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Medicon Microbiology

Medicon Microbiology (MCMI) is an open-access innovation. Which provides a wide range of information on Microbiology, Virus, Bacteria, Fungal and Parasitology, Mycology, etc,. This Journal publishes vast information regarding microbial, molecular biology, plant & animal genetics.

Major subject areas of Microbiology, but not restricted to following fields:

Cellular Microbiology, High throughput sequencing, Medical Microbiology, Microbial proteomics, Marine Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Industrial Microbiology, Microbial genetics, Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, Bioinformatics in microbiology, Epidemiology, Virology, Mycology, Clinical microbiology, Aerobic Actinomycetes, Cell Migration, Microbial diversity, Cytoskeleton Proteolysis, Food microbiology, Cell Cycle, Cell Death, Cell cycle and differentiation, Differentiation, Protozoology and Mycology, Models of Disease, Molecular genetics, Drug Targets, Biodiversity, Medical Biotechnology, Plant-microbe interactions, Metabolic Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Environmental Biotechnology, Genetics and evolution, Lipids & Carbohydrates, Molecular Mechanisms, Enzymology, Microbial engineering, Biomolecules, Biophysics, Drug Design, Amino Acids, Biochemical microbiology, Proteins, Symbiosis in plant and animal association, Chemical Biology, Forest microbiology, Bimolecular Associations, Bioremediation, Growth Factors, Microbial physiology, Lipid Signaling, Biochemical, Immunology, Bacteriology, Host immune responses, Antibiotic resistance and production, Protozoan biology, Analytical microbiology, Geomicrobiology, Infectious diseases, Microbial ecology, Microbial pathogenesis, Pharmaceutical microbiology, Microbial biotechnology, Marine and aquatic microbiology, Microbiology education.

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  • Medicon Microbiology is an international, profound Journal which publishes Articles on various disciplines of Microbiology.
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Latest Article

COVID In Food Is It Possible to Spread It?

Santiago Pablo Baggini

Published: January 04, 2022

Undoubtedly, the year 2020 will be marked by fire as the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, a situation that, on the other hand, we are still suffering and we do not foresee that it can conclude at least in the short term since we outlined these lines. To assume that everything is known about Sars-Cov 2 [1] (Severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus 2) is a fallacy, since every day, we know less for sure than we do not know about it.

The browse species are an important source of nutrients for goats in arid range-land. However, the chemical compositions of browse species used as goat feed in Bena-Tsemay district have not studied and documented for future long-term utilization which target to properly balance their inclusion levels in animal diets. Thus, this study was conducted to assess chemical compositions of selected browse species browsed by goats. The leaves of fourteen browse species samples were collected from range-land and analyzed for chemical compositions in completely randomized block design by using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. The higher (p<0.05) crude protein (CP) (198g/kg, DM) was observed in A. marina leaves, while the lower CP levels (125g/kg, DM) and (126g/kg, DM) were observed in A. tortilis and G. tenax leaves, respectively. The S. birrea leaves had higher (p<0.05) estimated dry matter intake (94.05g/kg, DM), while it was lower (58.57g/kg, DM) for A. tortilis leaves. However, the digestible dry matter (DDM), total digestible nutrients (TDN), relative feed value (RFV) and metablisable energy (ME) values were similar (p<0.05) among the all studied browse plant species. Based on result from this study, it can be concluded that all studied browse plants had high-quality-protein to supplement poor-quality-roughage feeds for enhanced livestock production. Also, it is suggested that future research will consider the supplementation effects of browse plant on animal
performances (meat, milk and growth rate). 
Keywords: Crude protein; Digestible dry matter; Dry matter intake; Relative feed value; Metabolizable energy

Dolphins and whales are collectively referred to as cetaceans which have until recently remained unstudied in Ghana and within the Gulf of Guinea. In recent times, the growing increase in the landings and stranding of cetaceans have raised concern to environmentalists and the general public even though Ghana has enacted several legislations intended to foster the conservation of biodiversity and protection of the environment. 

Water: Source of Life and Pollution

Santiago Pablo Baggini

Published: January 31, 2022

It is not possible, therefore, to understand the phenomenon of life without understanding its fundamental component: WATER. The UN (UN) in accordance with the WHO (WHO), adopts on December 22, 1993 and by Resolution A/RES/47/193, that every year, every March 22, the call is commemorated: World Day of the water. Likewise, an invitation was sent to all member states to consecrate this day, as the promotion of public awareness and through the production and dissemination of documentaries, conferences, round tables, seminars and exhibitions related to the conservation and development of natural resources. hydric.

One hundered and fifty soil samples were collected from different city of Babylon/Iraq. Thirty three Actinomycetes isolates were obtained, purified and identified according to morphological properties and biochemical ltests. All isolates were tested for the irantimicrobial activities and screened for production of some important enzymes such as amylase, catalase, protease, cellulose and lipase. There salts obtained that 13 isolated have such potential and all 13 isolates have amylase activity. The most active
isolates in production of study enzymes were KO-AG18, HI-SA24 and KO-RS27. Most 13 Actinomycetes isolates were showed antimicrobial against some Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram- negative (Klebsella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila due to inhibition zone diameter (mm) ranged from 4-37 against gram negative and from 6-37 against gram positive bacteria.
Keywords: Isolates; Antimicrobial Activity become isolates; antimicrobial; activity

Distribution and Abundance of Micro Litters in the Selected Beaches of Gulf of Mannar, India during August 2013 and February 2014

Chockalingam Muthiah Ramakritinan, Balakrishnan Ramkumar, Malairaj Santhanakrishnan and Thillaichidambaram Muneeswaran

Published: January 31, 2022

Anthropogenic, non-degradable materials are well-known for fragmentation in the coastal and marine environments which lead to formation of micro litter particles. Due to the buoyant and persistent properties of micro litters, they have a potential to become widely dispersed in the coastal marine environment through the hydrodynamic processes and ocean currents. Ingestion of these micro litters in marine organisms has been reported hence they play a vital role in disturbances in the marine food webs. Therefore, we have assessed the distribution and abundance of micro litters in ten selected beaches along the Gulf of Mannar between Dhanuskodi and Thoothukudi, southeast coast of India during August 2013 and February 2014.
Overall, the total micro litters segregated in the Gulf of Mannar were 27.9 item m3 -1. The sampling period wise record showed that August 2013 found highest record of 17.67 item m3 -1 while it was only 10.23 item m3 -1 in Feb. 2014. Overall Gulf of Mannar recorded >92.6% occurrences of both hard (40.5%) and soft (52.1%) plastic type micro litters, whereas no single record of litter types of glass and cloth type micro litters were noticed. Nevertheless, overall, 2.6-5.0 mm size groups accounted maximum numbers in the Gulf of Mannar beaches. As litter groups, overall mean abundance of all five micro litter categories were higher in
Mugundarayar Chadram beach (17.0%) in Aug. 2013 and in Kundukal (15.2%) during Feb. 2014. As micro litter size categories, >10 mm sizes found to be dominated (1.56 item m3 -1) in Muguntharayar Chadram beach and Pudumadam beach during Aug. 2013 and Feb. 2014, respectively.
The present study concludes that, the abundance of micro litters found to be varied between surveys, beaches, litters’ group and litters’ sizes. The micro litters of soft (SP) and hard plastics (HP) contributed more than 92.6% and mostly by fragments of fishing nets, nylon ropes, food wrappers, plastic buoys etc. The present study concludes that there is a possibility of migration of micro litters to the coastal and coral reef environments of Gulf of Mannar due to hydrodynamic process thus enter the marine food chain including corals via engulfment as food materials. Therefore, a proper disposal plan should be followed to control solid waste management in the Coastal Marine Environment.
Keywords: Marine Litter; Micro Plastics; Beaches; Hydrodynamic process; Gulf of Mannar


N Venkataraman

Published: January 31, 2022

The period between 1850 and 1915 known as the Golden Age of Microbiology is possibly returning to 2020s. Information Technology had its beginning of upward growth from 1990s and Growth of Social media increased tremendously in the decade of 2010 and both still continues to grow.

An update on the Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Management of the Reemergent Life Threatening Scrub Typhus

Kulvinder KocharKaur, Gautam Allahbadia and Mandeep Singh

Published: March 07, 2022

Scrub typhus represents a robust Public Health ailment that is Prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region that is inclusive of although not restricted to Korea, China, India, Taiwan Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, as well as the Phillipines, This area has been referred to as the tsutsugumashi triangle. One billion people have a threat globally to get afflicted, that results in a disease generation in one million individuals. Scrub typhus alias tsutsugumashi disease occurs every year. Here we have stressed on the epidemiology world wise besides the significance of Scrub typhus in Indian scenario that presents as an acute febrile illness having life threatening consequences. We conducted a Here we conducted a systematic review utilizing search engine pubmed, google scholar; web of science; embase; Cochrane review library utilizing the MeSH terms like Scrub typhus; other rickettsios is; differential diagnosis with other acutefebrile illnesses; epidemiology of Orientiatsutsugumashi (etiologic agent); malaria; Indian scenario; Leptrombidiumbitesllarvae; mites; serology; WeilFelix reaction; immuofluoresceceassay; met genomic next generation sequencing (mNGS), Scrub typhus cell surface display technology; treatment; doxycycline; azithromycin; rifampicin; chloramphenicol; innovative early diagnostics. We found a total of 3500 articles out of which we selected 51 articles for this update. Nometa-analysis was done. Since this disease has reemerged it is usually not kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in acute febrile illnesses that is why we chose to review and update this life hreateningisease having central nervous system (CNS), Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT), complications, myocarditis, besides usually diagnostic eschar. Avoidamce is equally important specifically for farmers other vegetation areas etc.
Keywords: Scrub typhus; epidemiology; complications; avoidance; Public Health problem

Smart Health Technologies for COVID-19 Pandemic: Internet of Medical Things perspectives Citation: SM

SM Kadri, Nighat Nazir, Marija Petkovic and Maja Subelj

Published: March 07, 2022

Contact tracing is an activity of paramount importance during the work with an individual either symptomatic or asymptomatic diagnosed with the infectious disease of interest. The aim of contact tracing is to identify, provide support for those contacts as well as to prevent further infective dissemination. Contact tracing enables us to adequately identify, voluntary quarantine or self-quarantine and monitor those COVID-19 suspect cases.
A contact is defined as an individual exposed to a case or a case’s environment such that they had an opportunity to acquire the infection. A high-risk subpopulation is a population that has the risk of infection or severe disease. 
The incubation period is defined as the interval between the onset of invasion by an infective particle and the first sign/symptom of the infective process. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, the incubation period is on average 4-5 days but may be as long as 14 days.
The infectious period is a time during which a case can transmit a disease to others and starts 2 days before someone develops symptoms.
During an isolation a case needs to be separated from others. During a quarantine a close contact is separated from others to prevent the disease transmission to the susceptible individuals and contact’s activities are restricted for the duration of their incubation period.
Contact tracing is carried out by the adequately educated staff. They should possess a qualitative background, language skills, cultural access to social and medical support for the suspected individuals.
Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) efforts aim to ensure a healthy and safe working environment, prevent work-related diseases and promote health. OHS issues may affect the Rapid Response Team (RRT) as well as the incident being investigated. Risk assessment should consider the tasks, the environment, the exposure as well as preventive controls available.
The current coronavirus pandemic 2019 (COVID-19) represents a major public healthcare crisis with epidemiologic models predicting hazardous consequences. The major concern is a high morbidity rate. Contact tracing using of smartphone apps is a powerful approach to control and reduce the lethal outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the use of smartphone technology is limitated due to the potential exposure of sensitive personal information.
Keywords: COVID-19; Contact tracing; Data protection; App

Sterilization in Microbiology

Santiago Pablo Baggini

Published: March 07, 2022

It has long been a challenge to control infectious diseases by destruction, decrease in their number or inhibition of microorganisms. It can be carried out with different methods depending on the place to be applied and the degree of microbial eradication that is intended to be achieved.

Heart Disease Prediction and Detection Using Association Rule Mining Techniques

T Sreenivasula Reddy, R Sathya and Mallikharjuna Rao Nuka

Published: March 07, 2022

Data science mining methods are utilized in the field of medication for different purposes. Mining affiliation rule is one of the intriguing points in information mining which is utilized to produce continuous itemsets. It was first proposed for market bushel examination. Analysts proposed varieties in methods to create incessant itemsets. Creating huge number of incessant itemsets is a tedious cycle. In this paper, the creators contrived a strategy to anticipate the danger level of the patients having coronary illness through incessant itemsets. The dataset of different coronary illness patients is utilized for this exploration work. The information mining strategies-based frameworks could vitally affect the workers’ way of life to anticipate heart sicknesses. There are numerous logical papers, which utilize the strategies of information mining to anticipate heart infections. Nonetheless, restricted logical papers have tended to the four cross-approval methods of dividing the informational index that assumes a significant part in choosing the best procedure for foreseeing coronary illness. Pick the ideal blend between the cross-approval methods and
the information mining, order strategies that can upgrade the exhibition of the forecast models. This paper means to apply the four-cross-approval methods (holdout, k-overlay cross approval, separated k overlap cross-approval, and rehashed irregular) with the proposed techniques Extended Support Vector Machine and Extended KNN to work on the precision of coronary illness expectation and select the best forecast models. It investigates these procedures on a little and huge dataset gathered from various information sources like Kaggle and the UCI AI archive. The assessment measurements like exactness, accuracy, review, and F-measure were utilized to quantify the presentation of forecast models. Experimentation is performed on two datasets, and the outcomes show that when the dataset is epic (50000 records), the ideal mix that accomplishes the most noteworthy precision is holdout cross-approval with the neural organization with an exactness of 71.82%. Simultaneously, Repeated Random with Random Forest considers the ideal blend in a little dataset (303 records) with a precision of 89.01%. The best models will be prescribed to the doctors in business associations to help them anticipating coronary illness in workers into one of two classifications, cardiovascular and non-heart, at a beginning phase. Successive itemsets are produced dependent on the picked indications and least help esteem. The separated successive itemsets assist the clinical professional with settling on indicative choices and decide the danger level of patients at a beginning phase. The proposed strategy can be applied to any clinical dataset to anticipate the danger factors with hazard level of the patients dependent on picked factors. An exploratory outcome shows that the created
technique distinguishes the danger level of patients effectively from continuous itemsets. The early recognition of heart illnesses in representatives will further develop efficiency in the business association. 
Keywords: Data Mining; Heart Disease; Feature Selection; Cross-Validation Methods; Data Preprocessing; Classification Algorithms; Productivity; Business Organizations; Frequent Itemsets; Heart Disease Prediction; Association Rule Mining; Data Mining; Medical Data Mining; SVM; ESVM; ANN and EKNN

COVID-19: The Pandemic Unfolds

SM Kadri, AH Brady and Nighat Nazir

Published: March 07, 2022

COVID-19 emerged from Wuhan, China in late 2019. A new strain of coronavirus, it was not previously identified in humans. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which cause illness ranging from a mild cold to severe disease, for instance Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).

Virus: A Friend and Foe

Rashmi Zankyani Rajwani

Published: March 30, 2022

Viruses are smallest, ultramicroscopic, non-cellular, obligate intracellular infectious agents that cannot reproduce outside their host cell. Their genome contains either DNA or RNA as genetic material. Their genome is enclosed in a protein shell known as capsid, which may be surrounded by a lipid containing membrane called envelope. The entire infectious unit is called “Virion”- an extracellular infectious virus particle. Viruses are connecting link between living and non livings because it act as non living particle outside the host cell while reproduce inside host cell like living organisms does.

Animal Models for Experimental Research

MV Raghavendra Rao, Dilip Mathai and Mahendra Kumar Verma

Published: March 30, 2022

An animal is an ideal tool using a non-human species handed down in medical research because it can mimic the attitude of a disease found in humans. Animal models are used to bring to successful completion of the information about a disease and its avoidance, diagnosis, and treatment.

A field experiment was conducted on the Influence of Boron Molybdenum and Nickel on Biochemical traits and quality of blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) at Agricultural college farm, Bapatla during Rabi 2017-18 in randomized block design with eight treatments of micronutrient application viz., control (T1), B (T2), Mo (T3), Ni (T4), B+Mo (T5), B+Ni (T6), Mo+Ni (T7) and B+Mo+Ni (T8) replicated thrice. The results revealed that leghaemoglobin content in nodules, activity of urease in leaves and nodules and protein content in seed increased with B, Mo and Ni application individually and in combination. Activity of NR in leaves increased with T2 to T8 except Ni (T4) application alone.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a mysterious spiral bacterium that is colonized as gastric-flora in 50% of the world’s population [1]. Introduction of this bacterium in 1982 by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren was one of the most revolutionary discoveries in the field of gastroenterology; Todays, H. pylori is considered as the causative agent for chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma as well as extra-gastrointestinal diseases [2-3].

South Sudan Livelihoods Value Chains Support, Economic and Financial Survey of Aweil and Kapoeta Counties

Gobeng Likambo Seme Mamuru, Philip Wani Marcelo, John Leju Celestino, Kwai Malak Kut, Achikule Alex Azaria and Tasada Joseph Awad

Published: March 30, 2022

The Revitalarised Transitional Government of National Unity of South Sudan formed in January, 2020 creates a peaceful space and environment to increase economic growth, reconstruction and resilience in South Sudan. About 90% of the total area is arable, with 50% considered as good and prime agricultural land. Out of the total prime agricultural land, only about 5% is currently being utilised and 12-15% is covered by arid and semi- arid lands (ASALs). Livestock has been listed to have a great potential in addition to the agricultural productivity in to contribute to the economic wealth and GDP of South Sudan. Over the years, the severity and occurrence of droughts have increased and their effects are exacerbated by the increasing wonders of unreliable rainfalls, land degradation, global warming and climate change. These circumstances have created conditions of chronic vulnerability in the country with persistent food insecurity, widespread economic hardships, conflicts, migration and unspeakable human sufferings, all affecting the pastoral and agro-pastoral communities that inhabit the ASALs. 

Antropotechnics: Norm in Every Living Thing and Artificial Beings

Kazaryan Ruben Rafaelovich

Published: March 30, 2022

The monopoly in the field of studying the cardinal problems concerning the optimization of controlling activities and the complex security of human vital functions in all its spheres of being for a long time used to belong to psychology. But during the last decades of the 20th century a new conception has arrived - that is: for solving such global problems we need to organize complex scientific research, based on the interconnection of different sciences. Carrying out these kinds of researches is making absolutely new requirements to the methodology, and at the same time forming new kinds of approaches for solving the methodological problems.

Plastic Waste Management of Coastal Cities Affecting Marine Environment

Jasna Mary Thomas, Anindita Bhattacharjee, Sheetal Kamble, Lipsa Mishra, Vishakha Kumari, Akanksha and Akshey Bhargava

Published: March 31, 2022

The coastal area has experienced critical changes of waste issues throughout recent years. Hence, this study means to review individuals’ points of view on the elements of waste in coastal regions and our goal is to make an essential that intend to manage the plastic contamination that addresses a major test for beach front urban areas, and to diminish the utilization of plastics in the public area to make urban areas liberated from plastic. Plastic marine litter is a worldwide natural issue with things of floating in water and affecting environments. Plastic has unfortunate results for untamed life, for economies and more on to human wellbeing. Plastic requests for earnest requirement for activity on a worldwide scale as it influences the marine climate. Fumble of strong waste is a grave concern whenever observed can assist with lessening plastic marine litter. Beachfront urban communities are situated on the connection point or change regions among land and ocean, including huge inland lakes. The marine climate incorporates the waters of oceans and estuaries, the seabed and its soils, and all marine natural life and its ocean and waterfront territories. The marine climate is an indispensable asset for life on earth. Marine environments play out various key natural capacities - they manage the environment, forestall disintegration, and circulate sunlight based energy, assimilate carbon dioxide, and keep up with organic control. The recognizable proof of the beginning of the plastics that arrive at the coast is by all accounts of vital significance. This article plans to safeguard the climate and advance asset effectiveness, can go past the issues of beach front zones, for example, distinguishing areas of action subject to a critical utilization of plastics and the objective that is being given. Making successful metropolitan waste administration frameworks is quite possibly the main activity to forestall plastic contamination. Deficient and overpowered seepage frameworks, open unloading, littering, and flood/overflow at assortment
focuses and landfills are the fundamental drivers of land-based plastics spilling into waterways and marine conditions. In this review, future drives are worked to framework for assortment, decrease and isolation of waste at the source should zero in on sea shores. To resolve the issue of plastic contamination in the marine climate, legislatures should initially assume a functioning part in resolving the issue of plastic waste by acquainting regulation with control the wellsprings of plastic trash and the utilization of plastic added substances.


Samar El-Farra

Published: April 21, 2022

As worldwide turbulences and disruptions amass, focus on human sciences should remain at the core of interest of the scientists. Uncertainty, and depleted resources can sometimes distract human advancement, but this should not be the case, especially when human well-being is at stake. Thus, scientific dialogue and research is now, more than ever, a crusade to be encouraged by the scientific community. Experts in Microbial pathogenesis, Clinical microbiology to name but a few have a substantial role in addressing pandemics like the COVID-19 that human race is still enduring. Wisdom of crowds should be solicited and encouraged though respected research and publication to forecast and predict future pandemic for better preparedness. Marine, aquatic, and environmental microbiology, and ionizing radiation and nuclear microbiology effects are also pushing their way to the forefront as priorities in response to the state of war between Russia and Ukraine. Historically, world turbulences have hampered human wellbeing research while other areas of innovation and research like weapon of nuclear destruction were funded and well supported. Scientists and researchers should not fall victims of world turbulences again and should remain focused not losing the momentum of advancing research for human well-being. Medicon Microbiology (MCMI) is the ideal platform to facilitate peer-reviewed open-access space to support researchers and scientists in publishing expert analysis. Medicon Microbiology (MCMI) editorial board wishes to extend gratitude to experts input of authors and is confident that the esteemed reader would benefit and consider partaking a role in the betterment of human sciences and wellbeing. 

Genome-Scale Metabolic Model-Based Reactome-Phenome Map of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, A Potential Biofuel Producer

Yik Yew Wee, Xander Kng, Si Xian Sor and Maurice HT Ling

Published: April 21, 2022

Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a potential producer of lipids, alcohols, and biofuels. Genome-scale models (GSM) has been used to examine potential knockout to optimize specific metabolite (such as, ethanol) production. Besides from a metabolic production perspective, GSMs can also be used examine the effects of genes from the perspective of genotype-phenotype relationship. However, most GSMs are reaction-based rather than gene-based. Hence, GSMs can be used for reactome-phenome mapping where each reaction may be the result of one or more genes. In this study, we examine the reactome-phenome map of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using its GSM model, iJN678, by performing single knockouts to each of its 863 reactions. Our results suggest that 37.3% to 39.7% (322 to 343 reactions) of the knockouts have minimal impact on the phenome as they were clustered together with wildtype phenotype and 53.5% (462 reactions) are essential. The rest of the 58 to 79 reactions can be clustered into 9 to 33 phenotypic clusters. Moreover, the fluxome variation within wildtype cluster is significantly larger than that of essential reaction cluster (t ≥ 3.26, p-value ≤ 1.3E-3). This suggests that individual reaction knockout may have measurable effects on the fluxes; which may be useful in metabolic engineering.

Multi Omics Based Approach to Tackling Cancer

Hima Sebastian

Published: April 21, 2022

Cancer is the second most fatal disease faced by Indians and it takes the lives of around 2.5 million people annually. Around 70% of the cases have been treated but survival rates remain diminished. Indian context dictates that the most prominent cancers have been lung cancer, breast cancer, stomach and cervical cancer and are attributed to poor to moderate living conditions, improper dietary and lifestyle choices, inadequate medical facilities and pollution. Hence, India faces a grave public health concern in the form of cancer with growing pollution and attitudinal shifts in the population.

Environmentally Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management- A Case Study of Surat, Gujarat, India

NikunjChoksi, Parthav Aghara, KunjalBadrakiya, Ayush Bhavsar, Anindita Bhattacharjee, Akanksha, Sheetal Kamble and Akshey Bhargava

Published: April 30, 2022

In this expeditiously era, strong waste management issues rose to new rights of common interest in few regions of the India because of increasing strong waste production, reducing management capacity, rusting disposal costs, and open enemies to the sitting of current management facilities. Moreover, Poor solid waste management will cause a slew of issues in terms of health, environment, and socio – economics [1]. In addition, difficulties in controlling SWM have resulted in improper waste disposal methods, such as open dumping and open burning of waste, which are adversely affect the ecology. The rising managing waste appropriately is crucial for establishing sustainable and habitable cities, though it remains a challenge for many developing nations and cities. Effective waste management is wealthy, much containing 20%-50% of domestic budgets. Running the important domestic service requires intergraded systems that are effective, sustainable and socially supported. The goal of this paper is to have sustainable solid waste management, so estimates have been made that project waste generation per capita per day in Surat in the form of bio-degradable, non-biodegradable, and recyclable wastes in the next 30 years, as well as how these wastes can be treated in the form of compost, biofuel, fuel pallets, and generating power from waste. It gives an overview of solid waste management in the world, India, and Surat, as well as how to address the problem by offering sustainable Solid Waste Management.

Isolation of Glucan from Medicinal Fungi Ganoderma lucidum

Thulasi G Pillai

Published: April 30, 2022

Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi), a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus has been used extensively for therapeutic use in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2,000 years. Macrofungi are distinguished as important natural resources of immunomodulating and anticancer agents and with regard to the increase in diseases involving immune dysfunction, cancer, autoimmune conditions in recent years, applying such immunomodulator agents especially with the natural original is vital. In the last three decades, numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes have been isolated from mushrooms and used as a source of therapeutic agents In the present study glucan was isolated from G. lucidum was isolated for studying its therapeutic properties. The fruiting bodies of G. lucidum were collected from the outskirts of Thrissur district, Kerala, South India. The type specimen was deposited in the herbarium of Center for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Chennai, India (HERB. MUBL. 3175). Glucan was isolated by the method of Mizuno with slight modification [1]. The confirmation of glucan was done by anthrone and phenol sulphuric acid test. Structural confirmation of glucan was done by infrared radiation (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum which were recorded at Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India. The molecular wt of glucan was determined by gel filtration chromatography. Identification of sugar components (complete hydrolysis and chromatography) was done by paper chromatography. In the HNMR spectrum, H.sup.-1 signals were observed at less than 4.8 ppm (4.762, 4.683, 4.667, 4.658, 4.402 ppm), which suggest that component sugars have beta configuration. From gel filtration chromatography, the molecular weight of BG was found to be 1.5×106 Daltons. The Rf values of monosaccharides D-glucose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-mannose and D-rhamnose were 0.47, 0.54, 0.44, 0.53 and 0.65 respectively. Comparing the Rf values, the sugar present in the Ganoderma glucan was found to be glucose, mannose and rhamnose.

Recent Advancements for Microorganisms Useful in Agriculture

Deb Duhita Mondal

Published: April 30, 2022

Microorganisms is believed to be the causative agent of various problems in human health but with the development of microbiological techniques these problems could be prevented to some extent by researchers who have successfully developed pathways for the use of the microorganisms in ways beneficial for the society. Microorganisms and their microbial based products play an important role in enhancing plant growth and crop yield by several mechanisms such as antibiosis and plant-microbe interaction thereby increasing the demand in market and using microorganism as a biological control in agriculture. The increases in world population demands sustainable agricultural production but however over exploitation of crops lead to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides resulting to a human health hazard. Microorganisms can be classified into two categories- some are beneficial microorganism that can improve agricultural production and some are negative microorganisms since they induce severe health problems.

Modelling and Simulation of Hetero-Dielectric Junction-less TFET for Low Power Applications

Sagarika Choudhury and Krishna Lal Baishnab

Published: May 03, 2022

This paper put forwards afresh concept to improvise the conventional JL-TFET. The choice and placement of dielectric are crucial in determining the efficiency of the device. Thus, asymmetric hetero-dielectric is found to improve the gate control and also aid in lowering capacitance. The concept of triple gate material has been incorporated which resulted in better gate control and thereby improving ON-current. The proposed structure reports a current ratio of 4.4 x1010A and promising values for Subthreshold Swing (SS) 9 mV/dec (point) and 48 mV/dec (average).This improvised structure helps in development of devices suitable for low power applications. The simulation based study was performed in July 2021 and compared with the results available.