Article In Press

Therapeutic Bioengineering

Ratnesh Das

Published: March 28, 2022

Therapeutic bioengineering is a rapidly growing discipline in medical science that combines biology and medicine with engineering principles to create products and methods that can tackle the widest range of a variety of medical and health-related issues in today’s society

Design and use of enzyme inhibitors against viral enzymes is one of the new and effective ways to control viruses and treat viral infections, Enzyme inhibitors inactivate these enzymes by binding to the nucleotides functional groups of the virus vital enzymes, thus can directly disrupt the virus replication cycle and indirectly prevent the spread of viral infections by reducing and controlling the population and number of viruses, these inhibitors, on the one hand, inhibit the virus by filling and Occupying the active sites of the enzyme and on the other hand, they change the stereochemistry of the enzyme by binding to the structure of the enzyme, for this reasons, they are used as an effective and complementary drug in the treatment of infections and viral diseases. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus because it has the reverse transcriptase enzyme. Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) are a class of Antiretroviral HIV drugs. Non- ucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) block HIV reverse transcriptase enzymes by connecting to it. Tetrazole derivatives have strong antiviral activity against efavirenz and nevirapine-resistance viruses that have different genetic mutations. In this research, we study NNRTIs function and overview synthesis of 5-aryloxy- etrazole derivatives in the development path of NNRTIs.
Keywords: Anti-HIV Drugs; NNRTIs; Tetrazole; HAART; Retrovirus; Reverse Transcriptase Enzyme 

Invasomes as a Novel Delivery Carrier for Transdermal Delivery: Review Article

Omar S Salih and Entidhar J Al-akkam

Published: March 30, 2022

Transdermal drug delivery refers to the drug administration route through the skin that achieves the local or systemic treatment approved for clinical use. It is the third-largest drug delivery system after oral administration and injection. The advantages of the transdermal route are that the administration route of the drug is convenient and could reduce the fluctuation of blood drug concentration and toxic side effects. What is more, the drug could bypass the first-pass side-effect of the liver to prevent the drug from being destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract. Invasomes are new modified liposomes that differ from the liposomal vesicles in that they contain essential volatile oils, which are called terpenes. Also, ethanol in a low percentage is present in the vesicle either in the phospholipid layer or in the hydrous core. These modified newly discovered vesicles are intended to be used for topical and transdermal drug delivery due to their permeation effect and high deformability as compared to transferosomes.
Keywords: Invasomes; Transdermal drug delivery; phospholipids; terpenes; deformable vesicles

Recent trends in Nanotech Delivery for Gene Therapy

Max Chase, Kevin Sneed and Yashwant Pathak

Published: March 30, 2022

Gene therapy is a fantastic new technology that has opened up a plethora of options to treat or prevent previously untreatable diseases. Gene therapy is the use of nucleic acids (either DNA or RNA) is used to  manipulate the genetic information of a patient’s cells. This is particularly helpful for diseases like Cystic Fibrosis where the ability to add a gene that makes the protein product the patient lacks or to just the gene itself is ideal. The addition of CRISPR-Cas for easier and more streamlined gene editing has also been a boon. However, the unfortunate truth is that despite decades of research, only a few gene therapies have made it to market. One of those reasons is the problems with carriers of gene therapy. For over three decades viral vectors were considered the go to for gene therapy carriers however they aggravate the immune system and can cause unwanted genotoxicity. This compromises their usefulness as a therapeutic treatment or preventative. So other methods of gene therapy carriers have been considered. Nanotech deliverers such as exosomes, gold nanoparticles, and others have shown great promise of being able to transport gene therapy with mitigated or no toxicity to the patient. This review will briefly go over both viral vector and nanotech non-viral vector alternatives to delivery of gene therapy.
Keywords: Gene therapy; nanotechnology; gene delivery; CRISPR; exosomes; viruses; magnetosomes