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Aim & Scope

Medicon Agriculture & Environmental Sciences

Medicon Agriculture & Environmental Sciences (MCAES) is open access, international, scientific peer-reviewed journal with 0.823 impact factor. Which publishes articles on Crop physiology, Environmental Ecology, Agriculture and Environment, Water Resources, Organic Agriculture, Forestry, Irrigation, Agricultural Marketing, Soil & Seed Science, etc,.

Major subject areas of Agriculture & Environmental, but not restricted to following fields:

Apiculture, Biochemical Engineering, Applied Microbiology, Applied Chemistry, Biotechnology, Weed Biology, Veterinary, Virology, Viticulture, Crop Production, Vegetable Production and Management, Theoretical production ecology, Soil Science, Seed Science Research, Plant Breeding, Poultry Science, Post-Harvest Biology, Pesticide Science, Organic Farming, Organic Agriculture, Irrigation, Soil-Plant relationships, Microbial biotechnology, Freshwater Science, Impacts of Environmental Factors, Food Safety, Food History, Food Health & Nutrition, Forestry, Food Science and Technology, Agricultural Resources, Environmental technology and Food security, Fermentation Technology, Energy Agriculture, Agricultural Ecology, Dairy Science, Crop Scouting, Crop botany, Crop Physiology, Crop Science, Agricultural Production, Agricultural Industry Issues, Agricultural Genetic and Microbiology, Water use Efficiency, Agricultural Botany, Plant Protection, Agricultural economics, Agronomy and Pathology, Agricultural development, Aquaculture, Agricultural Genomics, Agronomy, Ecological Agriculture, Plant cytology, Plant diversity,  Agricultural Entomology, Water relations, Environmental toxicology, Application of ecological, Environmental chemistry, Environmental health, Agricultural Biodiversity, Environmental studies, Earth Summit, Environmental systems, Drug overdose, Forest Microbiology, Soil, Water, Wildlife Biology, Solid Waste Management, Plant Breeding Genetics and Pathology, Soil Conservation, Agricultural Biotechnology, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Diversification, Agrology, Animal nutrition, Applied horticulture, Farming, Medicinal Plants, Organic gardening, Plant fertilization, Storage, Rainwater harvesting, Soil biology, Agro ecosystem, Biological engineering, Agricultural Electrification, Agrochemistry, Environmental Hydrology, Plant Nutrition.

We welcome you to submit your valuable submissions towards the journal at “agriculture@themedicon.com

Highlights

  • Medicon Agriculture & Environmental Sciences is an international, profound Journal which publishes Articles on various disciplines of Agriculture & Environmental.
  • Publication certificate will be provided to author.
  • Rapid publication process.
  • Reasonable publication Fee. 
  • Immediate Acknowledgement to author after article accepted for peer review.
  • High visibility of published work.
  • Best Knowledge sharing platform.
  • Thorough Double Blinded peer review.

Latest Article

Soil the Basic Input for Agriculture, Not just Dirt

Shah Reyaz Ahmad

Published: September 01, 2021.

     For any agriculture related activity to be successful and economically viable, the first and foremost basic input to be attended on priority and with utmost seriousness, is the soil. It supports the survival of all living organisms from humans, animals, birds to microorganisms/microbes on the one hand, and shrubs to giant plantation on the other.

     Before the selection of kind of fruit trees, crop, variety etc. It is of paramount importance to check the fertility status, viz. availability of nutrients for optimum crop growth, conditions of physico-chemical parameters – soil reaction, structure, texture, bulk density etc.

Abstract
      This study explored the relationship of external market orientation, internal market orientation, service climate and employees’ market-orientated behavior in the Food & Beverage industries in Taiwan, China, and the United States. This is one of few studies that bring together the related market orientation constructs with international context. The result shows that employees’ market-oriented behaviors will be influenced positively by market-oriented culture, employee perceived service climate, as well as internal market orientation. This study identified the role of internal market orientation and service climate in forming employees’ market-oriented behavior. Drawing on data from a sample of 625 frontline employees working in catering services in Taiwan, China, and the US. The study also examined the moderating effects of power distance on cultural roots. Hofstede’s cultural element of power distance was tested and proven to moderate the above-mentioned relationships. Regional differences among the results were also discussed. This study uses second-order confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to test the relationships. The current study also tested measurement invariance to ensure the constructs that were measured were conceptually equivalent among the three cultural groups.

Keywords: Internal market orientation; Service climate; Power distance; Market orientation; Mediated moderation

An Analytical Study of Mobile Agro Advisories among the Farmers

Prabha D, Arunachalam R

Published: September 01, 2021.

Abstract
     The study was conducted in Annur and Kinathukadavu blocks of Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu. A total of 200 respondents were selected, it has been decided to select two per cent of the population as sample size. Variables such as social participation, contact with extension agency, mass media exposure, innovativeness, decision making ability, risk orientation, scientific orientation and profit motivation were found to be in medium level. Three-fourth of the respondents (76.50%) had not undergone any computer training. Little more than two-third of the respondents (67.50%) were using ordinary mobiles, more than fifty per cent of the respondents (57.50%) were using 2G network facilitating mobiles and two-third of the respondents (66.50%) had no internet access in their mobiles.

Keywords: Mobile Phone; Network; Advisory; Innovative; Communication; Agriculture

Optimization of Pb (II) biosorption by Harvested Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) using response Surface Analysis

Amin Keyvan Zeraatkar, Hossein Ahmadzadeh, Vahid Razaviarani, Ahmad Farhad Talebi

Published: September 01, 2021.

Abstract
     Biosorption has been defined as affinity characteristics of certain biomolecules present in dead/live biomass to passively bind selected ions from aqueous solutions. In this study, the bioremoval of Pb (II) was studied using dead biomass of green microalgae species, Chlorella vulgaris. Important individual and combined factors affecting the sorption process, such as initial concentration of Pb (II) (100-500 mgL-1), pH (2.5-6.5), biomass concentration (0.1-0.5 gL-1) of C. vulgaris and contact time (20-120 min) were investigated to achieve the maximum removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions. The parameters were optimized by the experimental design concept using central composite design (CCD). The statistical parameters of the derived model were R2 = 87.91% and F value = 8.31. The response surface diagrams were plotted based on the defined model to show the effects of the variables on the Pb(II) bioremoval efficiency. A quadratic model was proposed by CCD which agreed well with the experimental data (R2 = 87.91%). Also, the model was able to predict optimal conditions of pH= 2.5, C0 = 100.0 mgL-1, Cbiomass = 0.4 gL-1 and t = 120.0 min for the target bioremoval of Pb (II) (100%).

Keywords: Biosorption; Microalgae; Lead; Optimization, Response Surface Analysis

Renewable Energy Resource from Textile Industry Waste

Vijay Samuel G

Published: September 01, 2021.

     Energy access and availability are fundamental for individual consumers’ quality of life, economic growth, and employment opportunities.Increased energy supply and consumption lead to improved economic development and higher living standard. The human development index of a country is directly proportional to its energy prosperity.

Genetic Improvement of Crops under the Climate Resilience

S Mohan Jain

Published: September 01, 2021.

    The basic requirement of plant breeding is the exploitation of natural and induced genetic diversity in developing plant varieties for sustainable food production. Plant breeders are handicapped due to lack of availability or non-existence of desired genotypes. However, they have successfully recombined the desired genes from the existed available gene pool, and successfully develop new cultivars; faced with new challenges such as climate change, human population growth, etc.,

The Ganga: A Salvation River

Padam Jee Omar

Published: September 01, 2021.

     The River Ganga holds a unique place in the cultural ethos of India. According to Indian mythological history, the Ganga River descended from heaven on earth because of the long and difficult prayers of King Bhagirathi for the salvation of his dead ancestors. The thought of faith, devotion and worship comes as soon as the name of River Ganga comes to mind. The water of the Ganga River is considered holy water by millions of Hindus. However, scientifically speaking, the river Ganges is the life support system for the people living in its catchment area of about 11 Lakh km2.

Mitigation of Climate Change Impact

Kwong Fai Andrew Lo

Published: October 01, 2021.

In recent decades, climate change has attracted a lot of attention. Climate change caused by doubling of atmospheric CO2 and other trace gases will likely affect available water supplies for municipalities, industry and agriculture. Also, it may influence water demand. Higher temperatures increase plant water requirements, particularly through evapotranspiration, reducing the excess remaining for groundwater recharge and streamflow. Plant response to climate change will also modify the demand side of the water balance, particularly the need for irrigation.

Save of Environment and living organisms with weak energy of the water

Sunao Sugihara, Hiroshi Maiwa, Kunihiko Hatanaka

Published: October 01, 2021.

Abstract
It is well known that water can’t be lack of plants as well as human body and water is 70% occupies the oceans on the earth. There is little basic research for water although many a study has been reported for a macroscopic viewpoint of water, H2O molecule itself, such as a solvent. Furthermore, water must be essential to agriculture including soil and bacteria in it. The research of agriculture has not focused on the water, although they pay much attention to soil, a fertilizer and efficient harvest. Here we report the water a more than unusual which is completely different from our daily life water. Here, we present the small size water like an elementary particle that can be fabricated with higher pressure of more than 100MPa. We indirectly confirmed the smallness of it with H-NMR and FTIR methods. As the result, the water can be easily absorbed into a living organism including a human body due to its size leading to the growth and respiration of a plant. Furthermore, we report that the water can function to change the nucleus resulting in the radioactive reduction.

Keywords: Small size of water; 100MPa; Better absorption; Water information; Radiation reduction

Abstract
Indigenous knowledge is considered as one of the most effective strategies in response to climate change issues for planning and policy at both local and national levels in Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Community based adaptation is able to reduce the vulnerability as well as improve the resilience of the local people to climatic variability and change. This research was carried out to explore the role and contribution of opportunities and challenges farmer’s experiences using indigenous knowledge to adapt to
floods in sustainable development in Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

Keywords: Climate change; Indigenous knowledge; Flood; Adaptation

Abstract
In the recent times, the area of agriculture one of most essential research and also there has been an increasing demand in future based on weather conditions and agriculture labour demands. In this paper discuss what are the reasons for increasing the growth using weather conditions and labour demands. Numerical illustrations also provide to prove the various government reports.

Agriculture and Environment

JS Rawat

Published: October 01, 2021.

Agriculture is one of the oldest anthropogenic activities of mankind on the Mother Earth, therefore it has close relationship with natural as well as human environment. It has many significant positive and negative impacts on environment. The agriculture sector is a very important for the survival of the human environment because it fulfills the essential needs of food of world’s population which is expected to grow to almost 10 billion by 2050. Besides providing food for the survival of human environment, it has many other positive impacts on the environment, for examples, it traps greenhouse gasses within soils and crops, reduces overland flow, mitigates flooding risk through practicing certain farming techniques, and rejuvenate the dead/dying and dwindling natural springs, streams and rivers by groundwater augmentation.

Past Is the Key to the Present

Rahul Verma

Published: October 01, 2021.

The title of my write up may surprise you a bit. But the fact is that the present day geo-environmental scenario is totally a repercussion of the events that took place in the past. I will site two examples only, considering the limit of the write up.

The first example is the flooding in the river Brahmaputra during monsoon and post monsoon times. The mighty Brahmaputra creates havoc in Arunachal and Assam. The present-day floods are due to the plate collision phenomena that took place since Miocene times. The Indian plate is still subducting under the Eurasian plate and we all know that Himalaya is still rising. This event gave rise to the Geosynclinal set up in the region. The prominent lithology on either side of Brahmaputra is consisting of sedimentary rocks of Tertiary Era. The mighty Brahmaputra passes through these sedimentary terrains. These sedimentary rocks viz. Sandstone, Shale and Siltstones are very prone to erosion. A huge amount of eroded sediments is carried through the tributaries of Brahmaputra and ultimately, they are deposited in the riverbeds. The situation is analogues to the story of the thirsty crow’’ who was putting pebbles in the pot to raise the level of water. The same situation is practically found in the Brahmaputra riverbed, that gets over flooded due to the excess sediment load in the basin. Needless to say, that if we have to control the floods in Assam valley, we must take measures to check erosion in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra and its tributaries by vigorous plantation, check dams etc.

Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC), will be advantageous in the field of Agriculture

Vivek Chamoli, Rishi Prakash, Anurag Vidyarthi

Published: October 01, 2021.

Many natural calamities have affected our country in recent years, such as the draught in Maharashtra and Gujarat, flood in Kerala, cyclone (fani) in Orissa, flash flood in Uttarakhand and several other part of the country. Continues monitoring of soil moisture can predict this situation well in advance to take corrective measure. Reliable, durable, and automated systems for measuring soil moisture content have long been recognized as being highly helpful, if not necessary, in hydrologic, environmental, and agricultural applications. The amount of moisture in the soil determines how well the region’s soil supports plants and crops. Plants may rapidly absorb soil water if the moisture content of the soil is optimal for plant growth. Plants do not have access to all of the water trapped in the soil. Even after rain, there’s still a thin layer of water on the earth. When salts are dissolved in soil water, they form the soil solution, which is vital as a medium for adding organic matter to crop growth. Fig 1. shows the importance of soil moisture in agriculture.

Ganesh Immersion Impact on Environment

Vijaya Lakshmi

Published: October 01, 2021.

Ganesh idol immersions are done all over the country now. Last year due to pandemic, government did not allow any public idols. But in 2021, permissions are granted and public gathering is immense in all the pandals. Here we are concerned about two issues; one is using artificial colours to the POP idols and crowd pulling without following Covid rules. People stopped following precautions to contain the spread of virus. Public is found not wearing masks, not maintaining social distance and of course no provision of sanitization in many Ganesh Pandals. Even if sanitizer is provided, people have become careless by not using it. We all have to be cautious during the festival which is not taken seriously now. However one good sign is increase in awareness about mud idols. Compared to previous years, this year making and selling of mud idols is increased by 15%. Earlier only small idols used to be made in mud but now from one foot to 10 feet, idols are made in mud and some are coloured with natural colours to protect the environment from water pollution.

Global Warming, Climate Change and Aquatic Biodiversity

Naim Saglam

Published: November 01, 2021.

Global warming and climate change show their effect on the environment and the living things living in that environment, as it is known. In particular, extreme changes in the climate causes many negative effects on the environment and deterioration of the ecological balance. Global warming, in addition to climate change and temperature increases, causes regional storms, hurricanes, changes in precipitation regimes, floods, and forest fires, and affects all living things, including humans. At least, it causes these disasters, which were less common in the past, to occur more and to become widespread throughout the world by increasing their size.

Effect on Agriculture Science of Chemical Reduction and Element Changes with Infrared and Terahertz Wave

Sunao Sugihara, Hiroshi Maiwa and Kunihiko Hatanaka

Published: November 01, 2021.

Abstract
There is little basic research for water although many a study has been reported for a macroscopic viewpoint of water, H2O molecule itself, the chemical reaction such as a solvent. Furthermore, water must be essential to agriculture including soil and bacteria in it. The research of agriculture has not focused on the water, although they pay much attention to soil, a fertilizer and efficient harvest. Here we report the water a more than unusual which we drink and use for life. Here, we present the pico-size water like an elementary particle that can be fabricated with higher pressure of more than 100MPa. The water functions taste of foods including sweetness, anti-oxidation and chemical reduction as well as growth. We indirectly confirmed the smallness of it with H-NMR and FTIR methods. As the result, the water can be easily absorbed into a living organism including a human body due to its size leading to the growth and respiration of a plant. Furthermore, we report that the water can function to change the nucleus resulting in the radioactive reduction.

Keywords: Pico-water; Chemical reduction; Sugar content; Radiation reduction; Anti-oxidation

Evaluation of Blood-Vegetable Waste Meal Fed with or Without Grit to Broilers

Habiba Z, Adedeji MO, Duweni T and Adeniji AA

Published: November 01, 2021.

Abstract
A total of one hundred and eighty (180) day old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect of blood vegetable waste meal with or without grit supplementation on the performance of broilers. The diets formulated had three inclusion levels of BVWM at 0, 7.5, and 15%, fed with two supplementation levels (with or without grit). The experimental animals were randomly distributed into six (6) dietary treatments. There were three replicates per treatment and ten (10) birds per replicate. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum while standard poultry managements were strictly followed during the study. Data on different performance such as average daily fee intake, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio. It was a 3X2 factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The experiment lasted for a period of 8 weeks. The result showed that the experimental diet had significant effect on the final weight gain, daily feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, cost of feed per kg and profitability. The interaction between the varying level of supplementation and no supplementation had significant effect (P<0.05) on feed to gain ratio, but showed no significant difference in final weight, daily feed intake. This study shows that broilers fed 15% inclusion level of blood vegetable waste meal supplemented with grit at 5% had better performance when compared to 0% and 5% inclusion.

Abstract
A total of two hundred and seventy (270) day old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect of feeding graded level of whole sugarcane waste with or without fishmeal and grasshopper meal supplementation in the diet of broiler. The diet formulated had three (3) inclusion levels of Whole sugarcane waste (WSW) at 0, 5, 10 %, with animal protein supplementation (fishmeal and grasshopper meal) at 2.5%. The experimental animals were randomly distributed into nine dietary treatments. There were three replicates per treatment with ten birds per replicates. Feed and water were supplied ad-libitum while standard poultry management where strictly followed during the study. Data on different performance parameters such as average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and cost of feed where collected. It was a 3×3 factorial experiment in a complete randomized design (CRD). The experiment lasted for a period of (8) weeks. The result showed that the experimental diet had significant effects (P<0.05) on final weight, daily feed intake, weight gain and feed to gain ratio. Supplement interaction showed significant difference on final weight, daily feed intake, and feed to gain ratio. This study showed that broilers fed 5% Whole sugar cane waste supplemented with grasshopper meal had better performance as it gave better growth performance When compared to 10% inclusion level.

Harnessing the Practice of Integrated Nutrient Management

Bon Mthawira

Published: November 01, 2021.

The present crop production is heavily reliant on the sole use of chemical fertilizers in most sub-Saharan African countries e.g. in Malawi. In the very first years of practicing chemical fertilization, farm returns continued to rise as due to the responsiveness of the soils to chemical soil amendments. However, continued sole application of chemical fertilizers has led to negative impacts on soil health, crop productivity as well as on the environment. Synonymously, organic fertilization alone has proved to be futile on yield due to unbalanced nutrient content.

The exposure of urban ecosystem to anthropogenic disturbances mainly described by fragmentation, transformation, and homogenization resulted in the modern habitats development. So, frequently termed as “novel ecosystem” with absolutely new arrangement of biotic and vegetation interactions. In spite of this, the other species cluster which profiles the structure and function of existing novel environment are invasive alien plants. Therefore, it is the most important feature to identify the type of contiguous vegetation amid biotic motorists in order to shape the invasiveness of alien plant species. The other types of ecosystems which are intensively used and considered to be highly exposed to invasions diminished agricultural system.

Environmental Impact of Agriculture

Harpreet Kaur Channi

Published: November 01, 2021.

In many nations, agriculture is the major cause of pollution. Pesticides, fertilisers, and other hazardous agriculture chemicals have the potential to pollute fresh water, marine habitats, air, and soil. They can also last for generations in the environment. Many pesticides are suspected of altering people’s and wildlife’s hormonal systems. Fertilizer runoff has an adverse effect on rivers and coral reefs.

Methane Emission and Acetate-dependent Methanogenesis in Rice-based Cropping Systems with Urea Addition

Guangbin Zhang, Xiaoli Zhu, Wanyu Shen, Yang Ji, Hua Xu and Jing Ma

Published: November 11, 2021.

Abstract
Urea application is a fundamental practice to increase rice grain yields, but it also plays a significant role in CH4 emission from rice paddy fields. To quantify the effect on CH4 emission, we measured soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, CH4 production potentials of paddy soil and rice roots, CH4 concentration in soil pore water, and their corresponding stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) under four urea application rates (0, 120, 240 and 300 kg N ha-1) in 2010–2015 based on incubation, pot and field experiments. In addition, the abundance of methanogenic archaea in paddy soils was quantified by quantitative PCR targeting mcrA genes. Field and pot experiments show that urea addition decreased seasonal CH4 emissions by 20–35% and enhanced δ13C-values of emitted CH4 by 3‰ on average. The decreased CH4 production potentials in paddy soil and on rice roots (by 16–30%) were found to be the major reason for the reduction of CH4 emission with urea addition. In contrast, applying urea increased the content of soil DOC and the abundance of methanogenic mcrA genes. The contribution of acetoclastic methanogenesis was also increased by urea addition both in the soil (by 10–12%) and on the roots (by 5%), which might have positive effects on the δ13C-values of emitted CH4 and porewater CH4. The findings demonstrate that the decrease of CH4 emission was attributed to CH4 production reduced with urea addition, and the promotion of acetate-dependent methanogenesis was possibly ascribed to related methanogenic substrates and archaea increased.

Keywords: N addition; CH4 production; Stable carbon isotopes; Methanogenic archaea; Methanogenic pathway; Rice-based cropping system

Abstract
Many theoretical water reports have been often published; moreover, development and or applications spread in various fields. Even the limited area, academic discussions increased since the late 1970s, although they were not necessarily relating to water itself. Ab initio calculation and the density-functional theory have been reported on the hydrogen bond of water molecules and interaction between monomers since the 21st century. Every research issue is associates with the water molecule itself. Here we present the theoretical idea to protect COVID-19 and the mechanism based on the water with a pico-sized particle, which is essential to our body. It has been performed with the dissociation of hydrogen bond due to pressurization (at 147 MPa) applied to normal water so that the body can quickly absorb the water. Besides the smallness, the characteristics of the water can transfer the information of the particle even in the area. The information is supposed to be “momentum” (mass and velocity) same as the solar beam emitting seven visible lights, and the data of the particle might be printed in the other matter which nature can transmute. However, we cannot visualize the information of the particle such as solar beam at present.

Abstract
Rice cultivation is one of the important economic activities of farmers, and it has been the backbone of livelihood opportunities for several farmers in certain areas. However, due to the limited availability of freshwater and the progressive decline in the share of water for agriculture (because of water pollution, reducing water table, inefficient irrigation systems, and increasing demands of water for domestic, industrial and other usages) cultivation of rice by transplanting cannot be sustained. The water-guzzling nature of transplanted rice (TPR) is facing the challenges of water scarcity, posing threats to continued rice cultivation. Moreover, repeated puddling for TPR adversely affects soil physical properties, deteriorates the performance of succeeding crops, and contributes to methane gas emissions. A grim water scenario in agriculture together with the highly inefficient rice production technologies, currently adopted by a majority of farmers globally, warrants the exploration of alternative rice production practices. Therefore, the need of the day is to use less water for irrigation while maintaining the crop yield (as well as the quality of the produce) for better water-productivity towards the concept of ‘Per Drop More Crop’. Direct-sown rice (DSR) is an emerging resource-conserving, climate-smart alternative to TPR. DSR is gaining popularity because of its low input cost and resource-conserving nature. It offers the advantages like saving irrigation water, lower labor requirements, less drudgery, early crop maturity, higher economic returns, and reduced methane emission. The need of conserving natural resources, particularly water, for better ecological balance has become one of the priorities for saving life on the earth. Producing food/feed/fodder in an environment-friendly manner by adopting agricultural practices that do not over-exploit the natural resources and harm agroecological conditions is necessary for maximum ecological efficiency.

Water use Efficiency with Interaction of Plants Nutrients Usage

M D Lengwati

Published: November 30, 2021

Abstract
Plant Nutrient Role and Requirement: Plants like other organisms require “FOOD” for their living and growth development. From chemical elements drawn from soil, water, and air, plants build a vast array of plant products.
Plan for Agricultural Water Management: Alleviation and reduction of poverty amongst people in mainly rural areas, and rehabilitation, protection and reclamation of water works and water resources.
Materials and Methods: Cow peas (Vigna Unguiculata), (Vigna subterranean – bambara groundnut, Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), Black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) and Mungbeans (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilzcek). Field trial lay out plan (Randomized Complete Block Design), plant sampling and processing (10 plants per plot size), measurement of 13C/12C isotopic ratio (Lab instrument; Spectrometry) and statistical analysis Statistica 10.1 (StatSoftInc., Tulsa, OK, USA).
Results: Although there are several reports on symbiotic (N) performance of cowpea, Bambara groundnut, groundnut and mungbean, studies on their C accumulation, shoot C/N ratio, and shoot-water-use efficiency are few. Therefore, evaluation of these parameters in the test grain legumes widely cultivated in South African smallholder sector it was an objectives of the current study where groundnut exhibited high WUE compared to the other grain legumes planted for testing.
Discussion: The aim of this study was therefore to determine the C accumulation and WUE of five grain legumes using C isotopic discrimination (13C/12C) values during the 2011/2012 cropping season. South Africa is a semi-arid country with an annual average rainfall < 500 mm in two-thirds of its land mass.
Conclusion: Shoot-biomass (g.plant-1) was high to Bambara-groundnut, C concentration (%) was also high to both Bambara- groundnut and groundnut, C content (g.plant-1) was higher to Bambara-groundnut, Σ13C (‰) was high to groundnut and Bambara-groundnut while the C:N ratio of mung-bean was highest in the study. Therefore WUE reveal that groundnut and Bambara-groundnut are the best users of water whereas other legumes utilize water inefficient compared to the two legumes.

Study on Association between E. canis Infection and its Potential Cardiac Effect.

Bipin Kumar, DB Mondal, Rajiv Kumar, Pinky Rani and Menka Kumari

Published: November 30, 2021

Abstract
This study was conducted on E. canis positive dogs to know the alteration in cardiac rhythm or other functional disorder arises due to infection. It was observed that the dogs after recovery from E.canis  infection they were showing an extra, low-amplitude, positive deflection preceding the P-wave that occurred frequently and consistently over several consecutive cardiac cycles, although it’s morphology and time interval relative to the following P wave was not constant. Post recovery exercise intolerance might be due to E.canis. Further study needs to be carried out to know the exact reason.

The global chicken industry is a thriving enterprise containing many sectors, including meat and egg production, from which approximately 3.5 billion chickens are produced annually. Eimeria spp is one of major hurdle in raising chickens profitably. Highly host-specific Eimeria are ever present in galliform birds and causes immense economic losses approximately US$ 2 to 3 billion annually. Coccidiosis has remained the focus of anxiety in the commercial poultry producers not only owing to the mortality losses in acute infections or lowered production, but also as a consequences of cost input required for effective chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis. 

Detection of Wine Alterations by Sensory Analysis: Overview of Results obtained from Interlaboratory Tests

Caterina Mazzoni, Anne Tirard and Abdelkader Boubetra

Published: December 28, 2021

Abstract
Throughout history wine has been appreciated thanks to its distinctive sensory characteristics. Wine quality control is crucial for wine producers, which need to identify any alterations throughout all the winemaking process. Among the techniques used to determine the quality of wines, the most important is sensory evaluation by trained experts, as it is directly related to the organoleptic characteristics of wines. However, wine is a complex matrix and several factors can affect assessors’ perception. The same defect can be perceived at different intensities according to experience, training and cultural origins of the panel. This could be problematic for winemakers who need to have an objective analysis. Participation in interlaboratory studies is an interesting tool for a sensory analysis laboratory that needs to demonstrate that its results are the same as those obtained by other laboratories or bodies. Moreover, participation in interlaboratory tests can provide precious information about the performance of assessors. The purpose of this paper is to critically summarize results obtained from interlaboratory tests for the identification of a main defect in wines which have been artificially contaminated.

Keywords: sensory analysis; wine defects; wine quality control; interlaboratory test; tasting panel; olfactory alterations; taste and tactile alterations

The Numerical Simulation of Pollutant Transport in Shallow Water Flows

Kissami Imad and Ziggaf Moussa

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
A real test using the finite volume method is presented for the numerical simulation of the pollutant transport by water flows. Shallow water equations, bottom friction forces, wind shear stresses, and Coriolis effect are used to model the water flow while a transport-diffusion equation is used to model the advection and dispersion of the pollutant concentration. The finite volume method used has been the subject of several works (see e.g. [3, 4, 17]) it is a simple discretization of centered type for the source terms, can handle complex topography by using non-uniform triangular grids while keeping the conservation property. The C-property based on checking the balance between the convection term and the background profile is satisfied. The monitoring of the pollutant concentration in the computational domain during its dispersion process is taken into account. The focus of this study is on an application of pollution dispersion in the Nador lagoon in Morocco. The results are presented using different tidal conditions and wind-induced flow fields in the lagoon.
Keywords: Well balanced scheme; Complex topography; Shallow water flows; Finite volume method; Pollutant transport

Influence of Slope and Management Practices on Top-Soils Fertility Status of Compound Farms in Nsukka Campus

Benedict Odinaka Okorie, Niraj Yadav, Charles LA Asadu, Muhammad Tariq, Imran Ahmed and Umeugokwe C Pascal

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
The study was carried out to assess the influence of slope and management practices on top-soils fertility status of compound farms in the University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) campus, Enugu state Nigeria. Top soil samples (0-20 cm depth) were collected from twenty compound farms, ten each from the upper slopes compound farms (USCFs) in Ikejiani and Ezenwaeze streets and lower slopes compound farms (LSCFs) at Mbanefo Street. The elevation of the USCFs ranged from 458 to 447 m while LSCFs ranged from 415 to 423 m above the mean sea level (amsl). The soil samples were analyzed in the UNN Department of Soil Science Laboratory. The results showed that slopes and management practices influenced top-soils fertility status of compound farms. Slopes affected soil fertility parameters such as organic matter content, total nitrogen, exchangeable calcium, cation exchange capacity, and effective cation exchange capacity. The upper slope compound farms were more fertile relative to the lower slopes compound farms. The combined application of organic and inorganic manures had a greater effect on soil fertility status compared to a single application of organic or inorganic fertilizer. The combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers should be adopted to enhance soil fertility status of compound farms in both slopes. 
Keywords: Compound farms; Management Practices; Slopes; Soil Fertility

Abstract
Drought has been recognized as a primary constraint in limiting the growth and development of plants. It impairs normal growth, disturbs water relations, and reduces water use efficiency in plants. Drought stress at any growth stage also, poses detrimental effects on morphological and physiological criteria in plants. To maintain growth and productivity, plants must adapt to stress conditions and exercise specific tolerance mechanisms of stress agents. Plant modification for enhanced tolerance is mostly based on gene transformation, however, the nature of the genetically complex mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance, and the potential detrimental side effects, make this task extremely difficult. A promising alternative for improving plant drought tolerance is using the beneficial soil microorganisms including Plant-growth-promoting fungi (PGPF). This research was undertaken to investigate the effect of two PGPFs on some morphological and physiological indices and nutritional status of sesame plant under drought conditions. For this purpose, a field experiment using a completely randomized blocks with three replications and treatments including fungal inoculation (non-inoculation, Piriformospora indica and Rhizophagus irregularis) and drought levels include 55, 75 and 85% of SAW (Soil Available water) depletion on the basis of combined analysis in Lavark Field (Isfahan Province) was conducted. The results showed that the comparison of studied fungi indicates that only R. irregularis increased the concentration of phosphorus in the shoot part of plants, significantly. Each of the studied fungi showed their positive effect on different characteristics and also different drought stresses. So that, R. irregularis increased phosphorus content at 75% of SAW depletion, relative water content of leaf and nitrogen content at 85% of SAW depletion and catalase activity, membrane stability, iron concentration, shoot biomass and number of leaves at 75% and 85% of SAW depletion. However, P. indica increased iron concentration and height of shoot at 75% of SAW depletion, shoot biomass and nitrogen content at 85% of SAW depletion and catalase activity, membrane stability, relative water content of leaf and number of leaves at 75% and 85% of SAW depletion. The studied fungi increased the activity of catalase enzyme in all drought treatments. In general, the obtained results of this research indicate that drought is a limiting factor for plants, and PGPFs can improve plant tolerance to this environmental stress by improving plant nutritional status, water content and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes.
Keywords: Drought; Plant Growth promoting fungi (PGPFs) and Sesame

Climate Change and Food Security

Muhammad Mujahid

Published: December 30, 2021

After 18th century human activities become harsher for the climate as human is adding greenhouse gases in the climate like CO2 and methane through different activities like burning of fossil fuels. Due to this, CO2 and methane level in atmosphere is increasing day by day. That CO2 and methane act like blanket wrapped around earth’s atmosphere, and this blanket trap heat from sun and cause rising in temperatures.

Use of Drones in Agriculture

Deepali Kamthania

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
Drones are unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and are remote controlled or GPS driven that can be operated for various applications in agriculture e.g., aerial crop monitoring, uniform pesticide spraying, seed distribution and aerial watering. Day by day use of drones and IOT technologies in agriculture are gaining momentum. In USA almost 84% farmers are using drones on regular basis daily or weekly. With this, new tech aviation companies are shaping which are providing drones on rental basis or providing their services on contract basis. In this article authors have tried to explore and analyze drones as future technology to assist agricultural activities and working towards better and efficient use of scarce resources in agriculture.

Smart Sustainable System Development for Indoor Planting Prototype

Mohd Hudzari Razali, Abdul Quddus Puteh and Khairulnur Najiha Abd Karim

Published: December 30, 2021

Abstract
The past decade has seen significant advancement in the field of agriculture industry. Various smart appliances such as cellular phones, moisture sensors, humidity sensor and smart irrigation are set to realize the concept of a new smart farming with the help of latest technology. In Malaysia, farmers experience crop damage and decrease in plant quantity and quality because they unable to monitor the crop all day. The development of a monitoring system that can helps farmer grow crops is enticing demand for busy individuals with physical limitations. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) technology, which has emerged in the late 1970s, is an ideal solution for this problem. In this paper, a development of intelligent system for alert notification in indoor planting is presented. This paper describes an application of GSM technology for monitoring light system in indoor planting with the use of hardware component like Arduino board, GSM SIM900A, LDR and LED strip. The major role of this system is to enable farmers to get notified when the light system for their plants is down through GSM SIM900A. Each time the light system is light on and light off, the farmers will receive an SMS to notify them. System functional testing was carried to evaluate the performance of implementing GSM SIM900A whether the prototype is free from error or there are a few errors occurs. The results shown that, the system is well functioning for alert notification in indoor planting monitoring. In conclusion, the development of intelligent systems for alert notification in indoor planting was developed using Arduino and GSM SIM900A to able farmers notified about their indoor planting when to be monitored.
Keywords: GSM Technology; Monitoring; Indoor Planting; Intelligent System; Arduino