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In the realm of cutting-edge technologies, quantum computing stands as one of the most revolutionary and promising fields. While classical computers have served us well for decades, they are reaching their limitations when faced with complex problems like optimization, cryptography, and simulating quantum systems. Quantum computing harnesses the principles of quantum mechanics to process information in ways that classical computers cannot, opening the door to new possibilities in various domains. Quantum computers can solve problems that are impossible or would take a traditional computer an impractical amount of time - a billion years to solve.
A healthy and balanced diet should be promoted early in childhood which is considered as a crucial period for the optimal growth and development. Experts across health care disciplines recognize the importance of breastfeeding during infancy. Human milk and breastfeeding of infants provide health, nutrition, physical, psychological, social, economic, and environmental advantages while significantly decreasing risk of acute and chronic diseases. However, children breastfed nocturnally or more than 12 months or more frequently had a susceptibility to increased caries risk.
Dental caries is a continuous process, involving various cycles of demineralization and remineralization. Initial caries can be prevented or arrested by simple and cost effective interventions like with proper plaque control and remineralization therapy. Hence the study is performed with mineralizing agent like NaF and PAMAM. Aim and objectives - To compare the difference in vicker’s hardness number (VHN) of artificial caries like lesion of enamel before and after remineralization with 10% NaF and PAMAM-NH2. Study Design: Experimental randomized analytical- in vitro study. Materials and method - Artificial caries-like lesions were prepared on orthodontically extracted premolars and micro hardness was measured. The samples were divided into two group and subjected to 7 days pH cycle with 10% NaF and PAMAM respectively. Micro hardness was recorded & Obtained micro hardness values were analyzed. Results - The mean difference in increase of micro hardness of the two groups was 8.267VHN which was statistically significant with p value 0.020 (p<0.001) which indicate that PAMAM pre-treatment has greater potential of than pre-treatment with 10% NaF. Conclusion - PAMAM-NH2 can be used as pre-treatment regimen before remineralization.
Forensic dentistry is a challenging and emerging branch of dentistry which deals with appropriate handling and examination of dental evidences including the presentation of dental findings in the interest of justice and forensic human identification. Confirmation of deceased identification is important for family, relatives and friends from emotional and grieving aspect but it is also needed for legal purposes including criminal investigations and insurance settlements etc. Because of continued increase in violence and crimes against human life, such as bomb explosions, wars or plane crashes, road traffic accidents, natural disasters as well as cases of carbonized bodies or in advanced stage of decomposition, all these highlight the need to employ ever faster, highly accurate and reliable methods during the process of identification of victims. Also, such circumstances need a method of identification which can be applicable even if the body of victim is destroyed or disfigured.
In the ever-evolving landscape of sustainable agriculture, the fusion of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and plant protection emerges as a beacon of transformative innovation. This alliance not only augments crop management but also reinforces ecological equilibrium while optimizing resource utilization. By marrying advanced technology with eco-conscious practices, we are embarking on a journey to redefine plant protection, ushering in a new era of precision and sustainability.
Condition known as allopecia areata is characterised by temporary, non-scarring hair loss and preservation of the hair follicle. The various types of hair loss, which can affect all hair-bearing areas, range from loss in clearly defined patches to diffuse or total hair loss. The most typical type of alopecia is patchy hair loss on the scalp . After male and female pattern alopecia, alopecia areata is the second most common non-scarring alopecia. Alopecia areata typically has extremely unique clinical hair loss patterns. The most typical pattern is a tiny annular or patchy bald lesion (patchy alopecia areata), typically on the scalp, which may progress to total hair loss only on the scalp (alopecia totalis) and total hair loss on the entire body (alopecia universalis) . Alopecia areata affects approximately 2% of the general population at some point during their lifetime . Depression, anxiety, and a number of autoimmune diseases like thyroid disease (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goitre ant thyroiditis), lupus erythematosus, vitiligo, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease are all associated with alopecia areata . Alterations in the nails may be present in severe alopecia areata. Alopecia areata patients also have higher than predicted rates of atopic disorders as sinusitis, asthma, rhinitis, and especially atopic dermatitis. It is common recognised that pregnancy causes changes in body organs other than those more closely related to gestation.
Microbiology has come a long way since its humble beginnings, when Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered the hidden world of microorganisms through his self-crafted microscopes. Today, thanks to the ingenuity and dedication of researchers over the centuries, microbiology is a thriving field with ground-breaking discoveries that have transformed our understanding of life on Earth.
To live a healthy life style and be free from diseases, fruits must be incorporated in one’s daily food. Fruits are of high nutritional value and provide the body with the required daily allowance. They are highly perishable, but can be made into different products to make them available all year round. They can be processed into products which includes; fruit juice, jellies, marmalades, candies, fruit bars and jams. This study analyses jam produced using date powder and compared it with commercial jam produced using table sugar. The percentage compositions of the blends considered were 50%:50%; 70%:30%; 30%:70% of orange and apple pulps respectively with constant amount of date powder (50%). In addition to the pulp blends, 2.9% commercial pectin was added together with citric acid, and date powder. The entire mixture was heated at 120°C for 25 mins to enhance the viscosity of the blends. Proximate, microbial, physico-chemical analyses, sensory evaluation and Vitamin constituents of the experimental samples and the commercial jam were evaluated. The commercial jam was found best having higher scores in all the sensory parameters. However, in respect to proximate composition, the experimental samples had the highest in protein, ash, moisture, and fibre while the commercial jam only scored high in fat, carbohydrate. In respect to microbial count minimum fungal and bacterial growth, 1.00 cfu X 103 g-1 and 1.00 cfu X 105 g-1 respectively were recorded in the experimental samples at 3 weeks after production. The control sample had the highest value in vitamin A content (130.35mg/100g) and the least in vitamin C content (1.64mg/100g).The nutritional analysis and sensory evaluation obtained proved that the orange and apple jam samples made with date powder is a promising functional product which can be consumed by both young and adults.
Keywords: Orange; Apple; Date; Jam; Composite; Nutritional properties; Sensory analysis
Gene therapy is a fantastic new technology that has opened up a plethora of options to treat or prevent previously untreatable diseases. Gene therapy is the use of nucleic acids (either DNA or RNA) is used to manipulate the genetic information of a patient’s cells. This is particularly helpful for diseases like Cystic Fibrosis where the ability to add a gene that makes the protein product the patient lacks or to just the gene itself is ideal. The addition of CRISPR-Cas for easier and more streamlined gene editing has also been a boon. However, the unfortunate truth is that despite decades of research, only a few gene therapies have made it to market. One of those reasons is the problems with carriers of gene therapy. For over three decades viral vectors were considered the go to for gene therapy carriers however they aggravate the immune system and can cause unwanted genotoxicity. This compromises their usefulness as a therapeutic treatment or preventative. So other methods of gene therapy carriers have been considered. Nanotech deliverers such as exosomes, gold nanoparticles, and others have shown great promise of being able to transport gene therapy with mitigated or no toxicity to the patient. This review will briefly go over both viral vector and nanotech non-viral vector alternatives to delivery of gene therapy.
Keywords: Gene therapy; nanotechnology; gene delivery; CRISPR; exosomes; viruses; magnetosomes
Transdermal drug delivery refers to the drug administration route through the skin that achieves the local or systemic treatment approved for clinical use. It is the third-largest drug delivery system after oral administration and injection. The advantages of the transdermal route are that the administration route of the drug is convenient and could reduce the fluctuation of blood drug concentration and toxic side effects. What is more, the drug could bypass the first-pass side-effect of the liver to prevent the drug from being destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract. Invasomes are new modified liposomes that differ from the liposomal vesicles in that they contain essential volatile oils, which are called terpenes. Also, ethanol in a low percentage is present in the vesicle either in the phospholipid layer or in the hydrous core. These modified newly discovered vesicles are intended to be used for topical and transdermal drug delivery due to their permeation effect and high deformability as compared to transferosomes.
Keywords: Invasomes; Transdermal drug delivery; phospholipids; terpenes; deformable vesicles
Design and use of enzyme inhibitors against viral enzymes is one of the new and effective ways to control viruses and treat viral infections, Enzyme inhibitors inactivate these enzymes by binding to the nucleotides functional groups of the virus vital enzymes, thus can directly disrupt the virus replication cycle and indirectly prevent the spread of viral infections by reducing and controlling the population and number of viruses, these inhibitors, on the one hand, inhibit the virus by filling and Occupying the active sites of the enzyme and on the other hand, they change the stereochemistry of the enzyme by binding to the structure of the enzyme, for this reasons, they are used as an effective and complementary drug in the treatment of infections and viral diseases. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus because it has the reverse transcriptase enzyme. Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) are a class of Antiretroviral HIV drugs. Non- ucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) block HIV reverse transcriptase enzymes by connecting to it. Tetrazole derivatives have strong antiviral activity against efavirenz and nevirapine-resistance viruses that have different genetic mutations. In this research, we study NNRTIs function and overview synthesis of 5-aryloxy- etrazole derivatives in the development path of NNRTIs.
Keywords: Anti-HIV Drugs; NNRTIs; Tetrazole; HAART; Retrovirus; Reverse Transcriptase Enzyme
Therapeutic bioengineering is a rapidly growing discipline in medical science that combines biology and medicine with engineering principles to create products and methods that can tackle the widest range of a variety of medical and health-related issues in today’s society