MALDI-TOF-MS: A Fast Diagnostic Tool for Plant Diseases
Dharmappa D Chavan* and Halima Khatoon
Advanced Centre of Plant Virology, Division of Plant Pathology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India
*Corresponding Author: Dharmappa D Chavan, Advanced Centre of Plant Virology, Division of Plant Pathology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.
Published: August 07, 2023
Microorganisms are best recognized by 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial identification and diagnosis may be possible with matrix-aided laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). MALDI-TOF MS identifies microorganisms utilizing intact cells or cell extracts. It's fast, sensitive, and cheap. Microbiologists have used MALDI-TOF MS for microbial identification and strain typing, epidemiological studies, biological warfare agent detection, water- and food-borne pathogen detection, antibiotic resistance detection, and blood and urinary tract pathogen detection (Neelja Singhal et al., 2015). Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by the phloem-limited plant pathogenic bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter species. HLB is difficult to identify early since freshly infected trees don't show symptoms. In order to establish a rapid detection method and assess the metabolite differences between healthy and HLB-affected Newhall navel oranges, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to study asymptomatic and symptomatic leaf extracts compared to healthy leaves. Using MALDI-TOF-MS and multivariable analysis, healthy, asymptomatic, and symptomatic leaves were distinguished. The training set's discrimination accuracy and cross-validation analysis success rate were 100% according to discriminant analysis (DA). 2020 (Yongquan Liu et al.). For agricultural and therapeutic applications, fungi are rich in biologically active natural compounds. Bioactive fungal natural compounds must be discovered and accurately identified for optimal use. fungal biocontrol In vitro, Purpureocillium lilacinum inhibited Botrytis cinerea, an airborne plant pathogenic fungus that causes gray mold disease in many vegetables and fruits. The co-culture of two fungi on agar plate demonstrated that P. lilacinum suppressed B. cinerea's growth, indicating that it may create bioactive secondary metabolites against B. cinerea. The discovery of a novel antifungal lipopeptaibol (leucinostatin Z) from P. lilacinum against B. cinerea was made using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-IMS). Leucinostatin Z's planar structure was confirmed by LC-HRESI-MS-MS analysis. MALDI-TOF-IMS is a revolutionary method for discovering new bioactive chemicals in fungi by directly observing bioactive natural products on growth media between two fungi colonies. 2020 (LiuR et al.).