Review Articlevolume 2 Issue 5


Introduction: Pregnancy is a time of many physical and physiological changes. Increased ligamentous laxity and hormonal changes leads to significant postural deviations and musculoskeletal changes. In addition, increased body weight of pregnancy, fluid retention lowers the arches of the foot, further adding to foot’s length and width.
Objective: The purpose of the study was to find and compare the dimensional changes of feet during pregnancy in nulliparous (Group-A) primiparous (Group-B) and multiparous (Group-C) women.
Methods: A cross- sectional study involved a sample of 90 participants (30 in each group), in the age group of 18 – 35 years with gestational age of 32- 36weeks were measured for Foot arch index (FAI) and Navicular drop Test (NDT). Baseline characteristics were recorded, and BMI was calculated.
Results: Results showed a statistically significant difference in dimensions of foot markedly in group-B (P-value 0.00001) and group-C (P-value 0.0008) as compared to group-A. However, no significant difference was found between the trimester and total foot length in all the groups. There was significant change in Width of the foot (P- value 0.0018) markedly in group-B (P-value 0.0127) and group-C (P- value 0.0005). The Foot arch Index was positively correlated with Navicular Drop test, but negatively
correlated with total length and width of foot.
Conclusion: The study concluded that there are dimensional changes of foot that occurs during pregnancy more in multipara than primipara irrespective of the trimester.

Keywords: Pregnancy; Flat foot; Foot dimensions; Foot arch index (FAI); Navicular drop Test (NDT)