promote its improvement are pointed out at the same time.

Knee Abnormality Prediction based on Power Spectrum Analysis of Surface EMG Signals

Sali Issa, Mahmoud A.M. AlShurafa and Abdel Rohman Khaled

Published: April 06, 2022

This article proposes an improved extraction feature for lower limb knee abnormality prediction application using surface EMG raw data. Public UCI dataset is chosen for system evaluation, where each subject was informed to perform three different motions of walking, standing up, and sitting down. In feature extraction, EMG spectrograms are derived using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), power spectrum of range 10-250 Hz is chosen, then, the linear coefficients of EMG power spectrum for each frequency bin during time are extracted as a final feature of size 30x2. For system prediction, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with other two common machine learning classifiers were constructed. The proposed system experiments proves that EMG signals of Semitendinosus(ST) muscle with CNN classifier produces the highest accuracy of 95%.

Intelligent Load Shedding Strategy based on Fuzzy Logic Control (ILSF)

Mahmoud A.M. AlShurafa and Sali Issa

Published: April 06, 2022

Microgrid (MG) is a new form of electrical power grid, combined from different Distribution Sources, MGcan work as a power source or power load in two different operation mode: grid-connected mode and stand-alone mode, one of the main challenges which can be faced in the stand-alone mode is achieving the power balance between the produced power by MG sources and consumed power by MG loads, Load Shedding (LS) is a strategy which can be used for accomplish that balance. This paper emphasis an Intelligent Load Shedding based Fuzzy Logic Control (ILSF), Due to the benefits of Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC), it’s used for controlling the shedding process of different MG loads according to the Solar Power Forecasting Data. The proposed control system procedures are illustrated and simulated, the results demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of ILSF system.

An overview on 5G mobile network antennas: Trends and Challenges

Moutaouakil Abdelhakim

Published: April 06, 2022

To deploy the 5G mobile network, operators must install tens of thousands of new antennas. They are one of the major technological developments of 5G. For 5G, as for all other generations of mobile networks, antennas are an essential support. They are the ones that relay and transmit the signal. Without antennas, there are no waves, and therefore no 5G network. In order for the new 5G mobile network to work, operators must deploy tens of thousands of new antennas. Indeed, 5G antennas are totally different from 4G antennas. And, they contain some of the major technological innovations of 5G, which give the new mobile network its uniqueness. They are called Massive Mimo, beamforming, Small cells [1].

Inspired by the water-repellent and self-cleaning properties of the lotus leaf in the natural world, artificial superhydrophobic surfaces have generated extensive attention in academia and industry. Hydrophobicity and the sliding behavior of waterdrops is a very important phenomenon in our daily life as well as in many industrial processes. However, the difference between these two phenomena is not well understood. This study was performed to predict movement of waterdrop on surfaces of silicone sheet and was focused on interface resistive forces between waterdrop and surfaces. Various hydrophobic sheets having different the waterdrop contact ratio (the ratio of the contact area between the waterdrop and the sheet) were prepared. And the relationships between the sliding angles, the sliding velocities and the surface structure were investigated. Equation of motion is used to calculate the interface resistive forces from the sliding angle and the sliding velocities. As the result of calculation, interface resistive forces between waterdrop and the surfaces are equivalent to force of the gravity. The interface resistive forces decrease with decreasing the waterdrop contact ratio. Sliding velocities seems to affect interface resistive forces. This research clarifies that sliding velocity and interface resistive forces are related to positive correlation by the waterdrop contact ratio. The relationship may help prediction of movement of drops on surfaces.

Research in solar ponds have been on an increasing trend in recent times as an alternative for fast depleting non-renewable source of energy. Solar ponds are artificial saline water holding structures which are capable of retaining heat in the saline molecules. A suitable thermo electric generator is capable of extracting power from these ponds. A miniature solar pond has been taken up for experimentation and output power quality improvement has been achieved by reducing the total harmonic distortion using an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. Experimental results justify power quality improvement using the proposed learning based approach.

The ultimate goal of any brand is to get positive responses from customers both emotionally and behaviorally for its marketing activities. This study examined how gamified interactions on health and fitness applications impacted consumers’ purchase intentions and assessed the role of positive emotions and brand engagement in developing this relationship. Data were collected from users of health and fitness apps through a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modelling technique. The findings suggest a strong indirect relationship between gamification and purchase intention. The study also found positive emotions and brand engagement to be significant sequential mediators of the gamification-purchase intention relationship.

A Complete Assessment of Tribo-corrosive Behaviour of CI Engine Using Emulsified Dual Fuel Bio-Diesel Blend

Sajan Chourasia, NimeshGajjar, Harshal Oza and Nirav Joshi

Published: April 29, 2022

Biodiesel is relatively higher corrosive compare to Diesel. Biodiesel is self-oxidation in nature. The current investigations are to determine the tribological and corrosive behavior of biodiesel and their dual biodiesel emulsified fuel blend on CI engine vital parts (i.e., Piston, Valves, Cylinder liner, Cylinder head, Fuel pump, Bearings). The emulsified fuel was made from dual biodiesel (i.e., Neem and Palm) with Diesel and water. The tribological and corrosive effects were performed on metal surfaces of Copper, Aluminum, and Iron. These metals were selected based on the base composition of engine vita parts. A static immersion test was conducted for corrosion for 150 days at room temperature and for tribology, a pin-on-disc apparatus test was performed. These test also includes scanning electron microscopic, weight, dimension and physical visualization analysis of corroded and wornout metal surfaces. To identify the cause of the corrosion, wear on the metal surface, the Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry test has been conducted. This test will also help to determine the chemical composition of the test fuels. It has been observed that biodiesels have good anti-wear properties in comparison to Diesel and emulsified fuel. On the other hand, Diesel and emulsified fuel show good corrosive properties compare to biodiesels.

The “Ivermectin” to South Africa’s Educational Landscape

Pariksha Singh, Ciska Snyman and Jayshree Harangee

Published: April 29, 2022

Globalisation is making the threats we face more intertwined. In addition to the COVID-19 outbreak crossing international borders, South Africa is experiencing devastating floods. Despite its diversity, it has affected everyone, regardless of nationality, education level, income level, and gender. Despite this, the repercussions have disproportionately impacted the most disadvantaged. Education is no different. With the help of parents coupled with the desire to learn, students from wealthy homes may be able to make their way past restricted higher education institutes to other learning prospects. When institutions shifted fully online, those from low-income families were disadvantaged. These disasters have brought several shortcomings and inequities in our educational institutions, ranging from a scarcity of access to the internet, connectivity issues, and computers required for online learning to the absence of supportive surroundings needed to engage with learning to a mismatch of resources and necessities.

Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Technology

Sali Issa

Published: May 18, 2022

Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a direct interface or communication path between human brain and computers. In BCI technology, it is possible for machines to interact immediately with the cognitive state of human brain, measure its activity signals using electrical electrodes in most cases, and interpret these signals for controlling external devices [1].

Assessment of Groundwater in Al-Lith Region

Sami Goren, Khalid Albijali, Rayan Alghamdi, Abdul Gaffar Alomari and Meshal Alzahrani

Published: May 18, 2022

There are many random wells in the city of Al-Lith, especially in the east of the city of Al-Lith in (the study area). There are no desalination companies in the area, and there are no data showing that the wells are potable & non-potable, and there is no information about the groundwater level in the area. In the beginning, the locations of the targeted wells were determined to conduct the study on, and then the samples were collected from the 20 identified sites in the east of the city of Al-Lith, from 20 wells, and the depth of each well was also determined. According to the results, the aim is to give idea for the water wells whether potable or non-potable.

According to a research the number of social businesses is estimated to exceed 20000 globally. “34% are in operation for between 2-5 years and constitute 2-3% of GDP-2010” [2-4]. In fact, modern social business is a recent phenomenon increasingly receiving worldwide attention especially when income inequality is expanding exponentially parallel to the growth of dollar millionaires both in the developing and developed societies. This paper demonstrates how social business can vary in form, distinct both in principles and practices but unique in substance. In other words, how they operate to impact economic life of men and women especially in poverty reduction and economic growth of a nation such as Bangladesh.

ML Enabled WhatsApp Chatbot using IBM Watson

Manasi Chhibber and Madhulika Bhadauria

Published: May 24, 2022

A chatbot mimics human interaction through voice or text interactions. Chatbots are used by businesses to interact with consumers in addition to the traditional client care channels like via phones, mails or social media. The most basic type of chatbot system handles jobs by interpreting user input and then searching its directory for content related to particular words or phrases. In a nutshell, it works as a keyword-based content retrieval system. Watson Studio provides a collaborative environment and resources to work on data in order to solve business challenges. Users may select tools for analyzing and displaying their data, cleaning and shaping it and using it for constructing and training machine learning models. Watson Assistant is a business-oriented AI chatbot. This enterprise AI technology can be used to create conversational AI applications. Since, loan application process can be extremely cumbersome, so we have developed a chatbot using IBM Watson that could help in easing this process. The chatbot has been integrated with WhatsApp using Twilio. By answering a series of standard questions related one’s application, one can see the risk percentage involved in taking the loan. This has been enabled using Machine Learning models.

Diaper with Automated Drainage System for Dependent People

Cuevas Rene, Alonso Gustavo, Feliciano Angelino, Alarcón Antonio, Catalán Arnulfo and Aquino Yasmin

Published: May 24, 2022

During the life cycle of people, some lose functional autonomy and a capability, which leads to dependency, with little or no mobility, due to physical or psychological factors, and not having sphincter control, some are exposed to frequent use of urine collectors such as diapers or bladder catheter for urination control, which cause inflammation and erosion of the skin by prolonged contact with urine. This work shows the implementation of a prototype diaper designed with reusable fabrics and an integrated device for automated drainage, combining Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools and electronic components that together achieve a device capable of directing and / or route the urine collected from each urination, to a urine collection bag, its self-control allows minimizing the time of exposure to moisture and avoid over hydration of the skin, which causes severe skin lesions. The purpose of making this project known is for educational and motivational purposes for the areas of knowledge where technologies are applied for the benefit of society.

Solving V2X Blocking Algorithm

Li Yongdong

Published: May 30, 2022

LTE-V2X is becoming the most technology for automatic pilot. But the interference affects the capacity of V2X when the traffic is busy. This article presents the soling V2X blocking algorithm to void the problem happening. It is time division method. Node B acts as a master to assign the slot and symbol to all of OBUs under the area. If out of range of LTE network, the OBUs votes one OBU as Node B to allocate the slot and symbol to them, all OBUs Synchronization with the OBU, then time division can work.

Human Intelligence and Machines

Tilottama Goswami

Published: May 30, 2022

Current trends in engineering and technology have made a great impact in automation on a day-to-day basis in almost every field. The advantages of automation are manifold -reducing human interventions, increase in productivity, reducing human errors, and to enhance their capability to work; especially in hazardous and danger zone areas. Human labor-intensive tasks/repetitive tasks where human fatigue and error is a usual phenomenon are usually good candidates for automation. Can automation succeed in tasks which need human expertise and intelligence? Its limitations does not allow it to automate every task. Automation is a straightforward algorithm which takes input data and produces output according to the algorithm. When intelligence and cognitive capabilities have to be embedded in a machine to mimic the way human would execute the task, automation becomes conceptually closer to Artificial Intelligence (AI). 

Predicting Global Average Land Temperatures Using Microsoft Azure Machine Learning Studio

Sagar Tewari, Sarthak Agarwal and Madhulika Bhatia

Published: May 30, 2022

To accurately calculate the global average temperature has proven to be an arduous task since the 19th century, the major reasons are maintaining accurate records of the same locations over a lengthy period which has strained the meteorologists, especially in places located remotely, like mountains or deserts. This is the reason meteorologists use global averages which generally span over 3 decades to give perspective and context to information.
We decided to use the Linear Regression Model to achieve this task at hand. Linear regression is an algorithm which is used for determining the relationship between an dependent variable and some independent variables which are also known as scalar response explanatory variables respectively. The relationship between dependent and independent variables are calculated using predictor functions which are linear in nature whose parameters which are not known are found out through the means of the data provided. Hence, it is paramount that we give our model a clean and digestible data so that it learns well and predicts accurately. It’s equally important that we maintain the dimensions of the data and be careful that it is not too high or not too low, it should be just right. We also employed the Pearson’s Correlation method for Feature Selection. After which we also tuned the hyperparameters among other things to gain the most suitable parameters for the model. Finally, we compared our results from normal model generation to hyperparameter tuned model.

Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Pathway to Organ Printing

Prajwal Agrawal

Published: June 06, 2022

With the advent of additive manufacturing, various processes have been developed over the years. A prominent example is bioprinting. The technology involves the use of biocompatible materials and living cells to construct functional structures and constructs that mimic the properties of human body tissues [1]. It is estimated that 20 people die every day due to a lack of organ transplantation in the United States alone [2]. With the development of new diseases and an increasing population, this number is expected to increase over time. It is possible for bioprinting to provide a solution for this issue, but it will need many modifications and development to result in a living organ with multiple cell types and materials [3].

Experimental Study of the Consolidation Characteristics of Saturated and Unsaturated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Using Large Scale Consolidometer

Gajrawala Tirth Nikhilbhai, Dr. M. V. Shah and Prof. Shalini. R. Singh

Published: June 06, 2022

Municipal Solid Waste is a heterogeneous mixture of various materials such as food, glass, soil, ash, plastic, etc. Since there are no generally accepted sampling and testing procedures for waste materials, principles of soil mechanics. A good understanding of the properties of unsaturated Municipal solid waste is required for the design of the underground pipelines. Settlement prediction is an important issue to guarantee any post-closure structures on landfills. The present study is an attempt to determine the consolidation characteristics of saturated and unsaturated MSW from the Pirana landfill site, Ahmedabad (India) using a large size Consolidometer having an aspect ratio of 1:0.635. At present five tests were conducted on saturated municipal solid waste for 100% saturation and five on unsaturated MSW keeping a degree of saturation=50% at different water contents. The tests were carried out at the pressure of 20kpa, 40kpa, 80kpa, 160kpa, and 320kpa respectively. The consolidation settlement resulted in both types of waste being compared. It was concluded that the saturated MSW compacted on the dry side of the optimum has less settlement compared to the MSW compacted on the wet side of the optimum while the time taken for the unsaturated MSW was slightly higher as compared to that of the saturated MSW.Q

Evaluation of Green Total Factor Productivity in the Yellow River Basin of China

Jingcheng Li, Guangwei Rui and Xinyi Mei

Published: June 10, 2022

The Yellow River Basin is an important energy production base, heavy industry base, and grain production area in China. Meanwhile, the ecological environment in this area is also very fragile. The success of carbon emission control in this region is related to whether China can complete its vision of carbon peak and carbon neutralization on time. Taking carbon emissions as the non-ideal output of the economy into the nonparametric DEA Malmquist index model, this paper measures the green Malmquist index of 9 provinces in the Yellow River Basin from 2014 to 2020 and analyzes the impact of the green Malmquist index, green technology efficiency and green technology progress rate on the regional economic growth gap and its time evolution trend. The results show that the green total factor productivity of the region shows a fluctuating upward trend from 2014 to 2020, but the direction of efficiency progress is negative. Therefore, the Yellow River Basin needs to reform the management system of high energy-consuming industries and strengthen environmental supervision in the future. In addition, the changes in green total factor productivity in various provinces show high heterogeneity, which poses new challenges to the formulation of emission reduction policies.

Ensure Automotive Cyber Security with Management

Wenbo Jia, Haijun Wang, Yingyi Yao, Jing Liu, Yanxin Wu, Xu Liu and Shubin Tao

Published: June 10, 2022

With the automotive industry’s continuous development of electrification, connectivity, intelligentization, sharing, automotive cyber security issues are becoming increasingly serious. How to effectively guarantee the cyber security of automotive products has become one of the urgent problems to be solved in the whole automotive industry. According to current situation of the industry, this paper argues that strengthening the cyber security management is very important, and according to the domestic and foreign automotive cyber security related laws, regulations and standards’ requirements, proposes the construction route, evaluation and optimization focus of automotive cyber security management system based on the risk management of the whole automotive product life cycle, which provides reference for enterprises to ensure the cyber security of automotive products.

Social Issues/Challenges Faced By Engineers in India

Mainak Ghosal*

Published: June 14, 2022

India has the largest number of engineering graduates passing out every year when compared to the USA. But does our Engineering profession get recognized in the eyes of law? The answer is NO when compared to our Medical Professionals or Chartered Accountants or Architects. There is the Medical Council of India [1956] to regulate Doctors, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India [1949] to regulate Chartered Accountants, and the Council of Architecture [1972] to regulate Architects, and all of these professional bodies are protected by statutes or by an act of parliament. In most countries, e.g., Australia, Japan, Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Singapore, Tanzania, USA, UK, etc., professions such as Engineers are invariably governed by an act or law of the Government.

An Analysis Framework of Change Management

Linda Etareri

Published: June 18, 2022

The organizational restructuring and institutionalization of Change Management is a fluid and elusive process that functions through a broad, holistic and yet a very conscious approach to implement, execute and create top-level excellent tasks, responsibilities, and duties with competency, organizational integrity, trust and professionalism in line as goals to achieve. As the top priority of company’s envisioned goals, visionary accomplishments and professionalism comes change management as the corrective tool and measures that can insure the improvement and advancement of organizational effectiveness. This seminar paper will aim at defining change management; it would create a discussion on the various views, and assertions of change management. The relevance of change management to the external and internal structures of organizations ensures, guarantees the heights and levels of development and advancement an organization can accomplish. In a competitive global market space were change is unavoidably constant, the understanding and studying of change management becomes the greatest means.

Corporate Social Responsibility also known as corporate engagement with society is now a general expression in today’s present-day world and fundamentally it is fast-becoming a recognized methodological approach for organizations. Organizations illustrate, contribute and establish their incorporated customs through duties that reflect their common sense of share consciousness and ethics. The foundational elements of the Corporate Social Responsibilities of an organization reveals a clearer, deeper and acceptance of the organization’s operational culture of sustainability. The organization’s principles of transparency, its level of accountability all of these and more lays the structure that justifies an organization’s Corporate Behavior.

     There is a fast-growing precognition of team building that is sharpened by the technological capacity development of human resources in a technologically advancing world. As most organizations in the business world constantly evolve and strive to achieve competitive advantage in the market space, the relevance and role of team building becomes more fundamental and demanding. Teamwork elevates the trajectory and visionary inclination of organizations regardless of their sizes, successes and market dominance.
     This study will examine, analyze and discuss team building in the view of its stages of development: Forming Stage, Storming Stage, Norming Stage, and the Performing Stage. It would lay out the strategic impact each stage has on the other. It would analyze; the adjourning team roles-Belbin, team roles, action-oriented role, shaper, implementer, completer, coordinator, worker, resource investigator, and the laws of teamwork. More often than not, most workers aspire to excel professionally in their chosen field of career. For some it is a personal goal and aim to achieve career excellence while striving and aspiring to reach higher heights of acclaimed privilege in the society and in their country at large. All of these intentions, aspirations and visions are personalized and individualistic until it meets a broader shared vision offered by the organization through team building, team collaboration and team role.
     While team building requires the utilization of motivation, enthusiasm and a common sense of shared vision, ethical consciousness and moral responsibilities as means towards achieving a solidified and united team is also recognized. This identifies the presence of individuality and how that could be a hindrance, limitation and threat to the process of building and developing a team. Team building is a structured and functional system in an organization that aids the establishments of a definite purpose, creates organizational culture, and institutionalizes the visionary outlook and organizational advancement. Team building is the process of enhancing, developing and enriching the knowledge base of each team player in a workforce in order for each worker to be more effective in accomplishing the tasks and assigned duty to an acceptable degree of satisfaction that is needed for the organization.

This paper aims to study and simulate the control of a wind turbine based on a double star asynchronous generator (GASDS); to control the energy production of this conversion chain the mechanical power generated should be optimised. Ensuring maximum power capture with the MPPT strategy (Maximum Power Point Tracking) for different wind speeds. For this purpose a control by fuzzy logic FLC associated with the orientation of the rotor flux FOC of the GASDS has been particularly described in order to improve system performance and better trajectory tracking in the case of the variant wind speed systems.

ReSmart-15: A Soft Information Gain Based Questionnaire for Early Dementia Detection

Hyeseong Park, Myung Won Raymond Jung, Ji-Hye Kim and Uran Oh

Published: July 01, 2022

As the number of people affected by dementia increases, there is a need for diagnosing potential symptoms of early dementia, and questionnaires such as the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) are widely used for early dementia detection. To build a more effective questionnaire, we propose ReSmart-15, a dementia detection questionnaire that includes daily behavior-based questions in five categories (i.e., attention, spatial ability, spatiotemporal ability, memory, and thinking ability). To evaluate the effectiveness of each question in detecting early dementia, information gain can be used to rank their contributions. However, the current information gain-based method requires hard classification results such as whether the patient had been diagnosed with early dementia or not. In this paper, we propose a “soft information gain” based ranking system where each patient is diagnosed with an early dementia probability (from 0 to 1), not with a hard decision of early dementia (0 or 1). We conducted an experiment to test the effectiveness of ReSmart-15 compared to MMSE and found that the top 2 questions were from ReSmart-15, and 60 percent of the ReSmart-15 questions were in the top 10. 

Engineering Geology: History, Practice, Modern Tasks

Viacheslav Yu Iegupov

Published: August 02, 2022

Engineering geology (Ukrainian: Engineering Geology; German: Ingenieurgeologie; French: Geologie technique, geotechnique; Italian: Geotecnica) is included in the complex of geological sciences. According to the “Mountain Encyclopedia”, this is a science about the structure, properties and dynamics of the geological environment, its rational use and protection during engineering and economic activities. The main tasks of engineering geology: study of the current state and patterns of formation of engineering and geological conditions, predicting their changes in the process of construction and economic activity; engineering and geological substantiation of protective measures ensuring the rational development of the territory, mineral resources and environmental protection.

A Naive Bayes Multi-class Weighted Classifier of Internet Packet flows over a MPLS Network

Roland Déguénonvo, Audace AV Dossou-Olory and Max Fréjus O Sanya

Published: July 10, 2022

Our simulation is based first, on a qualitative approach for the classification of flows and traffic, and next on an experimental approach for the management of data volume on the other hand. The adopted approaches allowed us to get an idea on a NBWM (Naive Bayes Weighted Multi-class) classifier capable to output differentiated service classes in MPLS (Multiple Protocol Label Switching) networks. The classifiers we compared to our benchmark model were thoroughly processed. The accuracy rate of the proposed NBWM (Naïve Bayes Weighted Multiclass) classifier is about 68.75%, which puts it ahead of the other models encountered.

This paper discusses how design games play a role in design anthropology research and serve the operation method of image behavior. By defining the design game in design anthropology, we can solve the following two problems: firstly, pay attention to how to promote group cooperation and help design researchers understand the relationship between image, space and behavior; secondly, this study helps researchers understand the vague role and cultural cognition of stakeholders in participatory design. In addition, this study designs a set of design game cards, through the extraction, collage, and reorganization of film images, and further changes the observation perspective, once again expanding the game to the field of the art design and design anthropology. The ultimate goal of the research is to explore the research methods in the design process and the training of reconstruction logical thinking. In future work, the design education can use game cards as the carrier to reconstruct the cultural cognitive language.

Knowledge can be transmitted, facilitated, developed, and produced in a variety of ways through education. As a matter of fact, universities, in particular, are defined in terms of knowledge generation. We shouldn’t be surprised, then, that discussions about decolonizing (Western) education have expanded to encompass provincial zing (Western) epistemology, given the close ties between education and educational institutions and epistemology. This presents a danger as epistemological pathways inform thinking partners and behavioural dynamics of societies. Deconstructive debate that seeks to discuss educational decoloniality from the Global South cannot articulate that with exclusion of southern epistemological position towards reality with the lens of its inhabitants. This is what confronts the post-doctoral scholar of the Global Centre for Academic Research and South Valley University, as independent entities within the Global South. This narrative reflection provides a baseline for a cogent discourse in favour of deconstruction of southern epistemological trajectory in education and social perspectives.

Student’s experiences on the use of online collaborative technology continues to attract attention of researchers in education and social sciences. Of particular interest is the reliance on technological and digital platforms, using web-based strategies during the outbreak of COVID-19 in institutions of learning. This study used an unlinked, anonymous survey to explicate experiences of students on the use of online technologies during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. Consenting participants constituted a study population that was made up of first year accounting students in a public university in South Africa, drawing a sample of 190 from a population of 371. Using a theory of connectivism, the study found that students were eager and confident that collaborative technology could lead them to pass their examinations even if face-to-face intervention was missing. Collaborative technology consisting of tools such as WhatsApp, Blackboard and Zoom made it easy for them to relate with instructors and faculty who were making efforts to deliver content in a simplified manner. The study further concluded that efforts have to be made to study the benefits of collaborative technology both to learners and faculty at institutions of higher learning. 

Drones / Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

R Hema

Published: August 02, 2022

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), sometimes known as drones, have the highest potential for usage in a variety of applications in the near future. As drone technology advances, these devices will also get more affordable, sophisticated, and useful. An aircraft without a human pilot, flight crew, or passengers is called an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), also referred to as a drone. UAVs were initially created in the 20th century for use in military operations. As control technologies became more affordable and effective, their employment in several non-military applications increased. Devices like transmitters, receivers, and sensors make it possible to control things. It is capable of carrying a lot of weight and flying at vast altitudes. A drone can be used for a variety of tasks, including aerial photography, surveillance, spraying water and pesticides on crops, inspecting fields for water connection leaks, and more.

Post Digitization Challenges and Solutions for India Palm Leaf Manuscripts

Nagendra Panini Challa

Published: August 02, 2022

India is a country with a very deep and significant history and a grand heritage. Its culture and traditions are very unique, varied and celebrated the world over. Each and every district in the country has its own set of heritage structures, traditions and cultural practices. One of the important facets of our heritage is the palm-leaf manuscripts. Our country is home to more than five million palmleaf manuscripts – the largest collection in the world. The manuscripts cover a variety of subjects - from music, to yoga, languages, art, architecture etc. Their fragile nature makes palm-leaf manuscripts susceptible to damage. It is the duty of our society to safeguard its
culture and heritage and pass it on to the next generation. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) provides us with an array of solutions for data collection, processing and presentation. The use of ICT in the preservation and dissemination of our Culture and Heritage is an area with high potential, and is to be explored in depth, in a domain-specific manner.

Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for IOT Application

Ashutosh Anand

Published: August 02, 2022

It is now possible to minimise the size and power requirements of electronics devices in the fields of wireless sensors and implantable medical devices (IMDs) thanks to the significant improvement in microelectronic VLSI technology. These IMDs, such as cardioverter defibrillators, cardiac pacemakers, artificial retinas, brain, and bone stimulators, sensors, and cochlear implants, among others, can be placed in human bodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The various implantable devices can be used as diagnostic tools to track blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature for a variety of medical conditions, and they can also help with the management of diseases like diabetes (e.g., stimulation of brain and muscles). The pacemaker helps treat irregular heartbeats brought on by sick sinus syndrome or a blocked heart.

Modeling and Simulation - An Approach for Redefining the System

Ritesh Ramesh Palkar and Surabhi Rushabhakumar Gosavi

Published: August 06, 2022

The basic needs for the human being to survive are food, clothes and shelter. In addition to these the regime has been broadening as per the demand. There are many desired products which are being manufactured using different processes. One of the essential processing unit is environment itself, where many processes are observed simultaneously. The earth is filled with lots of wonderful resources which are mostly used to support the human ecosystem. However with increase in the global population, the available resources seems to be limited. The conventional processes are utilized to produce the goods and products with monotonous production approach. There are many unsolved issues which might have increased the capacity along with the efficiency of the system. Due to increase in demand of desired products, production houses are running continuously without proper maintenance which hazards to the environment. The major concern is to maintain the demand and supply ratio, irrespective of the production domain. Inline to this, the present article is trying to focus on the hazard mitigation. The development of any process has to pass through several steps. It starts with identification of the resources to obtain the desired product. In addition to this there are several catalysts needs to be considered, for altering the desired or undesired situations.

Promote the Development of New Energy Vehicles and Carbon Neutrality in Beijing

Xinyi Mei, Yuexue Miao, XiaojunJia and Xiguang Zhang

Published: August 06, 2022

     For the further implementation of Jinping Xi’s speech spirit, on the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee. China will accurately grasp the characteristics of the Times in the new stage of development while facing “The overall strategy of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the great changes unseen in the world in a century”. China will unswervingly implement the new development concept of “innovation, coordination, green, open and sharing”. China will also speed up the construction of domestic and international dual cycle to promote the new development pattern of each other.
     In particular, we investigated and implemented the target goals and tasks of carbon peak and carbon neutrality set out in the 14th Five-Year Plan. According to the survey, with a population of 1.4 billion and a middle class of 560 million, in 2020,China had 280 million cars and 4.92 million new energy vehicles. In 2021, China had 302 million cars and 7.84 million new energy vehicles. China’s oil industry is 65 percent dependent on foreign investment, and gas-powered vehicles account for one-third of its oil consumption. Among them, Beijing has a permanent population of 21.886 million. In 2021, there were 6.143 million civil vehicles, an increase of 140,000, and 507,000 new energy vehicles, an increase of 107,000.
     According to the 2021 China Urban Transport Report, Beijing’s rush-hour commuter congestion index was 2.04. Beijing’s urban traffic congestion has been normalized. The environmental protection pressure of energy conservation and emission reduction is rather huge for Beijing. Energy consumption, pollution, traffic efficiency, travel safety and other problems are forcing the whole auto industry of Beijing to upgrade. Aiming at these problems, this paper puts forward four suggestions.

Hysteresis Loop Measurement for Steel Sheet under PWM Excitation Condition

Xinyang Gao, Nana Duan and Shuhong Wang

Published: August 19, 2022

This article adopts a method of measuring the hysteresis loop of oriented silicon steel sheet under the excitation of pulse width modulation (PWM) signal. A measurement platform was built on the basis of the traditional Epstein frame method. According to international standards, the length of the equivalent magnetic circuit of the Epstein frame was calculated, and the harmonic control method was used to achieve the measurement of the hysteresis loop of the oriented silicon steel sheet under PWM excitation. Starting from the traditional sinusoidal excitation, this paper measures the variation of the hysteresis loop of the silicon steel sheet under different frequency excitation. On this basis, the waveform control and PWM signal output programming were carried out through the host computer, and the influence of high-order harmonics of different frequencies on the magnetic properties of the oriented silicon steel sheet under PWM excitation was compared. Provide theoretical basis for the design and research of transformer laminated core.

Pore Structure and Acoustic Characteristics of Shaximiao Formation in Sichuan Basin Citation: Zhao

Zhao Dan, Zhang Qingxiu, Guo Jingshu, Li Gang and Zeng Shuti

Published: August 19, 2022

With the deepening of exploration and development, the natural gas development in Sichuan Basin has entered the stage of tight gas exploitation. There are significant differences between tight gas and conventional natural gas resources, which are embodied in more complex pore structure and lithology. These differences make it difficult to predict the “dessert” development area of tight rocks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the pore structure characteristics, petrophysical characteristics and formation fluid of tight sandstones. In this paper, through CT scanning and thin section identification, the characteristics of rock micro pore structure in Qiulin area are found, and the petrophysical characteristics of tight rock reservoirs are found through P-S wave experiments. The research shows that the pores of Shaximiao Formation in Qiulin area are large, with pore diameter distribution of 0.05~0.5mm and the pores are relatively developed, with an average porosity of more than 10%. The study of rock physical properties shows that dense rock Poisson is higher than conventional carbonate rock and shale, and has the characteristics of low acoustic wave velocity and low Young’s modulus.

Why did this voice come so late for the sound of Kei Mitsui?’ There are some objective reasons for this. On the one hand, the 1858 drilling team that undertook the drilling of the Qingsan well and most of its parties were almost 40 years old from the Changqing Oilfield by the reorganization Years, so the people who know the glorious history of Keimitsui are only a very small minority within the scope of the Changqing Oilfield; On the other hand, the important person who came to Qingsanjing to witness the great achievements of Qingsanjing belonged to the old Red Army veteran revolutionary Wang Xing, who left the oil system after serving as the director of the Military Control Commission of the Ministry of Petroleum for a short time, although this person was a great hero with legendary experience and major contributions, when he was no longer in an important position in the petroleum system, who cared about the fact that he had made a trip from Beijing to the small place of Zhaogoumen in Huachi County, Gansu Province, for an oil well! Of course, Lao Geming quietly came and left quietly, unwilling to add a simple style of reception affairs to the local government, so that his trip to Huachi failed to leave a historical record in the local area, which was also a reason why Qingsanjing’s meritorious name did not jump up at that time. Then, in 1989, the publication of the Changqing Oilfield Chronicle, The Well was mistakenly identified as a well of discovery, and the superposition effect of the historical phenomenon made the name of The Famous Well covered in layer after layer of smoke and dust. Without the eternal perseverance of sitting on the bench for ten years cold and not writing half a sentence in an article, it is very difficult to sort out a relatively clear and clear context for the historical status and significance of the merits of The Founding Father of Kei Mitsui. Penetrating the time and space distance of half a century, it is a major issue to sort out the historical status and significance of Kei Mitsui’s meritorious service. It is necessary to comb through the memories of the parties concerned, to sort them out in reliable historical documents, and to comb through the small place of Zhaogou Gate in Huachi County, the birthplace of Qingsanjing. Who would have thought that this sorting process would take a full twelve years of precious time. What can be comforted is that this mission has finally been completed now.

What we want to summarize here is a low permeability oil and gas field. After 50years of polishing, those revolutionary technologies branded with low permeability marks. In terms of its contribution, it is such a technical sequence from one row to six: first, oil and gas exploration technology that infinitely approximates the migration and accumulation law of Ordos hydrocarbon sources; The second is the brand-name, customized and service-oriented drilling fluid completion hydraulic fracturing technology; Third, natural fractures are not developed, and artificially created fracturing technology for low permeability oil and gas reservoirs; Fourth, the advanced water injection and pressure boosting development technology of ultra-low permeability oil fields, which is deficient in nature and then compensated by nature; Fifth, the large-scale cluster well technology that low-permeability oil and gas fields must be developed at low cost; The sixth is the horizontal well technology that allows the longest possible well section to lie flat in the oil and gas reservoir. It is these technologies that have exerted their effects on the low-permeability oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in many changes in the low-permeability oil and gas reservoirs in line with people’s wishes. It is these gratifying changes that converge into a continuous flow of oil and gas in Changqing Oilfield.

Experimental Study on Moisture Loss Mechanism in Apples Tissue

Georges El Achkar Bin Liu and Rachid Bennacer

Published: August 30, 2022

In this paper, the moisture loss mechanism in biological tissue of apples was experimentally investigated in order to understand this mechanism and hence to extend their shelf life. An image conversion procedure, based on the use of image processing and AlgoLab Photo Vector softwares, was developed in order to characterise physically the internal porous structure of apples from the core to the skin. Several geometrical and physical parameters of the restructured porous media (porosity, fractal dimension, tortuosity, capillary pressure, permeability) were determined, and a comparison between their trends was carried out and analysed. Besides, a moisture loss model was established and discussed.

In this paper, a thermohydraulic characterisation of a reciprocating room temperature active magnetic regenerator, with gadolinium particles used as a magnetocaloric material and water used as a heat transfer fluid, was numerically carried out. A two-dimensional transient flow model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics software in order to determine the water flow distribution in two active magnetic regenerators of cross and parallel gadolinium particles distributions for different water inlet velocities of 0.06, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.12 m.s−1. The gadolinium particles have a radius of 1.5 mm and a distance from one another of 0.9 mm. Based on the simulations results of this model, a second two-dimensional transient coupled flow and heat transfer model was then developed using the same software in order to characterise the convective heat transfer in the active magnetic regenerator of cross gadolinium particles distribution for the same water inlet velocities.

The World is Changing Fast: Can AI Help Meet the Challenges?

Ivanna Dronyuk

Published: September 22, 2022

About a quarter of a century ago, humanity crossed the millennium mark. Everyone was looking forward to drastic changes. And these changes did not take long; they are already walking across our planet. However, it turned out that it is not all that simple.
First, the changes are related to technology. The scientific discoveries of the previous century served as a theoretical basis for technological advances. A list of the most recent modern discoveries that provide a technological breakthrough for today: space exploration, the creation of computer machines, and the development of global networks. This is far from a complete list [1].

Identity Access Management in Metaverse

Manasi Chhibber, Sarthak Agarwal and Amit Dubey

Published: September 22, 2022

Metaverse is a virtual apace where people can enter and interact with other users in a computer-generated surroundings. It is an integrated system of 3-dimensional virtual worlds. These are preferably accessed via a VR headset. Users’ eye movements, their voice commands and feedback controllers are mainly used to navigate around the metaverse. In this way they are able to fully immerse themselves in the virtual world and simulate their presence. With the advent of this new technology, challenges are bound to occur. Most importantly challenges related to security of users need to be dealt with. Every person entering and interacting in the metaverse must be a verified user so that identity frauds do not happen, hence keeping the users safe from malicious attacks. To deal with this issue, we have come up with two features, first, an avatar facial tracking based and second, a chat based. By using NLP and Deep Learning, we were able to 73.77% uniquely identity a person in a WhatsApp chat group with other people. For the facial recognition-based security feature, we have just laid out our theoretical approach. In future, we’re planning to make use of other features as well such as speech pattern recognition, body positioning retrieval, retinal movement tracking, etc. for allowing only authorized users to enter and interact in the metaverse.

The study is an extract from the researcher’s PHD thesis titled, “Pedagogical Integration of Technology as an enhancement to teaching and learning in Gauteng Public Schools”. The study aimed to explore the degree of the ICT integration within Gauteng Public Schools, the challenges impeding the optimum utilisation of ICT towards curriculum delivery and enabling conditions for ICT rollout in education transformation. Therefore, the study’s objectives were to determine the degree to which individual qualities impact the educator’s preparedness in using ICT for teaching, to ascertain the magnitude preceding ICT skills and computer training affects educators’ preparedness within their teaching environment.

The study was hinged upon a pragmatist paradigm, using mixed methods approach, whereby a case study was chosen as a strategy. The theoretical notation for the study was an inductive simultaneous approach whereby the qualitative dimension was core and quantitate dimension was supplemental. Purposive sampling technique was applied to sample twelve (12) Heads of Departments (HODs) and five (5) senior officials from the Gauteng Department of Education (GDE). Both educators and HODs were selected from public schools in three Gauteng regions: Johannesburg, Tshwane, and Ekurhuleni. Furthermore, a stratified random sampling method was used to obtain feedback from two hundred and ten (210) educators, who were selected from the identified population.

The study findings showed that male educators had a higher and positive attitude towards ICT integration and utilisation in the classroom than their female counterparts. In addition, the study findings revealed that most of the professional development support from the department provided to educators mainly empowers them on how to best utilise information communication technology available, not how to effectively integrate the technology into the curriculum.

The results of this study confirmed that even though resources and training were provided by the GDE, educators were not sufficiently equipped to develop their own approaches that could embrace ICT into the learning process. In most cases, educators were not using technological tools to develop their lesson plans and curriculum delivery. A clear understanding of how educators integrate ICT in teaching is significant to develop and deliver effective educational opportunities to properly prepare learners for higher learning, work, and life in the 21st century.

GaN HEMT is chosen for many high frequency applications such as Power Amplifiers because of its desirable properties. Most semiconductors fail at high frequency applications because of their thermal and bias limitations. It’s very difficult to operate theamplifier at high frequency and high power ratings. The HEMT transistors can operate at high electric fields and high frequencies. The heterojunction structure provides more no of free electrons without any doping which significantly improves the mobility and the current. The heterostructure also blocks the current flow in unwanted directions. This paper explains about GaN HEMT transistor and its practical application as a Power Amplifier. CREE CGH40010F GaN (10 W) device is chosen and developed at the schematic level. The schematic provides 15.5 dB gain and 66% efficiency.

Performance Enhancement of a Water Cooled BIPV System

Monia Chaabane, Salma Benzarti, Hatem Mhiri and Philippe Bournot

Published: October 04, 2022

Building-integrated photovoltaic systems (BIPV) currently represent a fundamental concept for the realization of sustainable buildings. However, these systems like any photovoltaic device are endowed with a limited efficiency due to the negative effect of the rise in the temperature of the cells. To limit this inconvenience, a cooling system must be applied. In this study, a suitable geometry was considered based on the temperature distribution in the base system. Indeed, a particular cooling system with a contact surface and a volume of water which increase as the temperature of the photovoltaic cells increases is considered. In addition, the external heat exchange surface of the proposed system is varied, linear and cylindrical based surfaces are studied.Numerical simulations were performed using the CFD package, Ansys. The main attention was focused on the overall system’s temperature and electrical efficiency improvement. Moreover, the gain generated in thermal energy is evaluated. The results revealed that the proposed system allows an important reduction of the PV cell temperature. While the non-cooled BIPV system temperature variation was in the range of 312.5 K - 348.5 K for a solar radiation ranging from 200 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2, this variation is reduced to small values for the water cooled system, respectively from 301 K to 310.5 K. This reduction in the temperature of the PV cells has directly resulted in an improvement in the photovoltaic efficiency of the system where a minimum average value of 15% has been noted, while the values noted for the uncooled system vary between 12.3% and 14.8% in depending on the incident radiation. Concerning the effect of the external heat exchange surface, the effect was not remarkable on the electrical performance of the system, however, the linear surface-based system proved to be more efficient in terms of thermal production than the cylindrical one. Finally, the effect of the flow rate is also discussed and the results show that for a relatively high value like 0.22 kg/s, a good reduction in the temperature of the PV cells can be achieved while ensuring a significant thermal production.