Effects of Illegal Mining on Human Security in Ghana
Kwadwo Addo Tuffuor1* and Richard Babil Takora2
1Head, Department of Peace Studies, School for Development Studies (SDS), University of Cape Coast
2Department of Integrated Development Studies (SDS), Research Assistant, University of Cape Coast
*Corresponding Author: Kwadwo Addo Tuffuor, Head, Department of Peace Studies, School for Development Studies (SDS), University of Cape Coast.
Published: February 02, 2024
The environmental and socioeconomic effects of mining and human security challenges are a source of worry to most governments all over the world. It is a known fact that the extractive industry - mainly gold, diamond, manganese and crude petroleum contributes significantly to the national economy of most countries in Africa inclusive of Ghana. However, in spite of its importance to the national economy, its effects especially on the environment, the health of the people, food security, fundamental human rights of people in communities where illegal mining occurs affects the human security of the citizenry. Uncontrolled illegal mining is prevalent in Ghana even though there is a legal regime to check and control artisanal and small-scale mining. In view of its destructive consequences, a securitisation approach is usually used to justify the deployment of “security forces” to deal with the menace in view of the multiple dimensions of insecurities that is associated with illegal mining. The adoption and use of human security paradigm allows for the taking of a more integrative and holistic approach in dealing with the problem in the country. Studies on illegal mining in Ghana confirm that, poverty accounts for the main reason why people risk their lives to engage in the practice. This paper provides a review of the effects of illegal mining on human security in Ghana. It aims to reveal the multiple insecurities surrounding illegal gold mining in Ghana from a human security perspective. Further, the paper make recommendations for governance and policy reform in finding solution to the insecurities associated with the practice.
Keywords: illegal mining; human security; ‘Galamsey”; securitisation; poverty and governance