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Medicon Agriculture & Environmental Sciences

Medicon Agriculture & Environmental Sciences (MCAES) is open access, international, scientific peer-reviewed journal with 0.823 impact factor. Which publishes articles on Crop physiology, Environmental Ecology, Agriculture and Environment, Water Resources, Organic Agriculture, Forestry, Irrigation, Agricultural Marketing, Soil & Seed Science, etc,.

Major subject areas of Agriculture & Environmental, but not restricted to following fields:

Apiculture, Biochemical Engineering, Applied Microbiology, Applied Chemistry, Biotechnology, Weed Biology, Veterinary, Virology, Viticulture, Crop Production, Vegetable Production and Management, Theoretical production ecology, Soil Science, Seed Science Research, Plant Breeding, Poultry Science, Post-Harvest Biology, Pesticide Science, Organic Farming, Organic Agriculture, Irrigation, Soil-Plant relationships, Microbial biotechnology, Freshwater Science, Impacts of Environmental Factors, Food Safety, Food History, Food Health & Nutrition, Forestry, Food Science and Technology, Agricultural Resources, Environmental technology and Food security, Fermentation Technology, Energy Agriculture, Agricultural Ecology, Dairy Science, Crop Scouting, Crop botany, Crop Physiology, Crop Science, Agricultural Production, Agricultural Industry Issues, Agricultural Genetic and Microbiology, Water use Efficiency, Agricultural Botany, Plant Protection, Agricultural economics, Agronomy and Pathology, Agricultural development, Aquaculture, Agricultural Genomics, Agronomy, Ecological Agriculture, Plant cytology, Plant diversity,  Agricultural Entomology, Water relations, Environmental toxicology, Application of ecological, Environmental chemistry, Environmental health, Agricultural Biodiversity, Environmental studies, Earth Summit, Environmental systems, Drug overdose, Forest Microbiology, Soil, Water, Wildlife Biology, Solid Waste Management, Plant Breeding Genetics and Pathology, Soil Conservation, Agricultural Biotechnology, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Diversification, Agrology, Animal nutrition, Applied horticulture, Farming, Medicinal Plants, Organic gardening, Plant fertilization, Storage, Rainwater harvesting, Soil biology, Agro ecosystem, Biological engineering, Agricultural Electrification, Agrochemistry, Environmental Hydrology, Plant Nutrition.

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  • Medicon Agriculture & Environmental Sciences is an international, profound Journal which publishes Articles on various disciplines of Agriculture & Environmental.
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  • Rapid publication process.
  • Reasonable publication Fee. 
  • Immediate Acknowledgement to author after article accepted for peer review.
  • High visibility of published work.
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  • Thorough Double Blinded peer review.

Latest Article

Soil the Basic Input for Agriculture, Not just Dirt

Shah Reyaz Ahmad

Published: September 01, 2021.

     For any agriculture related activity to be successful and economically viable, the first and foremost basic input to be attended on priority and with utmost seriousness, is the soil. It supports the survival of all living organisms from humans, animals, birds to microorganisms/microbes on the one hand, and shrubs to giant plantation on the other.

     Before the selection of kind of fruit trees, crop, variety etc. It is of paramount importance to check the fertility status, viz. availability of nutrients for optimum crop growth, conditions of physico-chemical parameters – soil reaction, structure, texture, bulk density etc.

      This study explored the relationship of external market orientation, internal market orientation, service climate and employees’ market-orientated behavior in the Food & Beverage industries in Taiwan, China, and the United States. This is one of few studies that bring together the related market orientation constructs with international context. The result shows that employees’ market-oriented behaviors will be influenced positively by market-oriented culture, employee perceived service climate, as well as internal market orientation. This study identified the role of internal market orientation and service climate in forming employees’ market-oriented behavior. Drawing on data from a sample of 625 frontline employees working in catering services in Taiwan, China, and the US. The study also examined the moderating effects of power distance on cultural roots. Hofstede’s cultural element of power distance was tested and proven to moderate the above-mentioned relationships. Regional differences among the results were also discussed. This study uses second-order confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to test the relationships. The current study also tested measurement invariance to ensure the constructs that were measured were conceptually equivalent among the three cultural groups.

Keywords: Internal market orientation; Service climate; Power distance; Market orientation; Mediated moderation

An Analytical Study of Mobile Agro Advisories among the Farmers

Prabha D, Arunachalam R

Published: September 01, 2021.

     The study was conducted in Annur and Kinathukadavu blocks of Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu. A total of 200 respondents were selected, it has been decided to select two per cent of the population as sample size. Variables such as social participation, contact with extension agency, mass media exposure, innovativeness, decision making ability, risk orientation, scientific orientation and profit motivation were found to be in medium level. Three-fourth of the respondents (76.50%) had not undergone any computer training. Little more than two-third of the respondents (67.50%) were using ordinary mobiles, more than fifty per cent of the respondents (57.50%) were using 2G network facilitating mobiles and two-third of the respondents (66.50%) had no internet access in their mobiles.

Keywords: Mobile Phone; Network; Advisory; Innovative; Communication; Agriculture

Optimization of Pb (II) biosorption by Harvested Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) using response Surface Analysis

Amin Keyvan Zeraatkar, Hossein Ahmadzadeh, Vahid Razaviarani, Ahmad Farhad Talebi

Published: September 01, 2021.

     Biosorption has been defined as affinity characteristics of certain biomolecules present in dead/live biomass to passively bind selected ions from aqueous solutions. In this study, the bioremoval of Pb (II) was studied using dead biomass of green microalgae species, Chlorella vulgaris. Important individual and combined factors affecting the sorption process, such as initial concentration of Pb (II) (100-500 mgL-1), pH (2.5-6.5), biomass concentration (0.1-0.5 gL-1) of C. vulgaris and contact time (20-120 min) were investigated to achieve the maximum removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions. The parameters were optimized by the experimental design concept using central composite design (CCD). The statistical parameters of the derived model were R2 = 87.91% and F value = 8.31. The response surface diagrams were plotted based on the defined model to show the effects of the variables on the Pb(II) bioremoval efficiency. A quadratic model was proposed by CCD which agreed well with the experimental data (R2 = 87.91%). Also, the model was able to predict optimal conditions of pH= 2.5, C0 = 100.0 mgL-1, Cbiomass = 0.4 gL-1 and t = 120.0 min for the target bioremoval of Pb (II) (100%).

Keywords: Biosorption; Microalgae; Lead; Optimization, Response Surface Analysis

Renewable Energy Resource from Textile Industry Waste

Vijay Samuel G

Published: September 01, 2021.

     Energy access and availability are fundamental for individual consumers’ quality of life, economic growth, and employment opportunities.Increased energy supply and consumption lead to improved economic development and higher living standard. The human development index of a country is directly proportional to its energy prosperity.

Genetic Improvement of Crops under the Climate Resilience

S Mohan Jain

Published: September 01, 2021.

    The basic requirement of plant breeding is the exploitation of natural and induced genetic diversity in developing plant varieties for sustainable food production. Plant breeders are handicapped due to lack of availability or non-existence of desired genotypes. However, they have successfully recombined the desired genes from the existed available gene pool, and successfully develop new cultivars; faced with new challenges such as climate change, human population growth, etc.,

The Ganga: A Salvation River

Padam Jee Omar

Published: September 01, 2021.

     The River Ganga holds a unique place in the cultural ethos of India. According to Indian mythological history, the Ganga River descended from heaven on earth because of the long and difficult prayers of King Bhagirathi for the salvation of his dead ancestors. The thought of faith, devotion and worship comes as soon as the name of River Ganga comes to mind. The water of the Ganga River is considered holy water by millions of Hindus. However, scientifically speaking, the river Ganges is the life support system for the people living in its catchment area of about 11 Lakh km2.

Mitigation of Climate Change Impact

Kwong Fai Andrew Lo

Published: October 01, 2021.

In recent decades, climate change has attracted a lot of attention. Climate change caused by doubling of atmospheric CO2 and other trace gases will likely affect available water supplies for municipalities, industry and agriculture. Also, it may influence water demand. Higher temperatures increase plant water requirements, particularly through evapotranspiration, reducing the excess remaining for groundwater recharge and streamflow. Plant response to climate change will also modify the demand side of the water balance, particularly the need for irrigation.

Save of Environment and living organisms with weak energy of the water

Sunao Sugihara, Hiroshi Maiwa, Kunihiko Hatanaka

Published: October 01, 2021.

It is well known that water can’t be lack of plants as well as human body and water is 70% occupies the oceans on the earth. There is little basic research for water although many a study has been reported for a macroscopic viewpoint of water, H2O molecule itself, such as a solvent. Furthermore, water must be essential to agriculture including soil and bacteria in it. The research of agriculture has not focused on the water, although they pay much attention to soil, a fertilizer and efficient harvest. Here we report the water a more than unusual which is completely different from our daily life water. Here, we present the small size water like an elementary particle that can be fabricated with higher pressure of more than 100MPa. We indirectly confirmed the smallness of it with H-NMR and FTIR methods. As the result, the water can be easily absorbed into a living organism including a human body due to its size leading to the growth and respiration of a plant. Furthermore, we report that the water can function to change the nucleus resulting in the radioactive reduction.

Keywords: Small size of water; 100MPa; Better absorption; Water information; Radiation reduction

Indigenous knowledge is considered as one of the most effective strategies in response to climate change issues for planning and policy at both local and national levels in Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Community based adaptation is able to reduce the vulnerability as well as improve the resilience of the local people to climatic variability and change. This research was carried out to explore the role and contribution of opportunities and challenges farmer’s experiences using indigenous knowledge to adapt to
floods in sustainable development in Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

Keywords: Climate change; Indigenous knowledge; Flood; Adaptation

In the recent times, the area of agriculture one of most essential research and also there has been an increasing demand in future based on weather conditions and agriculture labour demands. In this paper discuss what are the reasons for increasing the growth using weather conditions and labour demands. Numerical illustrations also provide to prove the various government reports.

Agriculture and Environment

JS Rawat

Published: October 01, 2021.

Agriculture is one of the oldest anthropogenic activities of mankind on the Mother Earth, therefore it has close relationship with natural as well as human environment. It has many significant positive and negative impacts on environment. The agriculture sector is a very important for the survival of the human environment because it fulfills the essential needs of food of world’s population which is expected to grow to almost 10 billion by 2050. Besides providing food for the survival of human environment, it has many other positive impacts on the environment, for examples, it traps greenhouse gasses within soils and crops, reduces overland flow, mitigates flooding risk through practicing certain farming techniques, and rejuvenate the dead/dying and dwindling natural springs, streams and rivers by groundwater augmentation.

Past Is the Key to the Present

Rahul Verma

Published: October 01, 2021.

The title of my write up may surprise you a bit. But the fact is that the present day geo-environmental scenario is totally a repercussion of the events that took place in the past. I will site two examples only, considering the limit of the write up.

The first example is the flooding in the river Brahmaputra during monsoon and post monsoon times. The mighty Brahmaputra creates havoc in Arunachal and Assam. The present-day floods are due to the plate collision phenomena that took place since Miocene times. The Indian plate is still subducting under the Eurasian plate and we all know that Himalaya is still rising. This event gave rise to the Geosynclinal set up in the region. The prominent lithology on either side of Brahmaputra is consisting of sedimentary rocks of Tertiary Era. The mighty Brahmaputra passes through these sedimentary terrains. These sedimentary rocks viz. Sandstone, Shale and Siltstones are very prone to erosion. A huge amount of eroded sediments is carried through the tributaries of Brahmaputra and ultimately, they are deposited in the riverbeds. The situation is analogues to the story of the thirsty crow’’ who was putting pebbles in the pot to raise the level of water. The same situation is practically found in the Brahmaputra riverbed, that gets over flooded due to the excess sediment load in the basin. Needless to say, that if we have to control the floods in Assam valley, we must take measures to check erosion in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra and its tributaries by vigorous plantation, check dams etc.

Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC), will be advantageous in the field of Agriculture

Vivek Chamoli, Rishi Prakash, Anurag Vidyarthi

Published: October 01, 2021.

Many natural calamities have affected our country in recent years, such as the draught in Maharashtra and Gujarat, flood in Kerala, cyclone (fani) in Orissa, flash flood in Uttarakhand and several other part of the country. Continues monitoring of soil moisture can predict this situation well in advance to take corrective measure. Reliable, durable, and automated systems for measuring soil moisture content have long been recognized as being highly helpful, if not necessary, in hydrologic, environmental, and agricultural applications. The amount of moisture in the soil determines how well the region’s soil supports plants and crops. Plants may rapidly absorb soil water if the moisture content of the soil is optimal for plant growth. Plants do not have access to all of the water trapped in the soil. Even after rain, there’s still a thin layer of water on the earth. When salts are dissolved in soil water, they form the soil solution, which is vital as a medium for adding organic matter to crop growth. Fig 1. shows the importance of soil moisture in agriculture.

Ganesh Immersion Impact on Environment

Vijaya Lakshmi

Published: October 01, 2021.

Ganesh idol immersions are done all over the country now. Last year due to pandemic, government did not allow any public idols. But in 2021, permissions are granted and public gathering is immense in all the pandals. Here we are concerned about two issues; one is using artificial colours to the POP idols and crowd pulling without following Covid rules. People stopped following precautions to contain the spread of virus. Public is found not wearing masks, not maintaining social distance and of course no provision of sanitization in many Ganesh Pandals. Even if sanitizer is provided, people have become careless by not using it. We all have to be cautious during the festival which is not taken seriously now. However one good sign is increase in awareness about mud idols. Compared to previous years, this year making and selling of mud idols is increased by 15%. Earlier only small idols used to be made in mud but now from one foot to 10 feet, idols are made in mud and some are coloured with natural colours to protect the environment from water pollution.

Global Warming, Climate Change and Aquatic Biodiversity

Naim Saglam

Published: November 01, 2021.

Global warming and climate change show their effect on the environment and the living things living in that environment, as it is known. In particular, extreme changes in the climate causes many negative effects on the environment and deterioration of the ecological balance. Global warming, in addition to climate change and temperature increases, causes regional storms, hurricanes, changes in precipitation regimes, floods, and forest fires, and affects all living things, including humans. At least, it causes these disasters, which were less common in the past, to occur more and to become widespread throughout the world by increasing their size.

Effect on Agriculture Science of Chemical Reduction and Element Changes with Infrared and Terahertz Wave

Sunao Sugihara, Hiroshi Maiwa and Kunihiko Hatanaka

Published: November 01, 2021.

There is little basic research for water although many a study has been reported for a macroscopic viewpoint of water, H2O molecule itself, the chemical reaction such as a solvent. Furthermore, water must be essential to agriculture including soil and bacteria in it. The research of agriculture has not focused on the water, although they pay much attention to soil, a fertilizer and efficient harvest. Here we report the water a more than unusual which we drink and use for life. Here, we present the pico-size water like an elementary particle that can be fabricated with higher pressure of more than 100MPa. The water functions taste of foods including sweetness, anti-oxidation and chemical reduction as well as growth. We indirectly confirmed the smallness of it with H-NMR and FTIR methods. As the result, the water can be easily absorbed into a living organism including a human body due to its size leading to the growth and respiration of a plant. Furthermore, we report that the water can function to change the nucleus resulting in the radioactive reduction.

Keywords: Pico-water; Chemical reduction; Sugar content; Radiation reduction; Anti-oxidation

Evaluation of Blood-Vegetable Waste Meal Fed with or Without Grit to Broilers

Habiba Z, Adedeji MO, Duweni T and Adeniji AA

Published: November 01, 2021.

A total of one hundred and eighty (180) day old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect of blood vegetable waste meal with or without grit supplementation on the performance of broilers. The diets formulated had three inclusion levels of BVWM at 0, 7.5, and 15%, fed with two supplementation levels (with or without grit). The experimental animals were randomly distributed into six (6) dietary treatments. There were three replicates per treatment and ten (10) birds per replicate. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum while standard poultry managements were strictly followed during the study. Data on different performance such as average daily fee intake, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio. It was a 3X2 factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The experiment lasted for a period of 8 weeks. The result showed that the experimental diet had significant effect on the final weight gain, daily feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, cost of feed per kg and profitability. The interaction between the varying level of supplementation and no supplementation had significant effect (P<0.05) on feed to gain ratio, but showed no significant difference in final weight, daily feed intake. This study shows that broilers fed 15% inclusion level of blood vegetable waste meal supplemented with grit at 5% had better performance when compared to 0% and 5% inclusion.

A total of two hundred and seventy (270) day old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect of feeding graded level of whole sugarcane waste with or without fishmeal and grasshopper meal supplementation in the diet of broiler. The diet formulated had three (3) inclusion levels of Whole sugarcane waste (WSW) at 0, 5, 10 %, with animal protein supplementation (fishmeal and grasshopper meal) at 2.5%. The experimental animals were randomly distributed into nine dietary treatments. There were three replicates per treatment with ten birds per replicates. Feed and water were supplied ad-libitum while standard poultry management where strictly followed during the study. Data on different performance parameters such as average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and cost of feed where collected. It was a 3×3 factorial experiment in a complete randomized design (CRD). The experiment lasted for a period of (8) weeks. The result showed that the experimental diet had significant effects (P<0.05) on final weight, daily feed intake, weight gain and feed to gain ratio. Supplement interaction showed significant difference on final weight, daily feed intake, and feed to gain ratio. This study showed that broilers fed 5% Whole sugar cane waste supplemented with grasshopper meal had better performance as it gave better growth performance When compared to 10% inclusion level.

Harnessing the Practice of Integrated Nutrient Management

Bon Mthawira

Published: November 01, 2021.

The present crop production is heavily reliant on the sole use of chemical fertilizers in most sub-Saharan African countries e.g. in Malawi. In the very first years of practicing chemical fertilization, farm returns continued to rise as due to the responsiveness of the soils to chemical soil amendments. However, continued sole application of chemical fertilizers has led to negative impacts on soil health, crop productivity as well as on the environment. Synonymously, organic fertilization alone has proved to be futile on yield due to unbalanced nutrient content.

The exposure of urban ecosystem to anthropogenic disturbances mainly described by fragmentation, transformation, and homogenization resulted in the modern habitats development. So, frequently termed as “novel ecosystem” with absolutely new arrangement of biotic and vegetation interactions. In spite of this, the other species cluster which profiles the structure and function of existing novel environment are invasive alien plants. Therefore, it is the most important feature to identify the type of contiguous vegetation amid biotic motorists in order to shape the invasiveness of alien plant species. The other types of ecosystems which are intensively used and considered to be highly exposed to invasions diminished agricultural system.

Environmental Impact of Agriculture

Harpreet Kaur Channi

Published: November 01, 2021.

In many nations, agriculture is the major cause of pollution. Pesticides, fertilisers, and other hazardous agriculture chemicals have the potential to pollute fresh water, marine habitats, air, and soil. They can also last for generations in the environment. Many pesticides are suspected of altering people’s and wildlife’s hormonal systems. Fertilizer runoff has an adverse effect on rivers and coral reefs.

Methane Emission and Acetate-dependent Methanogenesis in Rice-based Cropping Systems with Urea Addition

Guangbin Zhang, Xiaoli Zhu, Wanyu Shen, Yang Ji, Hua Xu and Jing Ma

Published: November 11, 2021.

Urea application is a fundamental practice to increase rice grain yields, but it also plays a significant role in CH4 emission from rice paddy fields. To quantify the effect on CH4 emission, we measured soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, CH4 production potentials of paddy soil and rice roots, CH4 concentration in soil pore water, and their corresponding stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) under four urea application rates (0, 120, 240 and 300 kg N ha-1) in 2010–2015 based on incubation, pot and field experiments. In addition, the abundance of methanogenic archaea in paddy soils was quantified by quantitative PCR targeting mcrA genes. Field and pot experiments show that urea addition decreased seasonal CH4 emissions by 20–35% and enhanced δ13C-values of emitted CH4 by 3‰ on average. The decreased CH4 production potentials in paddy soil and on rice roots (by 16–30%) were found to be the major reason for the reduction of CH4 emission with urea addition. In contrast, applying urea increased the content of soil DOC and the abundance of methanogenic mcrA genes. The contribution of acetoclastic methanogenesis was also increased by urea addition both in the soil (by 10–12%) and on the roots (by 5%), which might have positive effects on the δ13C-values of emitted CH4 and porewater CH4. The findings demonstrate that the decrease of CH4 emission was attributed to CH4 production reduced with urea addition, and the promotion of acetate-dependent methanogenesis was possibly ascribed to related methanogenic substrates and archaea increased.

Keywords: N addition; CH4 production; Stable carbon isotopes; Methanogenic archaea; Methanogenic pathway; Rice-based cropping system

Many theoretical water reports have been often published; moreover, development and or applications spread in various fields. Even the limited area, academic discussions increased since the late 1970s, although they were not necessarily relating to water itself. Ab initio calculation and the density-functional theory have been reported on the hydrogen bond of water molecules and interaction between monomers since the 21st century. Every research issue is associates with the water molecule itself. Here we present the theoretical idea to protect COVID-19 and the mechanism based on the water with a pico-sized particle, which is essential to our body. It has been performed with the dissociation of hydrogen bond due to pressurization (at 147 MPa) applied to normal water so that the body can quickly absorb the water. Besides the smallness, the characteristics of the water can transfer the information of the particle even in the area. The information is supposed to be “momentum” (mass and velocity) same as the solar beam emitting seven visible lights, and the data of the particle might be printed in the other matter which nature can transmute. However, we cannot visualize the information of the particle such as solar beam at present.

Rice cultivation is one of the important economic activities of farmers, and it has been the backbone of livelihood opportunities for several farmers in certain areas. However, due to the limited availability of freshwater and the progressive decline in the share of water for agriculture (because of water pollution, reducing water table, inefficient irrigation systems, and increasing demands of water for domestic, industrial and other usages) cultivation of rice by transplanting cannot be sustained. The water-guzzling nature of transplanted rice (TPR) is facing the challenges of water scarcity, posing threats to continued rice cultivation. Moreover, repeated puddling for TPR adversely affects soil physical properties, deteriorates the performance of succeeding crops, and contributes to methane gas emissions. A grim water scenario in agriculture together with the highly inefficient rice production technologies, currently adopted by a majority of farmers globally, warrants the exploration of alternative rice production practices. Therefore, the need of the day is to use less water for irrigation while maintaining the crop yield (as well as the quality of the produce) for better water-productivity towards the concept of ‘Per Drop More Crop’. Direct-sown rice (DSR) is an emerging resource-conserving, climate-smart alternative to TPR. DSR is gaining popularity because of its low input cost and resource-conserving nature. It offers the advantages like saving irrigation water, lower labor requirements, less drudgery, early crop maturity, higher economic returns, and reduced methane emission. The need of conserving natural resources, particularly water, for better ecological balance has become one of the priorities for saving life on the earth. Producing food/feed/fodder in an environment-friendly manner by adopting agricultural practices that do not over-exploit the natural resources and harm agroecological conditions is necessary for maximum ecological efficiency.

Water use Efficiency with Interaction of Plants Nutrients Usage

M D Lengwati

Published: November 30, 2021

Plant Nutrient Role and Requirement: Plants like other organisms require “FOOD” for their living and growth development. From chemical elements drawn from soil, water, and air, plants build a vast array of plant products.
Plan for Agricultural Water Management: Alleviation and reduction of poverty amongst people in mainly rural areas, and rehabilitation, protection and reclamation of water works and water resources.
Materials and Methods: Cow peas (Vigna Unguiculata), (Vigna subterranean – bambara groundnut, Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), Black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) and Mungbeans (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilzcek). Field trial lay out plan (Randomized Complete Block Design), plant sampling and processing (10 plants per plot size), measurement of 13C/12C isotopic ratio (Lab instrument; Spectrometry) and statistical analysis Statistica 10.1 (StatSoftInc., Tulsa, OK, USA).
Results: Although there are several reports on symbiotic (N) performance of cowpea, Bambara groundnut, groundnut and mungbean, studies on their C accumulation, shoot C/N ratio, and shoot-water-use efficiency are few. Therefore, evaluation of these parameters in the test grain legumes widely cultivated in South African smallholder sector it was an objectives of the current study where groundnut exhibited high WUE compared to the other grain legumes planted for testing.
Discussion: The aim of this study was therefore to determine the C accumulation and WUE of five grain legumes using C isotopic discrimination (13C/12C) values during the 2011/2012 cropping season. South Africa is a semi-arid country with an annual average rainfall < 500 mm in two-thirds of its land mass.
Conclusion: Shoot-biomass (g.plant-1) was high to Bambara-groundnut, C concentration (%) was also high to both Bambara- groundnut and groundnut, C content (g.plant-1) was higher to Bambara-groundnut, Σ13C (‰) was high to groundnut and Bambara-groundnut while the C:N ratio of mung-bean was highest in the study. Therefore WUE reveal that groundnut and Bambara-groundnut are the best users of water whereas other legumes utilize water inefficient compared to the two legumes.

Study on Association between E. canis Infection and its Potential Cardiac Effect.

Bipin Kumar, DB Mondal, Rajiv Kumar, Pinky Rani and Menka Kumari

Published: November 30, 2021

This study was conducted on E. canis positive dogs to know the alteration in cardiac rhythm or other functional disorder arises due to infection. It was observed that the dogs after recovery from E.canis  infection they were showing an extra, low-amplitude, positive deflection preceding the P-wave that occurred frequently and consistently over several consecutive cardiac cycles, although it’s morphology and time interval relative to the following P wave was not constant. Post recovery exercise intolerance might be due to E.canis. Further study needs to be carried out to know the exact reason.

The global chicken industry is a thriving enterprise containing many sectors, including meat and egg production, from which approximately 3.5 billion chickens are produced annually. Eimeria spp is one of major hurdle in raising chickens profitably. Highly host-specific Eimeria are ever present in galliform birds and causes immense economic losses approximately US$ 2 to 3 billion annually. Coccidiosis has remained the focus of anxiety in the commercial poultry producers not only owing to the mortality losses in acute infections or lowered production, but also as a consequences of cost input required for effective chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis. 

Detection of Wine Alterations by Sensory Analysis: Overview of Results obtained from Interlaboratory Tests

Caterina Mazzoni, Anne Tirard and Abdelkader Boubetra

Published: December 28, 2021

Throughout history wine has been appreciated thanks to its distinctive sensory characteristics. Wine quality control is crucial for wine producers, which need to identify any alterations throughout all the winemaking process. Among the techniques used to determine the quality of wines, the most important is sensory evaluation by trained experts, as it is directly related to the organoleptic characteristics of wines. However, wine is a complex matrix and several factors can affect assessors’ perception. The same defect can be perceived at different intensities according to experience, training and cultural origins of the panel. This could be problematic for winemakers who need to have an objective analysis. Participation in interlaboratory studies is an interesting tool for a sensory analysis laboratory that needs to demonstrate that its results are the same as those obtained by other laboratories or bodies. Moreover, participation in interlaboratory tests can provide precious information about the performance of assessors. The purpose of this paper is to critically summarize results obtained from interlaboratory tests for the identification of a main defect in wines which have been artificially contaminated.

Keywords: sensory analysis; wine defects; wine quality control; interlaboratory test; tasting panel; olfactory alterations; taste and tactile alterations

The Numerical Simulation of Pollutant Transport in Shallow Water Flows

Kissami Imad and Ziggaf Moussa

Published: December 30, 2021

A real test using the finite volume method is presented for the numerical simulation of the pollutant transport by water flows. Shallow water equations, bottom friction forces, wind shear stresses, and Coriolis effect are used to model the water flow while a transport-diffusion equation is used to model the advection and dispersion of the pollutant concentration. The finite volume method used has been the subject of several works (see e.g. [3, 4, 17]) it is a simple discretization of centered type for the source terms, can handle complex topography by using non-uniform triangular grids while keeping the conservation property. The C-property based on checking the balance between the convection term and the background profile is satisfied. The monitoring of the pollutant concentration in the computational domain during its dispersion process is taken into account. The focus of this study is on an application of pollution dispersion in the Nador lagoon in Morocco. The results are presented using different tidal conditions and wind-induced flow fields in the lagoon.
Keywords: Well balanced scheme; Complex topography; Shallow water flows; Finite volume method; Pollutant transport

Influence of Slope and Management Practices on Top-Soils Fertility Status of Compound Farms in Nsukka Campus

Benedict Odinaka Okorie, Niraj Yadav, Charles LA Asadu, Muhammad Tariq, Imran Ahmed and Umeugokwe C Pascal

Published: December 30, 2021

The study was carried out to assess the influence of slope and management practices on top-soils fertility status of compound farms in the University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) campus, Enugu state Nigeria. Top soil samples (0-20 cm depth) were collected from twenty compound farms, ten each from the upper slopes compound farms (USCFs) in Ikejiani and Ezenwaeze streets and lower slopes compound farms (LSCFs) at Mbanefo Street. The elevation of the USCFs ranged from 458 to 447 m while LSCFs ranged from 415 to 423 m above the mean sea level (amsl). The soil samples were analyzed in the UNN Department of Soil Science Laboratory. The results showed that slopes and management practices influenced top-soils fertility status of compound farms. Slopes affected soil fertility parameters such as organic matter content, total nitrogen, exchangeable calcium, cation exchange capacity, and effective cation exchange capacity. The upper slope compound farms were more fertile relative to the lower slopes compound farms. The combined application of organic and inorganic manures had a greater effect on soil fertility status compared to a single application of organic or inorganic fertilizer. The combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers should be adopted to enhance soil fertility status of compound farms in both slopes. 
Keywords: Compound farms; Management Practices; Slopes; Soil Fertility

Drought has been recognized as a primary constraint in limiting the growth and development of plants. It impairs normal growth, disturbs water relations, and reduces water use efficiency in plants. Drought stress at any growth stage also, poses detrimental effects on morphological and physiological criteria in plants. To maintain growth and productivity, plants must adapt to stress conditions and exercise specific tolerance mechanisms of stress agents. Plant modification for enhanced tolerance is mostly based on gene transformation, however, the nature of the genetically complex mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance, and the potential detrimental side effects, make this task extremely difficult. A promising alternative for improving plant drought tolerance is using the beneficial soil microorganisms including Plant-growth-promoting fungi (PGPF). This research was undertaken to investigate the effect of two PGPFs on some morphological and physiological indices and nutritional status of sesame plant under drought conditions. For this purpose, a field experiment using a completely randomized blocks with three replications and treatments including fungal inoculation (non-inoculation, Piriformospora indica and Rhizophagus irregularis) and drought levels include 55, 75 and 85% of SAW (Soil Available water) depletion on the basis of combined analysis in Lavark Field (Isfahan Province) was conducted. The results showed that the comparison of studied fungi indicates that only R. irregularis increased the concentration of phosphorus in the shoot part of plants, significantly. Each of the studied fungi showed their positive effect on different characteristics and also different drought stresses. So that, R. irregularis increased phosphorus content at 75% of SAW depletion, relative water content of leaf and nitrogen content at 85% of SAW depletion and catalase activity, membrane stability, iron concentration, shoot biomass and number of leaves at 75% and 85% of SAW depletion. However, P. indica increased iron concentration and height of shoot at 75% of SAW depletion, shoot biomass and nitrogen content at 85% of SAW depletion and catalase activity, membrane stability, relative water content of leaf and number of leaves at 75% and 85% of SAW depletion. The studied fungi increased the activity of catalase enzyme in all drought treatments. In general, the obtained results of this research indicate that drought is a limiting factor for plants, and PGPFs can improve plant tolerance to this environmental stress by improving plant nutritional status, water content and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes.
Keywords: Drought; Plant Growth promoting fungi (PGPFs) and Sesame

Climate Change and Food Security

Muhammad Mujahid

Published: December 30, 2021

After 18th century human activities become harsher for the climate as human is adding greenhouse gases in the climate like CO2 and methane through different activities like burning of fossil fuels. Due to this, CO2 and methane level in atmosphere is increasing day by day. That CO2 and methane act like blanket wrapped around earth’s atmosphere, and this blanket trap heat from sun and cause rising in temperatures.

Use of Drones in Agriculture

Deepali Kamthania

Published: December 30, 2021

Drones are unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and are remote controlled or GPS driven that can be operated for various applications in agriculture e.g., aerial crop monitoring, uniform pesticide spraying, seed distribution and aerial watering. Day by day use of drones and IOT technologies in agriculture are gaining momentum. In USA almost 84% farmers are using drones on regular basis daily or weekly. With this, new tech aviation companies are shaping which are providing drones on rental basis or providing their services on contract basis. In this article authors have tried to explore and analyze drones as future technology to assist agricultural activities and working towards better and efficient use of scarce resources in agriculture.

Smart Sustainable System Development for Indoor Planting Prototype

Mohd Hudzari Razali, Abdul Quddus Puteh and Khairulnur Najiha Abd Karim

Published: December 30, 2021

The past decade has seen significant advancement in the field of agriculture industry. Various smart appliances such as cellular phones, moisture sensors, humidity sensor and smart irrigation are set to realize the concept of a new smart farming with the help of latest technology. In Malaysia, farmers experience crop damage and decrease in plant quantity and quality because they unable to monitor the crop all day. The development of a monitoring system that can helps farmer grow crops is enticing demand for busy individuals with physical limitations. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) technology, which has emerged in the late 1970s, is an ideal solution for this problem. In this paper, a development of intelligent system for alert notification in indoor planting is presented. This paper describes an application of GSM technology for monitoring light system in indoor planting with the use of hardware component like Arduino board, GSM SIM900A, LDR and LED strip. The major role of this system is to enable farmers to get notified when the light system for their plants is down through GSM SIM900A. Each time the light system is light on and light off, the farmers will receive an SMS to notify them. System functional testing was carried to evaluate the performance of implementing GSM SIM900A whether the prototype is free from error or there are a few errors occurs. The results shown that, the system is well functioning for alert notification in indoor planting monitoring. In conclusion, the development of intelligent systems for alert notification in indoor planting was developed using Arduino and GSM SIM900A to able farmers notified about their indoor planting when to be monitored.
Keywords: GSM Technology; Monitoring; Indoor Planting; Intelligent System; Arduino

Mycorrhiza is the Ideal Solution for Global Agriculture

EL AMRANI Belkacem

Published: January 22, 2022

Given the world’s demographic expansion, agricultural production must at least be doubled by 2050 to feed the world’s population. However, the agricultural sector is increasingly suffering from harsh climatic conditions, mainly drought, and soil nutrient depletion. These conditions dramatically affect the qualitative and quantitative production, and increase the demand for chemical fertilizers. Unfortunately, what complicates things further is that the world currently recognizes a surge in fertilizer prices in general and especially those containing nitrogen. In addition, according to the World Bank, the rise in fertilizer prices is expected to continue. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek effective, ecological, and sustainable alternatives to meet global nutritional needs.

Studies on the Compatibility between Lincomycin and Kitassamycin in the Control of Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens

Hala M Kalill, Amira Samir Mohamed, Hala A El Said, Halla Salah and Mona Salh El Deen

Published: January 28, 2022

A total of 75 one-day old broiler chickens were used in this study for investigate compatibility between Lincomycin and Kitasamycin for treating clostridium perfringens infection and its effects in hematobiochemical parameters. At day 15 of age broilers were divided into 5 equal groups. Chicks in groups (2, 3, 4 and 5) were infected with clostridium perfringens type C, 1st group non-infected, non-treated (-ve control), 2nd group-infected non-treated(+ve control), 3rd group infected lincomycin treated for 5 days, 4th group infected kitasamycin treated for 5 days and 5th group infected treated with both drugs together by same dose and period. At 1st day post treatment 2 blood sample was taken from all birds for hematobiochemical study. Infected broilers showed clinical signs as loss of appetite ruffled feathers, depression, loss of appetite, diarrhea, dehydration, polydipsia, emaciation, significant reduction in body weight gain total protein, albumin, catalase and superoxide dismutase beside significant increase in mortality rate, feed conversion rate, leukocytic count, heterophile, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophile, basophile, phagocytosis and index, liver enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase) uric acid, creatinine, malanodialdhyde coupled with insignificant increase in total globulin, alpha, beta and gamma globulin beside insignificant decrease in total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol. Necrotic entritits induced many pathological leion in liver, kidney and intestine Treatment infected broilers using lincomycin and kitassmycin lead to improved in hematobiochemical parameter and reduction in clostridium perfringens counts in faeces and bacterial reiolation but infected broilers treated with both drugs together showed superior improvement in hematobiochemical parameter. It could be concluded that Combination of lincomycin and kitassmycin is effective in treatment necrotic entritis than each alone. 

Keyword: Clostridium perfringens; Lincomycin; Kitasamycin; Broilers; Pathology

Formation of O2 and CO2 reduction without Sunlight using Weak Energy of Water with pico-sized Particle

Sunao Sugihara, Kunihiko Hatanaka and Hiroshi Maiwa

Published: January 28, 2022

They have researched photosynthesis for approx. 250 years. They found the structure of chlorophyll in the 20th century, and photosynthesis has been elucidated as the total system by the Calvin cycle. Hereafter, they discussed the electron transfer in the chlorophyll. Since COP21, carbon-neutral has rapidly been a topic to decrease CO2, and they study even artificial photosynthesis repeatedly. Their researches are solar beam, CO2, and H2O involving plants. The discussion has not developed from there up to today. The chlorophyll receives sunlight leading to an electron transfer, when the manganese cluster dissociates H2O, then makes ATP. The enzyme catches CO2 and forms glucose. This system is the well-known Calvin-Benson cycle. Here is a point that we report, namely, non-sunlight. We may dissociate the hydrogen bonds of water and assume to form the pico-sized particles that help plants absorb water from their roots, and they are easy to get around in stems and leaves, resulting in reaction with CO2. The particles can emit far-infrared and terahertz under no sunlight, where we propose the agriculture factory with sustainable energy sources.
Keywords: O2 formation; CO2 reduction; no-sunlight; pico-sized particle; LED light

Evaluation of Environmental Noise in Urban areas: A Noise Pollution Assessment Approach

Misha Roy, Farzana Shamim, Rahul Majumder, Chaitali Ghosh and Saibal Chatterjee

Published: January 31, 2022

Noise Pollution has become a serious health issue nowadays and emerging as a serious pollutant. This study is carried out in three semiurban towns to evaluate the impact of noise pollution in these areas. A total of 69 locations are selected in Asansol, Bankura, and Midnapore town including the Silent, Residential, Commercial, and Industrial zone. Since the noise level varies with atmospheric conditions, hence the study is divided into premonsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons. L1, L5, L10, L50, L90, L95, L99, Equivalent sound pressure level (Leq), Noise climate (NC), Noise pollution level (Lnp), and Noise traffic Index (TNI) were computed for evaluating the intensity of noise pollution. The result reveals that the equivalent sound pressure level (Leq) is much higher than the standards in all locations of the silent zones. Noise pollution level (Lnp) and Noise traffic Index (TNI) are also computed high in commercial and heavy traffic zones. The Noise climate (NC) value shows not much variation in noise intensity with pre-post and monsoon climates. This is a pioneer study on noise quality evaluation in these locations. This study will further help in preparing future management plans to combat noise pollution in these areas. 
Keywords: Noise pollution; Equivalent noise level (Leq); Traffic noise; L99;L90;Noise climate (NC); Noise traffic Index (TNI); Noise pollution level (Lnp)

Chitosan Bionanocomposite: A Potential Approach for Sustainable Agriculture

Mane SS and Vemula AN

Published: January 31, 2022

Aim of this research is to reduce the salinity stress on plants by synthesizing the materials that helps to improve the crop yield without harming the crop. This can be made possible using NPK loaded chitosan ZnO nanoparticles (Chitosan Bionanocomposite). Chitosan, the natural carbohydrate obtained from shrimp shell waste after deacetylation of chitin by using marine bacterial isolates. Nanoparticles have high surface area and release the fertilizer slowly into the soil and makes NPK available to plants. Five marine isolates were obtained with positive deacetylase activity, used for chitosan synthesis. Bionanocomposite of each isolate was used for pot assay. Bionanocompositeobtained from IS1 was found to be efficient in enhancing the plant growth parameters. It shows 20% increase in germination percentage, 25% seed vigor index and significant increase in root and shoot length. Hence, it is concluded that the bionanocomposite can be prepared from cheapest sources and benefits the farmers for improving crop yield under stress conditions. Thus instead of using chemical fertilizer and or any biodegradable materials, bionanocomposites will be potential approach to sustain healthy agricultural practices.
Keywords: Salt stress; NPK bionanocomposite; Seed vigor index

Family Back Ground
He is from a family of four, three male and one female. Mr. Obuza G.E Kingdom, is the last born of his parent’s and also the first graduate among four children. He hailed from Tombia Community, Ekpetiama Clan, Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Two years since the COVID-19 pandemic began to sweep the earth, life remains upended, classrooms have sat empty, and families have struggled through health and financial crisis. The pandemic has envisioned the need for a strong foundation of emergency health preparedness to overcome such urgent health impacts of anthropogenic influences on our ecosystem, which emerges in the form of such deadly pandemics. COVID-19, a respiratory infectious disease, originated in China, then spread rapidly to other places of the world to take the shape of a pandemic. Early studies had shown that being in close proximity to anyone who has the disease, increases the risk of infection. The transmission occurs via direct and indirect modes. Direct transmission occurs through SARS-CoV-2 bioaerosol in the form of droplet infection and the indirect mode; it is transferred by surface contact in the immediate environment of an infected patient.

This study examined the carbon bioaccumulation capacities of Achalla and MamuRiver Forest reserves in Anambra State as influenced by land use types. Profile pits measuring 0.60m×0.60m×0.60m were constructed in the residential, deforested, taungya and non-impacted land use areas within each forest reserve. Soil samples were collected from the depths of 0-20cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60cm and analyzed for physico-chemical properties -particle size, porosity, organic matter and carbon, cation exchange capacity, pH, total nitrogen. Data collected were subjected to T-test to compare the carbon bioaccumulated in the two forest reserves while ANOVA was used to ascertain the influence of different land use types and significant means were separated using Duncan multiple range test at 5% level of probability. The result showed that there was no significant difference in carbon accumulation in the forest reserves with Mamu (1.213±0.185)?Achalla (0.797±0.103). There was also no significant difference (p > 0.05) within and between land use types in different forest reserve with respect to soil physico-chemical properties in MamuRiver Forest reserve except in Achalla forest reserve on the pH-H2O (p < 0.05) with the pH as residential < deforested < taungya < non-impacted LUTsin the non–impacted land use types. This revealed that the non–impacted area have the highest organic matter content that potentially facilitated carbon bioaccumulation for climate change mitigation in Anambra State and suggest the need to restrict exploitation, expansion of residential and taungya lands as check to improve carbon sink in the forest reserves.
Keywords: Forest reserves; land use types; organic matter; carbon; pH range

In microeconomics, the costs of intensive livestock farming are studied in the short and long term, just like any normal production costs, and they are represented by means of an envelope curve, but this approach is unable to illustrate them all. Nowadays, we speak of the “hidden” and/or social costs as well. The former are only hidden to those who prefer not to see them, and the latter contribute to the concept of economic costs. This wider view of the problem of production costs needs to be graphically represented, so here we propose a revised version of the envelope curve that succeeds in revealing all the costs of intensive livestock farming. The outcome is an L-shaped curve instead of a U-shaped one.

Laboratory Screening of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Genotypes against Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)

Siyunda AC, N Mwila, M Mwala, KL Munyinda and K Kamfwa

Published: February 05, 2022

Research studies aimed at screening cowpea genotypes against Callosobruchus maculatus commonly known as a bruchid, under the no-choice infestation condition, were conducted at the Department of Plant Science, University of Zambia in Lusaka, Zambia during 2021 on 110 cowpea genotypes. The cowpea genotypes evaluated included 3 parental lines, 97 mutant lines, and 10 pure lines in order to discern the tolerant cowpea genotype against Callosobruchus maculatus that would aid the reduction of storage losses encountered in cowpea production. Parameters measured included., number of eggs laid per 100 seeds, adult emergence per cent, developmental period, growth index, per cent infestation, weight loss per cent, and frass produced. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all the parameters considered in the investigation. The most tolerant genotype BBBT1-11 across all parameters investigated, recorded 13.01 no. of eggs/100 seed compared to MS1-8-2-6-9-1 with 128.67 eggs/100 seeds. The adult emergence of BBBT1-11 was at 12.72% compared to the highest LTBT1-5 at 88.11%. BBBT1-11 also recorded the lowest growth index of 0.42 and frass produced of 0.23g compared to the highest growth index record of 4.19 in BB10-4-2-3-3 and the highest frass produced of 5.41g recorded in MS1-8-2-6-9-1. BBBT1-11 could be further assessed for the possible presence of bio chemical and genetic parameters, that could explain the basis of the observed differences among the genotypes in their reaction to Callosobruchus maculatus. Besides, BBBT1-11 can also be incorporated in the breeding program with the target of breeding cowpea varieties that are tolerant to bruchid infestation. Furthermore, BBBT1-11 may be released so as to address the storage losses experienced at postharvest in cowpea production.
Keywords: Callosobruchus maculatus; bruchid; tolerance

Two field experiments were carried out at two successive seasons of 2018 and 2019 to study the direct effect of biochar, compost and bio-fertilizer (N fixing bacteria as Rhizobium leguminosarum for pea or azotobacter for sweet pepper and phosphorus solubilizing microorganisms as phosphoren) under three rates from the recommended mineral fertilizer and their interaction on pea plants (Pisum sativium) cv. Entsar 1 as first experiment and the residual influence of the previous fertilizers on sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. California wonder which was planted as second experiment crop. The results according to pea plants gave the best growth attributes, yield and its components were registered by the treatment of biochar with compost and fertilizer. Regarding to the residual influence of biochar, compost and bio-fertilizer led to high values on growth, yield and its characters of sweet pepper fruits in both growing seasons.
Keywords: residual effect; biochar; bio-fertilizers; compost; mineral fertilizer

In recent decades, agriculture has undergone intensification and diversification processes to improve productivity, the economic income and to face the climate variability. However, concerns about environmental problems associated with agricultural practices are increasing. In this way, effects such as soil erosion, changes in soil carbon stock, fertility losses, eutrophication and aquatic-biotic integrity degradation have been reported. Although several methodological frameworks have been developed to assess the environmental performance of farms and to support the decision-making process, these frameworks normally rely on indicators that measure a particular characteristic of an agricultural system. The aim of this work was to propose an integrated index considering (a) sequence diversification, the area occupied by crops in winter and summer, and the participation percentage of each crop and (b) two weighting factors to reflect the differential contributions of cropping sequences to environmental performance. The study was carried out between 2008 and 2020 in a commercial farm in northwest Uruguay with cropping sequences that included rice, soybean, corn, sorghum and pastures. Our results show that the proposed index is suitable for assessing the intensification degree and allowing the selection of agricultural sequences that present the highest environmental performance. The optimal spatial scale for applying the index is on farms no larger than 1000 hectares; this threshold includes approximately 90% of Uruguayan farms. Due to the similar physical characteristics, weather conditions and management practices in farms in southern Brazil and central-eastern Argentina, the index is suitable for applications in these regions as well.
Keywords: Weighted intensification index; Sustainable agriculture; Agricultural intensification; Crop diversification 

Mineral and Freshwater Consumer Market and Export Policy in Georgia

Gulnaz Erkomaishvili

Published: March 03, 2022

The article presents the current situation of production and export of mineral and fresh water, the challenges of developing new markets, the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on sales, the export policy of mineral and fresh water in Georgia. The article states that finding new markets is quite difficult. The competition in the world is great and Georgian entrepreneurs are struggling to explore new markets. It is necessary to take into account the specifics of the regulations and requirements of potential partner countries. With the right strategy, quite a lot of revenue can be generated by the water business.
Keywords: Mineral waters; Freshwater; Covid-19; Export policy; Water regulations

Women are half of the population of the Pakistan and 41 % women are engaged in agriculture farming sectors in different aspects. As it is cleared that Pakistan is an agriculture country, and the numerous part of the country is living in rural area which depends directly or indirectly on agriculture production system for their livelihood. In Pakistan mostly women are engaged in Agriculture and performing different duties in farm management, farm operations, farm maintenance and crop production systems regularly and successfully, but they are still facing a lot of problems in the agriculture management systems. This paper has focused with objective on the problems of women in Agriculture production system in Pakistan. The discussion may help the policy makers of women rights and regulations.

India: Population Growth and Environmental Quality

Ashish Baldania and Sachin Parikh

Published: March 22, 2022

Major environmental issues in India are the degradation of forests and agricultural land depletion of resources such as water, mineral, sand, and rocks. Similarly, rapid burning of fuel and biomass are the major sources of pollution in India. Lack of organized services like waste removal, poor waste management, air & water pollution are most highlighted environmental issues which India is facing today. On the other hand, Population growth of India enhances these issues.

It is said that water we use in daily life insists on several molecules connected with hydrogen bonding. However, the quantum dynamics of water after hydrogen-bond dissociation has not been researched so far, although there are many a study of water relating to bonding with its other chemical compounds. We focus on the hydrogen bond-dissociated water supposed to possess elementary particle-like matter after high pressure of approximately 100 MPa to water. The matter in the water is described as , in which the proton and the electron exist neither separately nor forming hydrogen, and we call the quantum state the extended particle. Moreover, the particle exists for a long period stably. Here we wish to associate the macroscopic phenomena of water we usually encounter with the microscopic nature due to the function of the particle. The motivation of the research is essential to understand water from an idea of the particle. Furthermore, here, we wish to associate the usual macroscopic phenomena of water with the microscopic nature due to the function of the particle so that we can control to keep the water clean in an environment as another motivation. Furthermore, the reduction of radioactive cesium to change a stable barium atom was persuaded by taking into consideration the particle which enters into the radioactive substance. This is a breakthrough in the nuclear reaction without a huge energy outside. We discussed the mechanism of radiation reduction from a radioactive substance.

The Economics of Production of Fish Hatcheries for Nile Tilapia Seed in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate

Fatma Muhammad Al-Husseini, Maha Mohamed Bastawy, Mohamed MoneirFadelElmaadawy and Wael Ahmed Ezat Elabd

Published: March 29, 2022

Fish farming in general and fish spawning activities in particular depend on the size and quality of the productive inputs for these activities, and the impact of those inputs on the quantity of fish seed production in these hatcheries, Therefore, the research aimed in general to study the most important economic factors affecting the spawning activities of Nile tilapia fish in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, By estimating the economic efficiency of hatcheries, Estimating and analyzing the items of production costs and determining their importance, And the research has an applied importance in guiding its results in raising the efficiency levels of using production inputs in hatcheries for the production of Nile tilapia fish, And the consequent increase in the production capacity of hatcheries in general.
     In achieving its objectives, the research relied on both the descriptive and quantitative methods of analysis in the interpretation and analysis of the economic variables under study, The research also relied on secondary data from the General Authority for Fish Resources Development, And primary data were collected from a sample of 30 fish hatcheries during 2021 in the Kafr El-Sheikh governorate.

The study analyzed the effects of “Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJ) Program” on the technical efficiency of maize farmers in the Techiman North Municipality of Ghana. The study randomly selected 400 maize farmers to construct a three-year recall panel for 2017, 2018 and 2019 farming seasons. Both closed and open-ended questionnaires were used to elicit information from the respondents. The results from the inverse probability weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA) model signify that the PFJ program had a statistically significant positive effect on technical efficiency of maize farmers in the Techiman North Municipality. The study therefore, recommends that the PFJ program should be intensified as it improves technical efficiency of maize farmers in the Techiman North Municipality of Ghana. Again, restructuring of the national buffer stock company and the school feeding program will be a far better alternative in providing ready market to the farmers which helps reduces post-harvest losses.

Comparative Characteristics of Flour Milling Properties of Grinding Batches of Durum Wheat Grain of Industrial Mills

Kandrokov Roman Khazhsetovich, Berezina Natalia Alexandrovna, Kusova Irina Uruzmagovna and Ryndin Alexander Alekseevich

Published: March 29, 2022

Research has been carried out to determine the potential milling properties of grinding lots of durum wheat grain of 4 operating large milling enterprises. The grinding of the initial samples was carried out according to a developed technological scheme with the inclusion of 6 torn, 2 sieve and 3 grinding systems, as well as a grinding system. According to the results of the research, it can be established that out of the four submitted samples of grinding parties of operating flour mills for processing grain of durum wheat, the sample from the Oryol region has the best flour-grinding properties, in which the total yield of flour for pasta was 83.8%, including ... 63.2% of the highest grade flour 20.6% of the second grade flour and 16.2% of bran. The modes of extraction of intermediate products of processing of grinding lots of durum wheat were: on the first torn system 19.5-26.2%, on the second torn system - 50.0-58.9% and on the third torn system - 40.3-52, eight%.
The largest yield of large-scale products and flour of the 2nd grade was obtained from the grinding batch of durum wheat grain of the flour mill located in the Oryol region, which amounted to 80.7%, and the smallest - from the flour mill located in the Moscow region, which amounted to 71.1%.

Maize Fall Armyworm

Goodwill mgb Nyaane

Published: March 29, 2022

The autumn armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a fall armyworm moth species identified by its larval stage. It belongs to the Lepidoptera order. The term army worm may refer to a wide range of species, although it’s most usually used to characterise the larval stage’s widespread intrusive habit. It’s classified as a pest because it can hurt or destroy a wide range of crops, causing severe financial losses. The fall armyworm, which is a member of the Lepidoptera order and the Noctuidae family, is more common at different periods of the year than the standard armyworm. The armyworm’s principal feeding sources are grasses and field crops like maize, although it has been observed eating over 80 other plants, 50 of which are non-economic and 30 of which are economically valuable.

This literature review aims to analyse the latest research in phytohormones (specifically salicylic acid (SA)) and their application for managing biotrophic pathogens as a safe and economical alternative to synthetic fungicides in an agricultural context. It was found that salicylic acid does induce significant protection from fungal pathogens, particularly when combined with Bacillus subtilis.

The Russian-Ukrainian War and Its Impact on Arab food Security

Salah Mahmoud Abd Elmohsen Arafa

Published: April 12, 2022

The challenges of the global economy are increased between the repercussions of the Covid-19 pandemic, and an unprecedented inflationary wave that intensified in the wake of the Russian-Ukrainian crisis. The continuous of this war raises fears of an outbreak of a food crisis in several Arab countries, which depended for their imports of grain - especially wheat - on Russia and Ukraine; Due to the low prices in these two countries. Consequently, these countries turn to other countries to import these crops, such as: the United States or Canada and also the countries of Latin America, which leads to raising their prices, due to the distance, especially since the price of oil is high, which is reflected in the cost of transporting goods between countries. The end of food security for Arab countries.

Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Using Anaerobic Digestion Bio-Slurry Microbes

Kinyua A, Mbugua JK, Waswa AG, Mbui DN, Kithure J, Michira I and Wandiga SO

Published: April 23, 2022

Anaerobic digestion of degradable material yields biogas used as fuel and bio-slurry widely employed as organic fertilizer as well as chicken and fish supplements. The bio-slurry is rich in microbes which makes it applicable in the bio-remediation of persistent pollutants in soil. In the current research work, the bacterial forming unit was determined using the standard plate method at microbiology laboratory, University of Nairobi after-which the microbes in biogas bio-slurry was applied in microbial fuel cells bio-remediation of lambda cyhalothrin, malathion and chlorpyrifos. The bio-slurry was doped with 10 mL 10 ppm pesticide solution and subjected to voltage generation via a H-shaped dual chamber microbial fuel cell for a 90 days’ retention period. Daily voltage and current were recorded using a multi-meter while pesticide levels were determined using GC-MS after QuEChERS method extraction. The microbial counts result showed a 3.15±0.01 * 1010 CFU/ml from the biogas bio-slurry sample. The observed maximum voltage in bio-slurry was 0.568 V in day 28 while the maximum generated voltage on doping the biogas bio-slurry with the chlorpyrifos, lambda cyhalothrin, malathion and the pesticides mix (CLM) were 0.551, 0.565, 0.538 and 0.533 V respectively. The bio-degradation levels achieved were 73.40% malathion, 87.70% chlorpyrifos while no lambda cyhalothrin was detected on the 90th day of incubation.

Application of Agro-Waste in Bioremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil from Agip Oil Spill Sites at Abecheke Ohaji-Egbema Local Government Area of IMO State

Chinenye Anthonia Ezenwa, Arinze Jude Chinweuba, Chinedu Chibuzor Onuorah and Adindu Linus- Chibueze

Published: April 30, 2022

The potential effects of using organic agro-waste as bioremediation material for the detoxification of crude oil contaminated soil from Agip crude oil spill sites at Abecheke Ohaji-Egbema local government area of Imo state was carried out. Cassava and Plantain peels were used by either addition of Cow dung, Poultry droppings or Pig slurry as inoculants. The blending ratio for the samples are A (Soil 2kg, Cassava 3kg, Pig slurry 0.5kg), B (Soil 1.5kg, Cassava 1.5kg, Poultry droppings 0.5kg) C (Soil 1.5kg, Cassava 3kg, Cow dung 0.5kg), D (Soil 2kg, Plantain 3kg, Pig slurry 0.5kg) and sample E (Untreated contaminated sample) which served as control. The samples were isolated into four different zip lock nylon and left for 90 days after which the samples were analyzed for some selected physico-chemical properties. The total hydrocarbon content of the samples reduced from 3657mg/kg in the untreated soil sample to 1282mg/kg in the decreasing order of (E>D>C>B>A) due to the metabolic activities of living organisms involved in the biodegradation process. The mineralization activities of the biodegradation organism improved the pH, nitrogen, moisture and organic carbon content of the treated samples. Electrical conductivity, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium were reduced due to their utilization by living organisms. The percentage of sand, silt and clay remained the same across all the samples except for percentage of sand in samples B and C that was slightly reduced while the percentage of clay and silt in sample B witnessed slight increment, the texture remained constant across board. Higher level of crude oil biodegradation occurred in cassava peels and pig slurry blend, therefore the use cassava peels mixed with other agro-waste should be encouraged as bioremediation agent of crude oil polluted sites.

Assessing Antibiotics Misconducting Impacts on Environmental Sustainability

Mohammed A Alsanad, Ahmed IH Ismail, Abdulrahman M Almadini

Published: April 30, 2022

The current study aims to assess the impacts of improper use and conduct of antibiotics on environmental sustainability as well as human health and the community perceptions in KSA towards such issues adopting the Eastern province as a case study. The study involved a sample of 325 individuals that were randomly selected and surveyed from the community of the province. They questionnaires were explicitly designed on basis of direct contact and interviews. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software program following proper statistical formats. The findings of the study revealed that most of the respondents were unprivileged in their perceptions to proper use and conduct of antibiotics, knowledge about use guidelines, and the negative impact of antibiotic misuses and misconducts on environment, with a high correlation value (r2=0.872). Thus, there are sincere needs to a strategy to improve their concepts towards such aspects. The proposed strategy ought to involve extensive extension programs and setting and implementing legislations to regulate handling processes of antibiotics in the country. Success of these legislations however requires full collaboration between all related sectors. It is therefore conceived that these findings are valuable to sustain the environment in the KSA in line with the national 2030 strategy.

Research studies aimed at screening cowpea genotypes against Aphis craccivora K. commonly known as black aphids, under the no-choice infestation condition, were conducted in the greenhouse at Natural Resource Development College (NRDC), Lusaka, Zambia in 2021. The main objective was to discern the cowpea genotype that is resistant to Aphis craccivora K that would aid the reduction of yield losses encountered in cowpea production. The materials consisted of 21 cowpea genotypes advanced from the open field screening method. These 21 that were selected from an initial set of 110 genotypes exhibited the resistance trait during the open field screening method and thus were advanced to validate their resistance levels. The cowpea genotypes evaluated included 1 landrace variety, 2 mutation derived cultivated varieties, 15 advanced mutation derived varieties, and 3 pure line genotypes from IITA. The experimental design used was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications. The variables collected were aphid score, aphid population build-up, plant vigour scores, and plant survival rate. Significant differences were seen among the genotypes for all the parameters considered in the investigation. The most resistant genotypes (BB10-4-2-3-2 and BBBT1-11) across all parameters investigated recorded an average aphid score of 1.0 and 1.68, respectively compared to LT11-3-3-12 which recorded the highest score of 7.0. The aphid population build-up of BB10-4-3-2 and BBBT1-11 was the lowest at 0.9 and 1.0 respectively compared to the highest recorded by LT11-5-1-1-4 at 3.54. The highest plant vigour of 3.0 was recorded by BB10-4-3-2, BBBT1-11 and LT11-5-1-1-4 and the lowest was recorded by Sanzi (1.2). Both BB10-4-3-2 and BBBT1-11 recorded a survival percentage of 100% at 21DAI compared to the lowest recorded by TVu 2027 (20%). Genotypes BB10-4-2-3-2 and BBBT1-11 could further be assessed for the possible presence of biochemical and traits, that could explain the basis of the observed differences among the genotypes in their reaction to Aphis craccivora K. Besides, BB10-4-2-3-2 and BBBT1-11 can also be incorporated in the breeding program with the target of breeding cowpea varieties that are resistant to aphid infestation. Furthermore, BB10-4-2-3-2 and BBBT1-11 may be released to address the yield losses experienced in cowpea production as a result of A. craccivora K.

A field experiment was carried out in Nubaria and Kafr El-Sheikh regions to predict the main piercing-sucking insects and their associated predators, the impact of certain weather factors on them, the partial correlation on these studies and the role of predators in the control of Bemsia tabaci were discussed in Egyptian soybean fields during the 2020 and 2021 seasons. Results showed the distribution of population density and frequency of occurrence for piercing-sucking insects that included (Bemisia tabaci Genn.; Aphis gossypii Glover; Nezara viridula L. and Empoasca app.) and predators that included (Chrysoperla carnea Steph.; Coccinella undecimpunctata L., Paederus alfierii, Orius sp. and True spiders) on soybean plants. The mean number of piercing-sucking insects and associated predators was less in Nubaria than Kafr El-Sheikh region and Empoasca app. disappeared in Nubaria region. The highest frequency of occurrence was Bemisia tabaci insect and Chrysoperla carnea predator during the study. The best time to implement the role of integrated pest management was in August, when the predator/B. tabaci ratio was highest. The partial correlation coefficient value was highly significant between temperature and B. tabaci and C. undecimpunctata in Nubaria while N. viridula and Empoasca in Kafr El-Sheikh during 2020 but 2021 season, it was highly significant with B. tabaci, A. gossypii, N. viridula, P. alfierii and Orius sp. in Nubaria whereas Ch. carnea and True spiders in Kafr El-Sheikh during 2021. Relative humidity was highly significant with Empoasca spp. and true spiders, in Kafr El-Sheikh during 2020 while wind speed was highly significant with B. tabaci in Kafr El-Sheikh during 2020 and with Nubaria during 2021. The role of the main insect predators in the control of piercing-sucking insects was highly significant between P. alfierii and N. viridula in Nubaria, while Kafr El-Sheikh was Ch. Carnea with B. tabaci and N. viridula, then C. undecimpunctata with A. gossypii and N. viridula and True spiders with B. tabaci, and N. viridula during 2020, next 2021 season, P. alfierii with B. tabaci in Nubaria region then Kafr El-Sheikh was Ch. Carnea and True spiders with B. tabaci, N. viridula and Empoasca spp. these means that there are another factors effect on the relationship between insects and predators population.

The Value of Water

Mainak Ghosal

Published: April 30, 2022

The United Nations observes 22nd March as world water Day. Last year’s (2021) theme was ‘Valuing Water’. Can you imagine that water is priceless that is you can get it free almost without paying any price but without water, you can’t live? So, water has got a value that is different from the price we pay for other commodities like food, clothing, and housing and we call it the “USE VALUE”. Also, water is the most consumable material on the whole planet. Nature ensures that Water renews itself…. (saagram prathi gajjathi….manthra pushpam is about water being the essence of life). Sir. C.V. Raman has called it the Elixir of life. It is aptly said that water has No Colour, No Shape, No Place, But Still Very Important for Life……………!!!

Climate Change and Pakistan- A Short Review

Um ul Banin Zahra and Adnan Hussain

Published: April 30, 2022

A change in global or regional climate pattern is called climate change. It is a global, serious and permanent threat to the whole world. In general, lack of rainfall, long summer, shorten winter, floods, droughts etc are occurring due to climate changes, these changes may be due to deforestation, increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), increase methane levels or increased water vapor levels. Similarly gases also enhance the level of climate change. When the sun rays fall on the earth, the earth reflect those rays back which keeps the earth temperature under control but if the average amount of the gas is too high, it will absorb the rays into the ground which causes the temperature to rise this is also called the green house effect. The Pakistan meteorological department released a report in 2019 in which they said that rainfall in august 2019 decreased by 47% as compared to august 2018. Overall the country has received 28% less rainfall and the only reason is said to be climate change.

New India and Hydrogen World

Ashish Baldania and Sachin Parikh

Published: May 03, 2022

To achieve net zero emission by 2070, enter in to the hydrogen world is what India is looking for. Recently, the hydrogen production in India is from methane reforming. This produces significant carbon dioxide emissions. Though carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) can reduce such emissions but still in India it is in under developing stage. Mission of Indian government is to mitigate climate targets and making India a green hydrogen hub. The term “Green Hydrogen” is very famous now days in India. Here are some facts and future trends of India towards Green Hydrogen [1-5].

The study was conducted in South Omo Zone Benatsemayworedachalikebele from 2019-2021 G.C in the title “Evaluation of different spacing and demonstration of Becium grandflorum /“Tebeb”/ bee forage in South Omo Zone, Ethiopia” with the objective of evaluate the effect of different spacing on canopy cover, plant height, branch number and flower number and adaptability of Becium grandflorumbee forage. Beciumg randflorum cutting laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications by four different spacing (2m, 2.5m, 3m and 3.5m). The record parameter results were plant height 1.11m, 0.99m, 1.24m and 1.27m with treatments 2m, 2.5m, 3m and 3.5m spacing respectively, number of branches per plant were 17.33, 13.33,20 and 21.66 with treatments respectively, canopy cover were 1.39m, 1.29m, 1.7m and 1.5m with treatments respectively and number of flowers per plant were 15567, 14043, 19753 and 20083 with treatments respectively were recorded. All parameters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, canopy cover and number of flowers per plant were not statistically significance (p<0.05). The highest flower number, branches per plant and plant height was recorded in treatment 3.5m whereas the lowest flower number, branch per plant, plant height and canopy cover was recorded in treatment 2.5m. However the recorded parameter results were not statistically significance treatment 3.5m and treatment 3m spacing were recommended for Becium grandflorum cutting plantation with sufficient soil moisture and good soil condition.

Opisthorchiids, Heterophyids and Aquaculture: A Brief Review

R Bhar, J Paul, AB Gamit, PK Nanda and S Bandyopadhyay

Published: May 30, 2022

Fish borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) affect millions of people worldwide especially in Asian countries and are of considerable economic importance because of their various degrees of morbidity and economic losses. They are normally transmitted to the definitive host by consumption of raw or improperly cooked fish harbouring viable metacercariae. The life cycle is complex which requires two intermediate hosts (snails & fish) and one definitive host (human). Interestingly, they can also complete their life cycle in the hosts other than the humans (reservoir hosts) which play a great role to maintain the infection in the environment. Diagnosis is mainly done by demonstration of eggs and adult parasites from infected definitive or reservoir host and recently, it is complemented by molecular techniques. These trematodes are mostly prevalent in the countries with traditional aquaculture practices. So, proper aquaculture practices should be followed and the production of parasite free fish for human consumption should be a key objective for the aquaculture industry. This review summarizes the global status, life cycle pattern, pathology, diagnosis and also some recommendations for prevention and control of the fish borne zoonoses.

This study investigated the effect of two different methods, i.e. air-drying and freeze-drying, of preservation of elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) cultivated in Valdichiana, a traditional cultivation area of Tuscany, Italy, on its nutritional characteristics (i.e. soluble proteins. polyphenols, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity, starch, soluble sugars, allicin). The results showed that compared to the fresh product, the traditional method of air-drying causes significant reductions only in the total antioxidant power (-46%) and in the content of starch (-22%), while the modern method of freeze-drying negatively affects almost all the parameters investigated, overall by about 40%. The content of allicin is not changed by the preservation method. Although freeze-drying is considered one of the best methods for preserving plant-based food, attention should be paid to the effect of this process on the nutritional characteristics of the product.

Identification of High Andean Wetlands using SRTM & LANDSAT Images at the Head of the Chaschuil River Basin, Catamarca, Argentina

Malvina Serra, Erlinda del Valle Ortiz and Adriana Ediht Niz

Published: May 30, 2022

This work shows a study carried out in the upper area of the Chaschuil Valley in the South Ramsar Subsidy of the province of Catamarca for the identification of wetlands through the analysis of SRTM and LANDSAT images. Factors influencing the use of wetlands, such as size, fertile plains, water dynamics and associated vegetation, were considered. The image processing of the Landsat 8 satellite (PATH-ROW = 232-079) was carried out, as well as the sampling data of the January 2019 campaign. Base maps were generated and analysis of geographic information system (GIS) to classify water bodies. The results allowed us to better understand the relationship between the geomorphology of the basin and its water dynamics and allow us to advance in the study of wetlands of importance to the ecosystem of the region.

Role of Renewable Energy in Ensuring Eco-Friendly Environment

Abdulraheem Mukhtar Iderawumi

Published: May 30, 2022

The demand for energy and related services is rising in order to meet social and economic development and improve human welfare and health. Energy services are needed in any civilization to provide basic human requirements (such as lighting, cooking, space comfort, movement, and communication) as well as to support productive processes. Nigeria has a good forestry enabling environment, but it has to expand in scope, coverage, and efficiency to adequately serve other regions that have been disadvantaged by extensive deforestation and environmental degradation in their surroundings. The government will profit from pursuing well-articulated forestry policies programs that will greatly reduce the pressure on large cities and towns, as well as enhance the availability of cheap basic services, making life easier for citizens.

Magic Mushroom

Neela Manna

Published: May 30, 2022

Whenever we hear mushroom, we know that it is a spore bearing fruiting body of a fungus that generally grows on ground or on its food source. There are many kinds of mushroom that differ in their chemical components and vary from edible to poisonous mushroom. Typically, there is presence of a mushroom variety that has Psilocybin compound in it. They are found in both pileus(cap) and stipe(stem) of mushroom but mostly in pileus. These types of mushrooms are known as Psilocybin Mushroom or “Magic Mushrooms”.

Macroeconomic Variables and Agricultural Output in Nigeria

Okeke Daniel C and Okeke Onyinye Rita

Published: May 30, 2022

The research work investigated the effect of macroeconomic variables on agricultural output in Nigeria. The study spanned from the period of 1995-2020, making it 26 observatory years. The agricultural output growth represented the explained variable while money supply, commercial bank loan on agriculture, exchange rate, interest rate, recurrent government expenditure on agriculture and inflation rate represented the explanatory variables which served as the selected macroeconomic variables under study. The stationary of the variables were checked using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. The researcher went further to test for the long run relationship using the Johansen Co-integration technique. The OLS analysis was computed which shows that the model is statistically significance, judging with the p-value of the F-statistic. The analysis also presented that money supply, exchange rate and inflation have a positive relationship with agricultural output within the given period of study while commercial bank loan on agriculture, interest rate and recurrent government expenditure on agriculture have a negative link with the explained variable. Based on the findings, the researcher made its recommendation in the work.

Humanity is facing some major global challenges that are of immediate concern. Two of them are Pandemic and Deforestation. The connection between deforestation and a pandemic sounds strange or a bit far-fetched but unfortunately, these are linked together, in a very complex way. Deforestation refers to the decrease in forest areas across the world for other uses such as agricultural croplands, urbanization, mining activities, monoculture, etc. Pandemics are outbreaks of infectious diseases that can cause morbidity and mortality over a wide geographic area and cause significant economic, social, and political disruptions [1]. Urban ecology is study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment. Deforestation is the root cause of biodiversity loss which in turn leads to ecosystem disruption, i.e, it affects the ecosystem services. Evidence suggests that the pandemics have increased over the past century because of urbanization, changes in land use, exploitation of natural resources, and destruction of habitats. The rapid increase in population has resulted in speedy reforms in urban ecology, which has resulted in deforestation and habitat defragmentation and human encroachment into the forest.

At present, 121 million agricultural holdings are in India; out of these 99 million holdings are small and marginal (87%). Small holdings are not well suited to farm mechanization, coupled with poor economic condition of farming community and lack of resources; these factors are exclusively responsible for the slow growth of Indian Agricultural. Hence, there is immense need to develop area specific integrated farming system models to resolve multi-dimensional problems prevailing related to agriculture and allied sectors. Integrated farming systems approach is one of the most powerful tools for enhancing productivity, profitability, nutritional security, livelihood improvement, employment generation and sustainability of the farm households, particularly small and marginal farming communities, presently they have constituted more than 87% of the total farm households. In India, increasing population demands coupled with decreasing availability of farm resources resulted declining in productivity which warrants an immediate attention of researchers to tackle these problems and there is urgent need to reorient agriculture research programs from individualistic enterprise approach to need developed holistic approach of integrated farming system. The concept of integrated farming system research integrates various enterprises and resources (inputs) at the farm level into consideration for planning production of crops, selecting cropping systems and combining various enterprises to develop integrated farming systems having sustainable agriculture production systems. Similarly, inclusion of horticulture, dairy farming, bee keeping, fisheries, poultry farming, sheep and goat rearing, sericulture, mushroom cultivation under two or three tier system of integrated farming can give substantial additional high energy food without affecting production of food grains. Soil, water, climate, marketing, labour, transport and local demands are the main criteria to select the farming systems for any working place. Moreover, integrated farming system is a biologically integration system, which integrates mechanism into farming activities to achieve utmost replacement of off- farm inputs and sustain farm profits through decease of costs of production and augment productivity of the entire system towards vertical horizon. As regards to livelihood security, the IFS approach adopted in the model met almost all the homegrown family demands of cereals, pulses, oil, fruit, milk, meat, vegetables, and value-added products. Moreover, integrated farming systems also pave the needed socially acceptable, environmental hygiene and economically viable to large growing population of India. Therefore, now the need of develop an agro-ecology based integrated farming system which would augment soil health, ecological balance, employment generation and fertilizers cost reduction through recycled farmbased by-products. Further, most of the inputs being used in agriculture becoming costlier and go out of reaches to common man which results in farming becoming unviable and unsustainable enterprise particular to small and marginal households of India. Hence, it is clear that adoption of allied enterprises enhanced the net return sizably over the arable farming. Thus, whole farmingsystem approach is very constructive in solving the various problems of farmers in India.

Grain Yield of Dual-Purpose Barley Genotypes Estimated by AMMI, BLUP and Non-Parametric measures after One Cut

Ajay Verma, RPS Verma, J Singh, Lokendra Kumar and Gyanendra Pratap Singh

Published: June 24, 2022

AMMI analysis evaluated the total variations in genotypic yield values across the environments and partied the total variations into various components to assess their significance. Environments, GxE interactions, and genotypes effects were highly significant with 69.4%, 24.1%, 3.4% respectively. IPCA-5 favored G11, G6, G8 as per IPCA-6 genotypes would be G5, G4, G17 while IPCA-7 pointed towards G3, G20, G4. First two AMMI components totalled 57.6% and ASV1 & ASV measures recommended (G4, G20, G15). MASV1 & MASV measures considered 98.5% total of seven Interaction principal components and identified G15, G9, G6 genotypes. G21, G17, G10 would be of consistent yield as per least values of standard deviation whereas CV identified G6, G10, G17 genotypes. Non parametric measures Si s selected G15, G13, G9 whereas non parametric composite measures selected G15, G13, G20, G16. Biplot analysis observed Si 1, Si 2, Si 3, Si 4, Si 5, Si 6, Si 7, ASV, ASV1, MASV, MASV1 NPi (1), NPi (3), NPi (4) accounted more in first principal component whereas Mean of genotypic yield, Average of BLUP of genotypic yield, PC1, GM, HM , HMPRVG, PRVG, were major contributors for second principal component. AMMI based measures ASV, ASV1, MASV, MASV1 clustered with Si 6, Si 7 in first quadrant. Out of two, first comprised of IPC3, IPC6, IPC7 measures while next one consisted of BLUP based measures with mean yield and IPC1. Measures NPi (2), NPi (3), NPi (4) formed a cluster with Stdev, CV as this cluster observed adjacent to cluster of MASV1, NPi (1), Si 1, Si 4Si 2, Si 5 in same quadrant.

Assessment of Genetic Divergence and Correlation Analysis of Sugarcane Clones (Saccharum spp. L.) in North-Western Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh

Devendra Kumar, LR Meena, Nirmal, Lalit K Meena, Raghavendra KJ and Arpan Bhowmik

Published: July 02, 2022

Nine early maturing sugarcane clones and their 12 morpho-physiological characters were studied in 2015-16 and 2016-17 crop seasons under inorganic environment to assess their genetic distance and characters association. The results of the experiment revealed that variety CoPk 05191 had greater genetic distance from CoS03251 (239.401), CoLk011201 (227.923) and UP 05125 (201.355), medium genetic distance was between Co098014 and Co 011201 (224. 618), Co098014 and UP05125 (179.927), and Co098014 and CoS03251 (178.029). The hybridization between the aforesaid combinations of clones can produce heterotic and transgressive genotypes with higher cane and sugar yield. The cane yield showed strong positive and highly significant correlation with cane height (r= 0.948**), single cane weight (r=0.817**), number of millable cane (r=0.748**), and green top yield (r=0.653**). Being highly correlated with cane yield, the characters like cane height, cane weight, NMC and green top weight need special focus while making selection for higher cane and sugar yield.

Why Chlorophyll Exists in a Plant from Viewpoints of Water

Sunao Sugihara and Hiroshi Maiwa

Published: July 02, 2022

We learn any plant possesses chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Here, we introduce oxygenic photosynthetic organisms that use water as an electron donor resulting in reduction of carbon dioxide. SIGN water contains the detailed information transferring it to another substance and changing its properties with the information. The water reduces the material and has characteristics to change the nucleus. The property is based on pico sized water and leads to the development of germination and growth of a plant. Furthermore, we find the generation of chlorophyll based on the nuclear change starting from water absorbance in roots to leaves.

Weed Community Composition, Structure and their Quantitative Evaluation under Tropical Conditions in Garhwal Region

Tana Dipung, Himshikha Gusain, Jitendra Singh Butola and Sneha Dobhal

Published: July 02, 2022

An inclusive knowledge of weed biology is essential for identification and management in order to develop both economically and environmentally acceptable weed management systems. A comprehensive documentation of weed communities is essentially required for inventorization, taxonomic identification and effective management. Present experiment was conducted on composition and their vegetation analysis of weed species through collection of specimens from destructive sample plots in HNB Garhwal University, Chaurus Campus, Uttarakhand. A total of 26 weed species belonging to 24 genera and 18 families were recorded from the 13 plots. Total Number of Individuals (TNI) was observed highest in Murraya koenigii (221±7.10) and least for Ziziphus Mauritiana (13±0.48). Important Value Index (IVI) was highest for Murraya koenigii (137.44) and Cannabis sativa (66.73), while the lowest was recorded for Ziziphus mauritiana (22.33) and Cissampelo spereira (2.41). Oxalis corniculata (69.23) showed the highest frequency, while Cannabis sativa showed both density=13.09 and abundance=21.27 to be the highest. Both Cissampelo spereira and Solanum nigrum species recorded lowest frequency, density and abundance was with value F=7.69 each. On basis of IVI, Murrayakoinigii and Cannabis sativa species marked the highest level of domination in the observation plots. The Asteraceae (4) followed by Amaranthaceae (3) and Malvaceae (3) were observed to be dominant family at the sites. The family such as Apocynaceae, Canabaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Boraginaceae showed least number of species. The range of abundance-frequency ratio was between 0.02 – 0.35, which indicate regular and random distribution pattern, signifying a suitable management system for weed regime in the area.

Smart Aquaculture - The Way Forward

Vinod Kumar Yadav

Published: July 02, 2022

Aquaculture is a globally fast-growing food sector, and its economic significance is increasing consistently. India has massive potential in aquaculture resources, but the overall production is not impressive as, in most places, traditional farming practices are commonly used (Kathia et al., 2005). The disease management approach in traditional farming is very poor. Earlier studies found that, on average, 10-15% of the total production was destroyed due to the disease occurrence in freshwater farms (Geetha et al., 2022).

India Himalayan Region is well recognized for its rich biotic wealth and cultural and ethnic diversity. Availability of more than 650 species of wild edible plants largely supports to the local communities to meet their nutritional needs as food supplements. Unfortunately, the high potential of these natural resources to combat with global malnutrition issues has been under exploited and underutilized. In case of cultivated plants, the standard practices pertaining to growing, harvesting, post-harvesting, processing technology, packaging and storage of the processed products are well known to develop quality products. On the other hand for wild edibles, only the measures for handling during the collection and post-harvest activities apply and this, it is one of the major advantages of the wild fruits particularly collected from non-polluted environment of Himalayan region.

Seed multiplication in sugarcane through conventional technique is low (1:10) that’s why there is need to increase multiplication ratio through different multiplication technique used single bud, seed setts and top portion i.e. meristmatic region of cane stalk. The notified and released sugarcane varieties those bearing high yield and higher juice quality and also it showed stability and tolerance abilities against biotic and biotic factors under changing climatic scenario. The trueness to variety depends upon its good germination percentage, high genetic & physical purity percentage, vigour and its appearance treated as standard quality seed followed the Seed acted as foundation of Agriculture Technology and modernized much of farming’s day-to-day operations also helpful to steady supply of high yielder quality seed, to get high yield. Good quality seed can give up to 15% higher yield in most of the crop. A reviewed upon the advancements of different seed multiplication techniques of sugarcane viz, single bud plantlets (SBP), spaced transplanting (STP), poly bag seedling transplanting, bud chip, sablang or sprouting, rayungan, distance planting, tjeblock, advance vertical seed multiplication, tissue culture and popular conventional methods was done, among them single bud plantlets found the best one. Keeping this above said points in view it is subsidised by the Govt. of Bihar for popularity of SBP among the farmers. Seed standard of sugarcane either in conventional method or tissue culture technique should be maintained so that farmers will get maximum production with quality seed standard.

In accessibility and increase in price of commercial concentrates as a supplement for ruminants laid a way to look for other options in hand. The aim of current study was to identify the optimum level supplementing cassava leaf meal (CLM) as a replacement for protein on growth performance and economic efficiency of local goats. Twenty four intact yearling bucks with an average initial body weight of 13.92 ± 1.03 kg were purchased from Balela local market and assigned to one of the four treatment feeds in a completely randomized block design as: T1= Grazing + 100gm WB + 150gm CLM, T2 = Grazing + 100g WB + 200g CLM, T4= Grazing + 100g WB + 250g CLM (T4= Grazing + 300g Concentrate mix). All animals were allowed access to water ad libitum and the experiment was undertaken for 90 days live weight gain, DM intake, FCR and cost-benefit analysis were parameters studied during experiment. The chemical composition of feed samples was conducted immediately before commence of actual experiment showed that cassava leaf meal has high protein content which is above the minimum requirement level for optimal rumen microbial activity (22.94%) and low fibres content which are readily digestible (30.37%) indicating that it can be potentially used as supplemental feed for ruminants in areas where other sources are not available and/or are expensive. Supplemental feeding of 250gm of air dried CLM and 100gm of WB in current experiment positively influenced the economic efficiency and growth performance of animals by providing higher feed intake and greater weight gain as compared to T1 group and T2. The results from daily live weight gain were 63.1g, 69.9g, 93.22 and 103.78g for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Bucks in T3 and T4 (positive control) gained better than (93.22 and 103.78g/day) bucks in T1 & T2. Whereas the results from DMI were, 3.3kg, 3.0kg, 3.5kg and 3.7kg for T1, T2, T3, and T4 respectively. Even though goats in T4 performed relatively better than all other treatment groups, supplementation of air CLM (T3) was economically feasible, profitable. Therefore, supplementing goats those which graze on natural pasture with 250g of dried CLM and 100gm of WB will be feasible for optimum production. Further study on maximum inclusion level of dried cassava leaf meal has to be studied in grazing goats.

The Reasons why the Omicron Virus continues to Pandemic

Sunao Sugihara and Hiroshi Maiwa

Published: July 26, 2022

We introduce recent virus infectious mechanisms from the viewpoint of amino acids. We focus on the chemical formula and atomic bonding strength involving amino acids resulting in the current pandemic. Furthermore, we refer to how to protect a virus with the water with theoretical ideas and evidences. After they apply higher pressurization to ordinary tap water, the water only possesses the pico-sized particle, which emits far-infrared and terahertz electromagnetic wave besides chemical reduction to viruses and diseases.

Phytoremediation potentials of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Sunflower (Helianthus amarus) and Fluted pumpkin (Telifaria occidentallis) on spent engine oil polluted texturally contrasting soils was evaluated in the glasshouse belonging to the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Three texturally contrasting soils: Sandy loam (SL), Loamy sand (LS) and Sandy clay loam (SCL) were potted with a polythene bag and polluted with 10% w/w (122ml/kg), 20% w/w (245ml/kg) and 0% w/w (0ml/kg) of spent engine oil. The experiment was a 3x3x3 factorial replicated thrice in a completely randomized design (CRD). The soil was thoroughly mixed with spent engine oil and allowed to stay for three weeks to allow for proper absorption of the engine oil. Thereafter, air dried crushed and sieved poultry manure was applied to each polythene bag at a rate of 40 t/ha. The spent engine oil- organic manure mixture was watered to field capacity 3 times per week for two weeks after which the crops were sown. Soil samples were collected and analyzed at the end of the study which lasted for 12 weeks, to determine the total hydrocarbon in the soil after planting. The data on soil parameters were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GENSTAT. The results showed that the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was higher in the 20% polluted soil as it increases with the level of pollution and was highest in the soil in which pumpkin was planted and least in the soil in which sunflower was planted. The study concluded that Sunflower has better phytoremediation potential for spent engine oil-polluted soils than Sorghum and Fluted pumpkin.

Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus), belongs to the Cyperaceae family and is also found to be a perennial crop of the same genus as the papyrus plant. It is widely distributed in the temperate zones within south Europe and also grows naturally in Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. It is known in Nigeria as “Aya” in Hausa, “Ofio” in Yoruba and “AkiHausa” in Igbo. The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of tigernut on aluminum chloride induced histopathological changes on the liver of adult wistar rats. The objectives of the study were to induce liver damage in wistar rats using aluminium chloride, and to determine whether tiger nut has ameliorative effect on the histopathological change induced by aluminium chloride on liver of wistar rat. Twenty five wistar rats weighing between 80g and 170g were randomly grouped into five rats each (A, B, C, D and E). After two weeks of acclimatization, group A was administered with normal saline, group B was administered with 500 mg/kg bwt of aluminum chloride, group C was administered with 1250 mg/kg bwt of cyperus esculentus, group D was administered with 500mg/kg of aluminum chloride and 2500mg/kg of cyperus esculentus, group E was administered with 500 mg/kg of aluminum chloride and 3750mg/kg of cyperus esculentus.

After two weeks of administration three rats from each group were sacrificed humanely and the liver of the rats were harvested for histological studies. The results showed that oral administration of aluminum chloride caused histopathological changes manifested with congested central vein, inflammation and fibrosis on the liver tissue, the group treated with cyperus esculentus showed normal histology of the liver, and the group treated with aluminum chloride and cyperus esculentus showed decrease in histopathological changes and partially restored live rtissue. In conclusion aluminum chloride induced histopathological changes on the liver tissues of adult wistar rats was ameliorated using cyperus esculentus with restoration of the degenerative changes which were time-dependent and dose-dependent respectively.

Just a few days ago former IMF Chief Economist Ken Rogoff predicted that the USA will plunge into recession due to supply shocks from the ongoing war in Ukraine and the inflation crisis adding to it. Also, the World Bank chief, David Malpass had said that the ongoing inflation might last for two years and some countries will find it ‘very hard’ to avoid recession. But what will happen to India due to this catastrophe? We all know that when the US sneezes, the world catches a cold - which means that a recession in the US will leave a cascading effect on other economies like what happened in the aftermath of the 2008 US Housing crisis.

Rice Blast Resistance Genes Pi54 and Pita Show Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in an Advanced 4-Way Crossed Segregating Population

Ankitta Mishra*, Wickneswari Ratnam, Md Atiqur Rahman Bhuiyan and Kshirod Jena

Published: August 06, 2022

Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is a destructive disease in rice. The use of blast-resistant varieties is possibly one of the best economically and environmentally efficient ways to cultivate rice. Four-way crosses between two F1s were performed from UKMRC2 × Teqing and UKMRC2 × Tetep. A segregating population of 30 4-way F1 lines and 72 4-way F4 lines were screened with a set of 51 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers representing Pi9, Pi5, Pib, Piz, Pita, and Pi54 genes to evaluate the sequence variation. Field blast screening was carried out using six newly identified Malaysian isolates of M. oryzae. Blast disease score of 1 or 2 was observed in 28 4-way F1 lines and 57 4-way F4 lines. The 4-way F4 population showed the resistant alleles for Pi54 and Pita. According to Sequenom data, both generated reproducible and aggressive calls. The SNP data revealed nine sequence variants, which showed the presence of two putative haplotype blocks for Pi54 and Pita respectively. Qgene analysis of the 4-way F4 population showed Pi54 with LOD of 14 (R2 = 56.6%) and Pita with LOD of 14 (R2 = 72.4%). Pi54 was mapped to a region of 312 kb on chromosome 11 flanked by SNPs Pi54-3 and Pi54-19 while, Pita was mapped to a region of 175 kb on Chromosome 12 flanked by SNPs Pita-10 and Pita-3. The resistance alleles highlighted in this study can be used in development of rice blast disease resistant varieties having high yield through gene pyramiding.

Natural pasture productivity is reducing due to shrinkage of grazing land in highlands of crop livestock mixed production system; which is aggravated by poor management and misuse of it. The study was conducted in bursa district of Sidama region in 2018 and 2019 cropping season with objective of identifying effects of urea top dressing and grass and legume over-sowing on herbaceous production, species composition improvement of grazing land. Five different treatments were applied as T1, control, .T2. over sowing phalaris grass, T3, over sowing clover, T4, top dressing 100kg of urea, T5, top dressing 50 kg urea and over-sowing phalaris. All experimental plots were fenced throughout the study period. There was statistically significant difference at (p≤0.05) among treatments in total dry matter yield; having a DMY of 2.54 tone/ha DM in T1 followed by 2.32 tone/ha in T2. There was no statistically significant difference at (p≤0.05) in legume dry matter yield among treatments. Species composition was categorized in dry matter base as grass, legumes and herbs; of these grasses dominated in all experimental plots followed by legumes. Statically significant difference at (p≤0.05) was recorded in year two than year one in all parameters recorded having 1.96 tone/ha and 2.06 tone/ha DM respectively in year one and two. From the identified grass species Setariaverticellata frequently occurred in urea applied plots whereas Trifoliumruppellianum was dominant species in non-urea applied plotsespecially in clover over-sown plots. During field observation, the participants of the grazing land day rated the Urea applied treatment as best because of the high yield of pasture. Finally it could be recommended to top dress urea for increased biomass yield. It would be better to conduct a long-term study to examine the effects of the different treatments on productivity of grazing lands, herbaceous species composition, grazing capacities, livestock and the environment.

The purpose of this study is to investigate how alternative supply chain management practices adopted by leading firms engaged in agro-processing in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh impact on the performance of the supply chain. We investigate on-going changes in the supply chain using information from leading agro-processing firms and related firms who are also engaged in the agro-processing activities. The information sheds light on how the new supply chain management policies and procedures have affected the cost structures, long-term profitability and organizational viability of the system. The emergence of agro-processing firms over the last decadeor so has profoundly influenced Madhya Pradesh agriculture marketing system, and the trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. The efforts of profit-motivated giants to sustain a very competitive market have altered traditional production and marketing channels. Evidence suggests that the firms are competing to adopt a range of supply chain management strategies to offer quality products, a wider choice, reduced wastage, greater value for money and shorter, but more effective supply chains. The impact of agriculture supply chain (here we give special emphasis on agro-processing chain) on global and local supply chains, and its implications for actors in the supply chains have received much attention in recent years. This research study will utilize standard performance measures to compare performance of competing supply chains including Satisfaction of stakeholders, Price performance (profitability), Labour employment, Efficiency (price stability, timely delivery of orders, quality management). Information will be collected though a series of interviews with the appropriate personnel concerned in the agro-processing firms and their supply chain partners.

Climate Smart Crop: Evaluation of Selected Mutant Cowpea Genotypes for Yield, Earliness and Ground Cover in Eastern Zambia

Mwila M Natasha, Munkonze Ben, Aaron Siyunda and Kalaluka Munyinda

Published: August 31, 2022

The use of climate smart crops in Zambia is an urgent concern by the government and the private sector, as the weather trends show an increasing low rainfall quantity and length of season, with increased temperatures across the seasons. The use of mutation breeding to create variation among cowpea genotypes for climate smart traits (improved yields, resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses) has resulted in promising lines with potential for use in climate change adaptation, especially among farmers. However, there is limited available information on the performance of the mutants. Evaluation of the mutation derived materials is essential in generating information that will be useful in development of appropriate adaptable varieties with good crop performance. Six genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) for traits; grain yield, days to maturity, biomass, ground cover and resistance to aphids in two seasons. The traits were measured as they are known to contribute highly to grain yield and are correlated to climate change adaptation. The weather data in two seasons were collected from meteorological department of Zambia. LT 4-2-4-1 and LT11-3-3-12 mutants showed increased grain yield, earliness and ground cover, compared to their parental variety, Lutembwe, and a recently released variety Lukusuzi, both used as controls. LT 4-2-4-1 recorded the highest yield of 1506 kg/ha while the parent had 1100kg/ha. The number of days to maturity was least (80) in LT 4-2-4-1 and ground cover was at 4.33 compared to 2.33 for Lutembweparental variety. Varying weather conditions, require the use of more early maturing varieties, therefore, genotypes such as LT 4-2-4-1 should be considered by Seed Control and Certification Institute (SCCI) for pre-release. Additionally, LT 4-2-4-1 and LT11-3-3-12 could be useful as breeding lines for ground cover and earliness in other breeding programs.

Identifying a Most Suitable Fertilizer Combination Forsucker Formation of Anthurium Andraeanum ‘Lady-Jane-Lalani’

WMDN Warigajeshta, YMU Anjali and SA Krishnarajah

Published: August 31, 2022

The effect of fertilizers on shoot initiation of ‘Lady Jane’ type Anthuriumandraeanum cv. ‘Lalani’ was studied under net house conditions to produce quality plants for ornamental purposes. The experiment was conducted at the Department of National Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya, using tissue cultured A. andraeanumc v. ‘Lalani’ plants grown on a medium of coconut husk pieces only. Four different fertilizer combinations (T1)5g of granule (N: P: K 11:11:18) +Water soluble (N:P:K 6:30:30) + Organic liquid fertilizer, (T2) 5g of granule (N: P: K 11:11:18) + Water soluble (N:P:K 10:20:40)+ trace elements with chelated technology (liquid), (T3) 5g of granule (N:P:K 13:06:27) + Water soluble (N:P:K 10:20:40)+ trace elements with chelated technology (liquid) and (T4) 5g of granule (N:P:K 13:06:27) + Water soluble (N:P:K 20:20:20) +extracts of the sea plant were tested. The fertilizer combination T2showed best performance for parameters number of new shoots, height of plant and number of leaves. Thus 5g of slow release granule (N:P:K11:11:18) combined with Water soluble (N:P:K 10:20:40) + trace elements with chelated technology was considered the most suitable fertilizer combination for the initiation of shoots of Anthuriumandraeanum cv. ‘Lalani’ under local climatic condition in a net house with 70% shade.