Article In Press

A Bridge, A Well and A World-Class Oil Field

Sun Jiajun

Published: November 01, 2022

The Yellow River has a famous tributary called the Wei River, the Wei River has a famous tributary called the Jing River, and the Jing River has a less famous tributary called the Malian River; Not far from the place where the Malian River flows into the Jing River, a bridge was built in the sixties of the last century, and one end of the bridge connects to Changwu County in Shaanxi Province, the other end of the bridge is connected to the Qingyang area of Gansu Province, so the bridge was named Changqing Bridge; From here, tracing the Malian River up, you can find an old county town called Qingyang County and now called Qingcheng County, this The old county town is lifted by two rivers, east and west, on a high loess terrace; Although this is a small county town, it is a historical city that can be counted in the country, how long the history of ancient China is, how long the history of this county town is, and the historical story of this city cannot be told for three days and three nights; The small river that protects this city in the east has a poetic name "Rouyuan River", and if you go up the Rouyuan River, you can meet a smaller county seat It is Huachi County; Not far from the county seat of Huachi there is a small village called Zhaogoumen The village met a drilling team in 1970 of the last century, and the drilling team with the number 1858 made a hole there The well for exploring for oil, the name of the well is Keisanjing; On August 7 of that year, I saw the industrial oil flow, which was a groundbreaking event in Qingyang, Longdong, people From this, it is known that there is oil hidden in the depths of Qingyang. At that time, the country's economic construction, especially war readiness, urgently needed a large amount of oil, and Qingyang happened to discover oil, a great happy event Yikes! The Central Military Commission of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council have attached great importance to this great happy event, and the State Council and the Central Military Commission have jointly issued it Document No. 81 1970 entrusted the glorious task of exploiting the oil here The leading organ organized by the Lanzhou Military Region and set up in Lanzhou marched all the way east and then east, until the place where the bridge was built, and then set up camp. Because the name of the bridge is Changqing Bridge, the leading organ that has set up camp here has taken them on a mission That is, the oilfield that was developed and built was named Changqing Oilfield. Who would have imagined that fifty years later, this oil field that was discovered from that well and named after that bridge, It has become a world-class oilfield with an annual output of 60 million tons.

Complex Solution of Engineering Problems by Graphic Methods

Aleksandr Yurievich Brailov

Published: November 01, 2022

A geometrical problem is to determine the location of the image equidistant from four points that do not coincide in three-dimensional space. A practical example of this problem is to determine the location of the lamp equidistant from four lamps, arbitrarily located in the hall of an art gallery, a sports hall, on a site in a park and other objects. A method has been developed for the graphical determination of the geometrical place of an image equidistant from four points that do not coinciding in three-dimensional space. A methodology for the graphical solution of engineering geometric problems is proposed.
Keywords: Geometric Image; Engineering Problem; Graphic Solution; Point; Sphere; Solution Methodology

Exploring Reinforcement Learning Environment for User-centric Applications in VANET

V Padmapriya and D N Sujatha

Published: November 19, 2022

The past decade has identified Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) as one of the promising technology for intelligent communication among vehicles. VANET supports the dissemination of safety, warning, and infotainment messages. Today, there is a growing demand for location-specific and infotainment messages among urban travelers. The class of applications that disseminates infotainment messages are called user centric applications. The task of dissemination is expected to be remunerative to promote cooperation among the vehicles. A vehicle that disseminates these user-centric messages earns a reward in the form of an incentive. Generally, the incentive bring in greed with a threat of malicious behavior in the network. Previously, several incentive-based approaches have been proposed that handle malicious behavior and maintain the equilibrium of rewards with the perspective of the Vehicular Network (VN). However, the Reinforcement Learning (RL) paradigm with its intelligent algorithms combined with vehicular networks is capacitated to handle several challenges in the incentive-based approaches. In this paper, we explore how RL environments can be adopted for the rewarding techniques in VANET. The paper concludes with open research challenges in this area.
Keywords: Applications; Incentive-based; Reinforced Learning; Rewards; User-centric; Vehicular Networks

     A better understanding of hydraulic fracturing behavior is even more crucial in unconventional plays as more new-well or infill-well are drilled and completed nowadays. Having integrated different sources of information/data such as the general trend of hydraulic fracturing practices during the last 20 years, DFIT and fracturing simulation, core analysis data, outcrops, the Hydraulic Fracturing Test Site (HFTS), and fracturing monitoring in the wells or between wells such as pressure, tracers, DAS, DTS, DSS and so on. After synthesizing all kinds of data and information and applying multidisciplinary fusion ideas to the analysis, we proposed an innovative conceptual model of hydraulic fracturing coming along with some associated concepts; The transdisciplinary integration approach we used in this research follows all fundamental physics law and meticulously logical reasoning and analogy with crossing validation, the first principle thinking epistemologically because of the physics of unconventional fracturing is much more complicated than any single discipline can explain. More often than not, the solution coming from any discipline or data source is not a unique one. The cognition of the morphology or the called fracture pattern of hydraulic fracturing is critical, which is virtually the conceptual model of fracturing. The conceptual model can directly impact the fracturing design and the way to evaluate actual fracturing.

     Using the proposed conceptual model, Fracturing Impact Volume (FIV), one can better explain what fracturing has done for unconventional plays and why it worked. With the proposed conceptual model and tossing aside the fracture network as the fracturing goal, many current fracturing practices can be improved significantly, and the way of production can be revised. This is a significant concept shifting in the unconventional fracturing arena. It is certainly not an easy task, but this paper makes a compelling case. With the FIV model in mind, the perception of “the greater the pumping rate, the higher net frac pressure, the better the fracturing to be” becomes unnecessary or makes little sense. This paper will decode the shale oil/gas flow mechanisms and demonstrate a better way to fracture and produce unconventional resources like shale oil/gas.
Keywords: Conceptual model; Unconventional reservoir; Fracturing; Transdisciplinary integration

Identification of bird’s nest hazard level of transmission line based on improved yolov5 and location constraints

Yang Wu, Qunsheng Zeng, Peng Li, Wenqi Huang, Lingyu Liang and Jiajie Chen

Published: November 19, 2022

     Bird's nest is a common defect in transmission line, which seriously affects the safe and stable operation of the line. This paper presents a method of bird's nest hazard level identification based on improved yolov5 and location constraints, which solves the problem of bird's nest multiple identification and hazard level classification. We integrate GhostModule and efficient channel attention (ECA) to design a lightweight attention mechanism convolution module (LAMCM). The original yolov5 is improved by using LAMCM and adding a prediction head, which improves the detection ability of small targets and alleviates the negative impact of scale violence. We only identify the bird's nest on the panorama of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) patrol, and classify the hazard level of the bird's nest according to the location constraints of the bird's nest and insulator. Experiments on coco dataset and self built transmission line dataset (TL) show that our algorithm is superior to other commonly used algorithms. On the COCO dataset, our algorithm achieved 49.1% AP at a real-time speed of ~79FPS on Tesla V100. On the TL dataset, the recognition effect of our algorithm on towers, insulators and bird nests has improved to varying degrees compared with the original yolov5. In particular, the recall rate of bird nest identification for three hazard levels has increased by more than 3%. The average recall rate of bird nest hazard level identification is 93%, and the average accuracy rate is 93.5%.
Keywords: bird's nest; transmission line; object detection; attention mechanism

Comparative Analysis of AISI 10B21 app Licable for Fasteners

Riya Rawat, Rohit Sharma, Asimul Haque, Vishal Sharma, Seema Mahto and Jimmy Mehta

Published: November 21, 2022

Manufacturing components and parts for a specific application are generally fabricated by traditional methods followed by industrial standards. With the modern era of machining components new materials, composites and alloys have also been developed for particular applications having desirable and required properties. Boron steel is one such material being used in manufacturing industries for agricultural spades, knives, blades, etc. in its raw form. In the present work, boron steel's properties and chemical composition have been compared when it is heat treated. It was observed that the working life span has been increased effectively and efficiently. This has also been verified using ANSYS.
Keywords: boron steel; heat treatment; ANSYS