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Aim & Scope

Pharmaceutical Sciences:

MC pharmaceutical sciences (MCPS) is an official scientific publication that provides a wide range of information in all the fields of pharmaceutical sciences like Pharmaceutical Analysis, Chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, Drug design, Novel drug delivery systems, etc,.

Major subject areas of Pharmaceutical sciences, but not restricted to the following fields:

Pharmaceutics, Photochemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Pharmacy Practice, Pharmacogenomics, Natural Product Research, Pharmacovigilance, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Life Sciences, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Regulatory Affairs, Quality Assurance, Pharma Administration, Clinical & Hospital Pharmacy, Analytical Chemistry, Bioanalytical Chemistry, Molecular Drug Design, Drug Development, Fisheries & Dairy Science, Drug regulatory Affairs, Food & Nutrition Science, Drug Safety, Spectrometry, Green Chemistry, Marine Biology, Natural Chemistry, Oncology, Plant Pathology & Entomology, Phytomedicine, Synthetic Chemistry, Drug Metabolism, Drug Design, Structural and Molecular Organic Chemistry, Photochemistry, Medicinal Chemistry, Bioinorganic Compounds, Nanotechnology, Translational Medicine, Pharmacotherapy, Dental Pharmacology, Pharmacodynamics, Drug analysis, validation, Bioinformatics, Market surveillance, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Quality Control, Clinical Practice.

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Latest Article

Medicinal Plants and Cancer

Mohamed Farid Ahmed Mostafa

Published: September 07, 2021; 1(1): 01.

Medicinal plants are considered as a rich source of wide variety of ingredients which can be used for the development of drug. Cancer is a one of the deadly diseases which is characterized by irregular cell proliferation. It is the major health issue in developing and developed countries. The most common reason behind the cancer is changing lifestyle and due to this it become a global problem across the world. Thus there is an urgent need to find better treatment possible for this disease. As chemotherapy and radiation therapy causes various side effects, so there is a necessity to discover novel agents for the treatment of this disease; it could be possible with the use of naturally occurring compounds [1].

A Research on Comparative Study of Floating Tablets of Theophylline Utilizing Different Techniques

Sujan Neupane, Milan Subedi, Shona Kadel, Sheeba FR

Published: September 07, 2021; 1(1): 02-13.

     The primary intention of the present work is to fabricate the floating tablets of theophylline employing various methodologies of formulation and to execute the comparative study between the formulations developed by different techniques. Theophylline when used in a lower concentration act as an anti-inflammatory drug, when developed as a floating tablet it reduces the frequency of drug administration as it remains buoyant in the gastric contents and release the drug at a pre-determined rate. Different methods are utilized for the formulation of the floating tablets with an intention to prolong gastric residence time and reduction in inconstancy of the drug. Theophylline, a xanthine derivative bronchodilator is used as a model drug and three different techniques were accustomed viz, direct compression effervescent technique, non-aqueous wet granulation technique and solvent evaporation technique. Sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid were used as gas generating agent whereas HPMC 15cps and sodium alginate as polymers. Twelve formulations were fabricated using three techniques, i.e. four formulations of each technique. All the prepared formulations were evaluated as prescribed by the Pharmacopoeial monograph for tablets. The optimized formulation DF2 showed a drug release of 70.225±0.888 at the end of 8 hours with a floating lag time of 08.4 sec and remains buoyant for more than 8 hours. Among the three different techniques, direct compression effervescence technique can be successfully employed for the development of floating tablets of Theophylline. The obtained data were subjected only for descriptive analysis.

Keywords: Theophylline; Direct compression effervescent technique; Non-aqueous wet granulation technique; Solvent evaporation technique

Phytochemical Screening and Invitroacaricidal Activity of three Herbal Extracts aginst Cattle Tick Boophilus Decoloratus

Habtamu Demisse, Sisayeweldgebrial

Published: September 07, 2021; 1(1): 14-21.

     Boophilus decoloratus tick is an economically important ecto parasite of the cattle and that generates major problem for livestock producers. Commonly, these ecto parasite are controlled by commercial acaricides produced by manufacturers however, increase in resistance, environmental toxicity, scarcity and high cost led to the evaluation of other alternative tick controlling option. This expermintalstudy was designed to determine the acaricidal efficacy of Daturastramonium, Nicotianaglauca and Azadirachtaindica herbal extracts against the common cattle tick Boophilusdecolratous. Qualitative phytochemical screening was used to detect secondary metabolites contained in the selected herbs. The percentage of adult mortality and percentage inhibition of oviposition were studied at different experimental concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100mg/ml to determine the efficacy of leaf extracts. 3% of Dimethyl sulfoxide was also used as a negative control. The study determined the presence of secondary metabolites such asalkaloids, tannins, glycosides in the herbal leaf extracts, which are able to cause neuro toxicity in the tick. Inhibition of oviposition at the highest concentration of Daturastramonium, Nicotianaglauca and Azadirachtaindica of the treated ticks were 78.68, 86.84 and 52.63%, respectively. At the highest concentration, the adult tick mortality was 90, 100 and 80% for Daturastramonium, Nicotianaglauca and Azadirachtaindica, respectively. The results of the current study pointed the potential acaricidal effect of selected medicinal plants with varying potency. Therefore, further study should be done in vitro and in vivo assays to use studied plants as acaricides.

Key words: Azadirachtaindica; Boophilusdecoloratus; Daturastramonium; Nicotianglauca

Aims: The study was conducted on hospitalized patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and undergoing treatment for it, to evaluate the impact of clinical counseling by pharmacists in changing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) outcomes.
Methods and Material: The patients were regularly counseled by written (distributing patient information leaflets) and oral (directly by the pharmacist) communication for nine months. Pharmaceutical care, comprising of patient education, was provided to 125 patients and KAP outcomes were evaluated. A set of 25 questions were asked to 107 patients, which included baseline and follow-up for the patients. In this study, the medications, disease, risk factors and lifestyle modifications of the patients were also considered.
Results: 107 patients had completed the study. In the study, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the patients increase. Patient counseling showed a positive impact on the patients. KAP outcome was found to get improved significantly after the counseling.
Conclusions: Patient counseling by the clinical pharmacist improved the patient knowledge towards the disease. Moreover, a pharmacist can encourage the patient, so that they can play a pivotal role in succumbing disease.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, KAP outcome, pharmaceutical care, clinical counseling, and hospital care.

Chemometrics and its Relations with Medicinal and Metabolomic Chemistry

Marcos aurelio gomes da silva

Published: September 07, 2021; 1(1): 32-33.

At present, humanity is experiencing a Cultural Revolution characterized by technological advances and the intense flow of information, comparing impact on the emergence of agriculture approximately 10 thousand Years and the Industrial Revolution started in the 18th century. Some innovations technological developments in the last three decades have led to a new form to think about biological systems and, mainly, to research them. At biological area, the starting point of this revolution was called the genomic era being characterized by the development, standardization, and optimization of genetic engineering techniques. Genomic assays have evolved rapidly, and the immense volume of genetic data made it possible to deepen analysis of temporal and spatial variations in the accumulation of trans-proteins, proteins and metabolites.

Heterocyclic Steroids

Mukesh M. Mudgal, Mangesh M Mudgal

Published: September 07, 2021; 1(1): 34.

Steroids are bioactive compounds involved in many biological functions exhibiting a wide spectrum of biological activities. Steroids consist of three cyclohexane and one cyclopentane rings arranged in a precise molecular configuration and display diverse chemical reactivities. Recently, structural modifications of the steroidal rings particularly the cyclopentanophenanthrene ring system have been an attractive strategy to synthesize active molecules with less or no harmful side effects. Introduction of the heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, and/or sulfur or modifications of the steroidal skeleton with the heterocyclic ring provide steroid molecules with a diverse array of biologically active compounds and are termed as heterocyclic steroids. Steroidal compounds that are inactive or inadequately active can be transformed into more potent forms by executing modifications in the steroidal skeleton.

The Fear of COVID-19 and Increasing Suicide Rate in India

Rahul Kohli

Published: September 07, 2021; 1(1): 35-37.

The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has affected the physical and mental health in many cities and regions in India. During this period, where the healthcare system of India is trying hard to deal with the pandemic, the country has undergone mass unemployment, increasing flexibility and non-standardized forms of employment, cuts in wages and other benefits, and growing poverty or social inequalities. In addition, lockdown due to the disease has resulted in a major global recession arising as an economic consequence of the pandemic [1]. As observed in previous pandemics [2-4], the unpredictable consequences and uncertain future, as well as misinformation and disinformation about the disease, is impacting the mental health of both infected and non-infected populations.

Role of Pharma Industry in Pandemic

R Hema

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(2): 01.

For thousands of years, pharmaceuticals have been utilised to cure diseases. Pharmaceutical firms are continuously pursuing novel therapies to help people live longer and more healthy lives. A huge strain on the pharmaceuticals sector arose in 2019 when the new kind of corona virus arose. Pharmaceutical firms and other healthcare professionals are in the frontline in the fight against any pandemic. As healthcare practitioners learned how the virus should be treated, pharmaceutics providers examined whether current medicines may aid to treat people with COVID-19, possible novel treatments to assist reduce the symptoms, long-term consequences and vaccine manufacturing. Since then, several efforts have been developed to produce a vaccine against corona virus. Several companies have worked hard to create and expand the production of COVID-19 vaccines in order to provide and continue to support people across the world.

Overview of Analyses of Purified Pharmaceutical water through Proficiency-testing Schemes Results

Caterina Mazzoni, Anne Tirard, Abdelkader Boubetra

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(2): 02-07.

Water is one of the major components used by the pharmaceutical industry. It may be present as an excipient or used for reconstitution of products, during synthesis, during production of the finished product or as a cleaning agent. Different grades of water quality are required depending on the different pharmaceutical uses. Chemical, physical and microbiological quality controls are essential to verify that the produced water meets the regulations in force. The methods that must be applied for quality control of water for pharmaceutical purpose are described in the international Pharmacopeia. However, laboratories have few means at their disposal to check obtained results and to prove their competence to drug regulatory agencies and customers associations. As Certified Reference Materials (CRM), Proficiency Testing Schemes (PTS) is an excellent tool to objectively check laboratories performances. Moreover, data collected in PTS represent a snapshot of the state of the art of tested analytical methods.

Keywords: Proficiency-testing schemes; Purified pharmaceutical water; Endotoxins, IN total organic carbon; Total viable aerobic germs; Quality control; Laboratory performance

The experimental chemistry competency is considered to be the core and specific competency that needs to be formed and developed for students in chemistry education. In recent times, there have been some educators and teachers interested in researching these capacity development measures for students. This article researches the principle, suggests the process of virtual experimental construction of oxygen - sulfur chemistry 10, and applied in teaching to students at the high school in Tay Ho-Hanoi for the school year 2019-2020. The initial experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of using virtual chemical experiments to develop chemistry experimental competency for students in teaching chemistry.

Keywords: Experimental chemistry competency; Virtual chemistry experiments; Students

Pharmacological Treatments for COVID-19

Vikrant Gupta

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(2): 16-20.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially reported in December 2019 in China and cause an acute respiratory disease. Since then, no specific therapy or vaccine is being available for the treatment or prevention of the disease. Teams of scientists around the world are racing to develop a treatment to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Extensive clinical trial data are required to identify safe and effective treatments for COVID-19. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of antiviral drugs, their pharmacological features, and their outcome against the disease based on the available data. We have discussed their mechanism of action, doses, and adverse effects in detail. In addition, a close review of vaccines that are in the developmental state has also been discussed.

Vaccines for COVID-19

Vikrant Gupta

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(2): 21-24.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially reported in December 2019 in China and cause an acute respiratory disease. Since then, no specific therapy or vaccine is being available for the treatment or prevention of the disease. Teams of scientists around the world are racing to develop a treatment to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Extensive clinical trial data are required to identify safe and effective treatments for COVID-19. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of antiviral drugs, their pharmacological features, and their outcome against the disease based on the available data. We have discussed their mechanism of action, doses, and adverse effects in detail. In addition, a close review of vaccines that are in the developmental state has also been discussed.

Nanotechnologies for Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater

Mohammad R Thalji

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(2): 25-28.

Water pollution is a global issue that has significant economic and social consequences for both environment and human health [1, 2]. The rising shortage of useable water resources necessitates adequate wastewater treatment. In this context, finding less expensive, safer, and more efficient wastewater treatment technology is critical. The use of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment is one potential technique that has seen success in numerous studies. Pharmaceuticals compounds (PhCs) are one of the most common types of emerging pollutants [3]. Their inadequate disintegration and the indiscriminate dumping of waste from the industries, farms and medical centers have allowed for these chemicals to become part of various water bodies of the surrounding region. The presence of PhCs in water sources has been well documented all around the world. They have a negative influence on the growth of organisms, especially aquatic one.

A Retrospective Study of Trial of Labour After Caesarean Section (TOLAC)

Vandita Kailas Patil, Usha Varghese

Published: October 01, 2021; 1(2): 29-34.

Objective: To determine how best to manage subsequent deliveries after one lower segment caesarean section and to examine the advantages and disadvantages involved in trial of labour after caesarean section.
Method: Retrospective study of Trial of Labour After Caesarean Section was conducted in Buraimi regional hospital under ministry of health, Sultanate of Oman from 1st January 2018 till 31st December 2018.
Results: There were total 278 patients who opted for TOLAC. Successful vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) was in 145 patients (52.1%) Out of 145 VBAC, 73.1% (106) patients were <35 years of age. 121 patients (83.4%) were < 41 weeks of pregnancy. 108 patients (74.4%) were with history of previous vaginal delivery. 94 patients (64.8 %) were with last childbirth > 2years. 84.1% (122) patients were with BMI (Body mass Index) of <30. Out of 145 VBAC, 136 (93.7%) patients were in spontaneous labour & 92 (63.4%) patients Bishop’s score was >5 cm at admission. Failure of TOLAC resulting in emergency repeat caesarean delivery was for 133 patients (47.8 %). Out of 133 failed TOLAC, 29 patients (21.8%) were > 35 years of age. 5.2% (7) patients had induction of labour. Bishop’s score of majority of the patients 116 (87.2%) was < 5 cm & 58 patients (43.6%) received augmentation of labour. Non recurrent indications of caesarean section were seen in 101 patients (75.9%). No complications like uterine rupture, fetal demise etc. reported in the 278 women who opted for TOLAC.
Conclusion: TOLAC is a potential strategy for decreasing caesarean section rate if proper selection criteria are adopted.

Keywords: Trial of Labour After Caesarean Section (TOLAC); Lower uterine Caesarean Section (LSCS); Elective Repeat Caesarean Delivery (ERCD); Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section (VBAC); BMI (Body mass Index)